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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914882/representation-of-the-body-in-the-lateral-striatum-of-the-freely-moving-rat-fast-spiking-interneurons-respond-to-stimulation-of-individual-body-parts
#1
Julianna Kulik, Anthony Pawlak, Manraj Kalkat, Kevin Coffey, Mark O West
: Numerous studies have shown that certain types of striatal interneurons play a crucial role in selection and regulation of striatal output. Striatal Fast-Spiking Interneurons (FSIs) are parvalbumin positive, GABAergic interneurons that constitute less than 1% of the total striatal population. It is becoming increasingly evident that these sparsely distributed neurons exert a strong inhibitory effect on Medium Spiny projection Neurons (MSNs). MSNs in lateral striatum receive direct synaptic input from regions of cortex representing discrete body parts, and show phasic increases in activity during touch or movement of specific body parts...
November 30, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913676/translational-control-by-mtor-independent-routes-how-eif6-organizes-metabolism
#2
REVIEW
Annarita Miluzio, Sara Ricciardi, Nicola Manfrini, Roberta Alfieri, Stefania Oliveto, Daniela Brina, Stefano Biffo
Over the past few years, there has been a growing interest in the interconnection between translation and metabolism. Important oncogenic pathways, like those elicited by c-Myc transcription factor and mTOR kinase, couple the activation of the translational machinery with glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis. Eukaryotic initiation factor 6 (eIF6) is a factor necessary for 60S ribosome maturation. eIF6 acts also as a cytoplasmic translation initiation factor, downstream of growth factor stimulation. eIF6 is up-regulated in several tumor types...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908638/using-the-acmge-milestones-as-a-handover-tool-from-medical-school-to-surgery-residency
#3
Lauren M Wancata, Helen Morgan, Gurjit Sandhu, Sally Santen, David T Hughes
OBJECTIVE: To map current medical school assessments for graduating students to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones in general surgery, and to pass forward individual performance metrics on level 1 milestones to receiving residency programs. DESIGN: The study included 20 senior medical students who were accepted into surgery internship positions. Data from medical school performance assessments from the third-year surgery clerkship, fourth-year surgery rotations, fourth-year surgery boot camp, Clinical Competency Assessment Examination, and United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 and 2 examinations were used to map each student's competency assessments to the General Surgery Milestones based on a scoring system created and validated by independent assessors...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906747/update-on-angiotensin-at2-receptors
#4
Robert M Carey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review updates major new findings and concepts introduced during the past year on the role of angiotensin II (Ang II) subtype 2 receptors (AT2Rs) in the control of blood pressure and renal function. RECENT FINDINGS: AT2R activation prevents sodium (Na) retention and lowers blood pressure in the Ang II infusion model of experimental hypertension and prevents salt-sensitive hypertension in the obese Zucker rat model of obesity and the metabolic syndrome...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903983/dyrk1b-blocks-canonical-and-promotes-non-canonical-hedgehog-signaling-through-activation-of-the-mtor-akt-pathway
#5
Rajeev Singh, Pavan Kumar Dhanyamraju, Matthias Lauth
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays important roles in embryonic development and in tumor formation. Apart from the well-established stimulation of the GLI family of transcription factors, Hh ligands promote the phosphorylation and activation of mTOR and AKT kinases, yet the molecular mechanism underlying these processes are unknown. Here, we identify the DYRK1B kinase as a mediator between Hh signaling and mTOR/AKT activation. In fibroblasts, Hh signaling induces DYRK1B protein expression, resulting in activation of the mTOR/AKT kinase signaling arm...
November 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903606/epha2-is-a-functional-receptor-for-the-growth-factor-progranulin
#6
Thomas Neill, Simone Buraschi, Atul Goyal, Catherine Sharpe, Elizabeth Natkanski, Liliana Schaefer, Andrea Morrione, Renato V Iozzo
Although the growth factor progranulin was discovered more than two decades ago, the functional receptor remains elusive. Here, we discovered that EphA2, a member of the large family of Ephrin receptor tyrosine kinases, is a functional signaling receptor for progranulin. Recombinant progranulin bound with high affinity to EphA2 in both solid phase and solution. Interaction of progranulin with EphA2 caused prolonged activation of the receptor, downstream stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt, and promotion of capillary morphogenesis...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890144/classification-of-a-driver-s-cognitive-workload-levels-using-artificial-neural-network-on-ecg-signals
#7
Amir Tjolleng, Kihyo Jung, Wongi Hong, Wonsup Lee, Baekhee Lee, Heecheon You, Joonwoo Son, Seikwon Park
An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed in the present study to classify the level of a driver's cognitive workload based on electrocardiography (ECG). ECG signals were measured on 15 male participants while they performed a simulated driving task as a primary task with/without an N-back task as a secondary task. Three time-domain ECG measures (mean inter-beat interval (IBI), standard deviation of IBIs, and root mean squared difference of adjacent IBIs) and three frequencydomain ECG measures (power in low frequency, power in high frequency, and ratio of power in low and high frequencies) were calculated...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886468/practical-receiver-for-optimal-discrimination-of-binary-coherent-signals
#8
Denis Sych, Gerd Leuchs
We address the long-standing problem of discriminating coherent states with the minimum error rate. We show an optimum receiver for coherent states which admits a relatively simple implementation with current technologies. The receiver is based on multichannel splitting of the signal, followed by feed-forward signal displacement and photon-counting detection. We develop an optimal control strategy for a finite signal split and show convergence of the error rate to the Helstrom bound.
