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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167643/post-inflammatory-ileitis-induces-non-neuronal-purinergic-signaling-adjustments-of-cholinergic-neurotransmission-in-the-myenteric-plexus
#1
Cátia Vieira, Fátima Ferreirinha, Maria T Magalhães-Cardoso, Isabel Silva, Patrícia Marques, Paulo Correia-de-Sá
Uncoupling between ATP overflow and extracellular adenosine formation changes purinergic signaling in post-inflammatory ileitis. Adenosine neuromodulation deficits were ascribed to feed-forward inhibition of ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 by high extracellular adenine nucleotides in the inflamed ileum. Here, we hypothesized that inflammation-induced changes in cellular density may also account to unbalance the release of purines and their influence on [(3)H]acetylcholine release from longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus preparations of the ileum of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-treated rats...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162445/the-neuromorphological-caudate-putaminal-clustering-of-neostriate-interneurons-kohonen-self-organizing-maps-and-supervised-artificial-neural-networks-with-multivariate-analysis
#2
Ivan Grbatinić, Nebojša Milošević, Bojana Krstonošić
AIMS: The objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of the neuromorphotopological clustering of neostriate interneurons (NSIN) and their consequent classification into caudate (CIN) and putaminal neuron type (PIN), according to the nuclear localization of the neurons. It tends to discover whether these two topological neuron types are morphologically different. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The binary images of adult human NSIN are used for the purposes of the analysis...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157072/robustness-versus-evolvability-analysis-for-regulatory-feed-forward-loops
#3
Debika Choudhury, Amit Agarwal, Supreet Saini
From the definition, it appears that phenotypic robustness and evolvability of an organism are inversely related to each other. However, a number of studies exploring this question have found conflicting evidences in this regard. This question motivated the current work where we explore the relationship between robustness and evolvability. As a model system, we pick the Feed Forward Loops (FFLs), and develop a framework to characterize their performance in terms of their ability to resist changes to steady state expression (robustness), and their ability to evolve towards novel phenotypes (evolvability)...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154258/prediction-of-dose-to-the-relatives-of-patients-treated-with-radioiodine-131-using-neural-networks
#4
Marzieh Ebrahimi, Mohammad Reza Kardan, Vahid Changizi, Seyed Mahdi Hosseini Pooya, Parham Geramifar
In this study, the effective dose to family members and caregivers of 52 thyroid cancer patients who had been treated with radioiodine I-131 was measured to investigate the ability of neural network for predicting the doses to the relatives. Effectiveness of this method to define the relatives who will receive doses more than 1 mSv was evaluated. The effective doses were measured by TLD. The inputs of neural network were 13 different parameters that potentially could affect the dose and the output was dose to the family members...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150800/beat-to-beat-estimation-of-stroke-volume-using-impedance-cardiography-and-artificial-neural-network
#5
S M M Naidu, Prem C Pandey, Uttam R Bagal, Suhas P Hardas
Impedance cardiography is a low-cost noninvasive technique, based on monitoring of the thoracic impedance, for estimation of stroke volume (SV). Impedance cardiogram (ICG) is the negative of the first derivative of the impedance signal. A technique for beat-to-beat SV estimation using impedance cardiography and artificial neural network (ANN) is proposed. A three-layer feed-forward ANN with error back-propagation algorithm is optimized by examining the effects of number of neurons in the hidden layer, activation function, training algorithm, and set of input parameters...
November 18, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149617/decoding-early-and-late-cortical-contributions-to-individuation-of-attended-and-unattended-objects
#6
Claire K Naughtin, Jason B Mattingley, Angela D Bender, Paul E Dux
To isolate a visual stimulus as a unique object with a specific spatial location and time of occurrence, it is necessary to first register (individuate) the stimulus as a distinct perceptual entity. Recent investigations into the neural substrates of object individuation have suggested it is subserved by a distributed neural network, but previous manipulations of individuation load have introduced extraneous visual confounds, which might have yielded ambiguous findings, particularly in early cortical areas...
November 8, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144299/the-modelling-of-lead-removal-from-water-by-deep-eutectic-solvents-functionalized-cnts-artificial-neural-network-ann-approach
#7
Seef Saadi Fiyadh, Mohammed Abdulhakim AlSaadi, Mohamed Khalid AlOmar, Sabah Saadi Fayaed, Ako R Hama, Sharifah Bee, Ahmed El-Shafie
The main challenge in the lead removal simulation is the behaviour of non-linearity relationships between the process parameters. The conventional modelling technique usually deals with this problem by a linear method. The substitute modelling technique is an artificial neural network (ANN) system, and it is selected to reflect the non-linearity in the interaction among the variables in the function. Herein, synthesized deep eutectic solvents were used as a functionalized agent with carbon nanotubes as adsorbents of Pb(2+)...
November 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142109/the-ndc80-complex-targets-bod1-to-human-mitotic-kinetochores
#8
Katharina Schleicher, Michael Porter, Sara Ten Have, Ramasubramanian Sundaramoorthy, Iain M Porter, Jason R Swedlow
Regulation of protein phosphatase activity by endogenous protein inhibitors is an important mechanism to control protein phosphorylation in cells. We recently identified Biorientation defective 1 (Bod1) as a small protein inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A containing the B56 regulatory subunit (PP2A-B56). This phosphatase controls the amount of phosphorylation of several kinetochore proteins and thus the establishment of load-bearing chromosome-spindle attachments in time for accurate separation of sister chromatids in mitosis...
November 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140820/renal-effects-of-cytokines-in-hypertension
#9
Yi Wen, Steven D Crowley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inflammatory cytokines contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension through effects on renal blood flow and sodium handling. This review will update recent advances that explore the renal actions of immune cells and cytokines in the pathogenesis of hypertension. RECENT FINDINGS: Populations of cells from both the innate and adaptive immune systems contribute to hypertension by modulating functions of the vasculature and epithelial cells in the kidney...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129289/craving-for-the-future-the-brain-as-a-nutritional-prediction-system
#10
REVIEW
Samuel J Walker, Dennis Goldschmidt, Carlos Ribeiro
In the last decades, predictive coding has emerged as an important framework for understanding how the brain processes information. It states that the brain is constantly inferring and predicting sensory data from statistical regularities in its environment. While this framework has been largely applied to sensory processing and motor control, we argue here that it could also serve as framework for a better understanding of how animals regulate nutrient homeostasis. Mechanisms that underlie nutrient homeostasis are commonly described in terms of negative feedback control, which compares current states with a reference