November 11, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886176/a-feed-forward-loop-between-lncarsr-and-yap-activity-promotes-expansion-of-renal-tumour-initiating-cells
#9
Le Qu, Zhenjie Wu, Yaoming Li, Zhipeng Xu, Bing Liu, Feng Liu, Yi Bao, Dengshuang Wu, Jiayi Liu, Anbang Wang, Xiaoyuan Chu, Yinghao Sun, Cheng Chen, Zhengyu Zhang, Linhui Wang
Renal tumour-initiating cells (T-ICs) contribute to tumorigenesis, progression and drug resistance of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the underlying mechanism for the propagation of renal T-ICs remains unclear. Here we show that long non-coding RNA lncARSR is upregulated in primary renal T-ICs and associated with a poor prognosis of clear cell RCCs (ccRCC). Knockdown of lncARSR attenuates the self-renewal, tumorigenicity and metastasis of renal T-ICs. Conversely, forced lncARSR expression enhances T-IC properties of RCC cells...
November 25, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881656/infectious-bursal-disease-virus-activates-c-src-to-promote-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-1-integrin-dependent-viral-entry-via-modulating-downstream-akt-rhoa-gtpase-actin-rearrangement-cascade
#10
Chengjin Ye, Xinpeng Han, Zhaoli Yu, Enli Zhang, Lijuan Wang, Hebin Liu
: While the entry of IBDV is initiated by the binding of the virus to the two major receptors integrin and HSP90, the signaling events after the receptor binding and how they contribute to the viral entry remain elusive. We show here that IBDV activates c-Src by inducing phosphorylation of the Y416 residue in c-Src both in the DF-1 chicken fibroblasts and in vivo in the bursa of fabricius from SPF chickens. Importantly, the inactivated IBDV fails to stimulate c-Src Y416 phosphorylation, and a very virulent IBDV strain induces much higher level of c-Src Y416 phosphorylation than an attenuated strain...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871810/a-maize-gene-regulatory-network-for-phenolic-metabolism
#11
Fan Yang, Wei Li, Nan Jiang, Haidong Yu, Kengo Morohashi, Wilberforce Zachary Ouma, Daniel E Morales-Mantilla, Fabio Gomez-Cano, Eric Mukundi, Luis Daniel Prada-Salcedo, Roberto Alers Velazquez, Jasmin Valentin, Maria Katherine Mejía-Guerra, John Gray, Andrea I Doseff, Erich Grotewold
The translation of the genotype into phenotype, represented for example by the expression of genes encoding enzymes required for the biosynthesis of phytochemicals important in the interaction of plants with the environment, is carried out by transcription factors (TFs) that recognize specific cis-regulatory elements in the genes that they control. TFs and their target genes are organized in gene regulatory networks (GRNs), and uncovering GRN architecture presents an important biological challenge necessary to explain gene regulation...
November 18, 2016: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869168/mir-127-promotes-emt-and-stem-like-traits-in-lung-cancer-through-a-feed-forward-regulatory-loop
#12
L Shi, Y Wang, Z Lu, H Zhang, N Zhuang, B Wang, Z Song, G Chen, C Huang, D Xu, Y Zhang, W Zhang, Y Gao
The coordination between cellular differentiation and the mesenchymal/stem transition is essential for both embryo development and neoplasia, suggesting a mechanistic link between these two major processes. In this work we show that miR-127, an embryo-expressing lung miRNA, was prominently induced in lung adenocarcinoma and correlated with poor prognosis. Elevated miR-127 level drove a pronounced shift from the epithelial to the mesenchymal phenotype in cancer cells, and this shift was associated with their acquisition of stem-like traits, increased resistance to the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor and tumor-propagating potential...
November 21, 2016: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866261/anticipatory-postural-adjustments-and-anticipatory-synergy-adjustments-preparing-to-a-postural-perturbation-with-predictable-and-unpredictable-direction
#13
Daniele Piscitelli, Ali Falaki, Stanislaw Solnik, Mark L Latash
We explored two aspects of feed-forward postural control, anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and anticipatory synergy adjustments (ASAs) seen prior to self-triggered unloading with known and unknown direction of the perturbation. In particular, we tested two main hypotheses predicting contrasting changes in APAs and ASAs. The first hypothesis predicted no major changes in ASAs. The second hypothesis predicted delayed APAs with predominance of co-contraction patterns when perturbation direction was unknown...
November 19, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865019/the-regulation-of-carotenoid-formation-in-tomato-fruit
#14
Eugenia M A Enfissi, Marilise Nogueira, Peter M Bramley, Paul D Fraser
Carotenoid biosynthesis in plants includes a complex series of desaturation/isomerisation reactions, catalysed by four independent enzymes. In bacteria and fungi one desaturase/isomerase enzyme completes the same series of reactions. In the present study, a bacterial desaturase (crtI) from Pantoea ananatis has been overexpressed in the tangerine mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) which accumulates cis carotene isomers in the fruit due to a defective isomerase (CRTISO) and the old gold crimson (og(c) ) tomato mutant, which is defective in the fruit-enhanced lycopene β-cyclase (CYCB)...
November 19, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859418/mutual-epithelium-macrophage-dependency-in-liver-carcinogenesis-mediated-by-st18
#15
Micol Ravà, Aleco D'Andrea, Mirko Doni, Theresia R Kress, Renato Ostuni, Valerio Bianchi, Marco J Morelli, Agnese Collino, Serena Ghisletti, Paola Nicoli, Camilla Recordati, Maria Iascone, Aurelio Sonzogni, Lorenzo D'Antiga, Ruchi Shukla, Geoffrey J Faulkner, Gioacchino Natoli, Stefano Campaner, Bruno Amati
: The ST18 gene was proposed to act either as a tumor suppressor or as an oncogene in different human cancers, but direct evidence for its role in tumorigenesis was missing so far. Here, we demonstrate that ST18 is critical for tumor progression and maintenance in a mouse model of liver cancer, based on oncogenic transformation and adoptive transfer of primary precursor cells (hepatoblasts). ST18 mRNA and protein were detectable neither in the normal liver nor in cultured hepatoblasts, but were readily expressed following subcutaneous engraftment and tumor growth...
November 14, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847823/effects-of-tactile-sensitivity-on-structural-variability-of-digit-forces-during-stable-precision-grip
#16
Ke Li, Na Wei, Shouwei Yue
This study investigated the effects of fingertip tactile sensitivity on the structural variability of thumb and index finger forces during stable precision grip. Thirty right-handed healthy subjects participated in the experiment. Transient perturbation of tactile afferents was achieved by wrapping up the distal pads of the thumb or index finger with transparent polyethylene films. The time-dependent structure of each digit force and the variability of interdigit force correlation were examined by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA), respectively...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844427/implementation-and-tuning-of-an-optical-tweezers-force-clamp-feedback-system
#17
Michael Bugiel, Anita Jannasch, Erik Schäffer
Feedback systems can be used to control the value of a system variable. In optical tweezers, active feedback is often implemented to either keep the position or tension applied to a single biomolecule constant. Here, we describe the implementation of the latter: an optical force-clamp setup that can be used to study the motion of processive molecular motors under a constant load. We describe the basics of a software-implemented proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, how to tune it, and how to determine its optimal feedback rate...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835830/a-feed-forward-adaptive-canceller-to-reduce-the-occlusion-effect-in-hearing-aids
#18
Renata Coelho Borges, Márcio Holsbach Costa
Hearing aids are essential devices for social integration of hearing impaired people in order to improve their auditory perception. Recent studies have reported significant dissatisfaction factors that tend to reduce their daily use. The occlusion effect is one important source of complaints. This phenomenon stems from the partial or complete closure of the ventilation opening of the ear-mould, usually performed to prevent feedback effects in high-gain devices. This work presents a new adaptive active-noise-control system to reduce the occlusion effect in small- or unvented hearing aids...
October 18, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829123/functional-architecture-and-global-properties-of-the-corynebacterium-glutamicum-regulatory-network-novel-insights-from-a-dataset-with-a-high-genomic-coverage
#19
Julio A Freyre-González, Andreas Tauch
Corynebacterium glutamicum is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, rod-shaped soil bacterium able to grow on a diversity of carbon sources like sugars and organic acids. It is a biotechnological relevant organism because of its highly efficient ability to biosynthesize amino acids, such as L-glutamic acid and L-lysine. Here, we reconstructed the most complete C. glutamicum regulatory network to date and comprehensively analyzed its global organizational properties, systems-level features and functional architecture...
November 6, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828415/trellis-based-feed-forward-carrier-recovery-for-coherent-optical-systems
#20
Mahdi Zamani, Hossein Najafi, Demin Yao, Jeebak Mitra, Xuefeng Tang, Chuandong Li, Zhuhong Zhang
An efficient trellis-based phase noise mitigation algorithm is proposed to highly improve the performance of coherent transmission systems, especially in high order modulation formats. The proposed method targets the coherent optical systems where the performance is limited by various sources of phase noise including laser line-width, fiber non-linearity, and phase noise induced by phase-locked loop. Considering hardware limitations of ultra-high data rate processing in optical systems, a hardware-efficient parallelized and pipelined architecture is utilized...
October 3, 2016: Optics Express
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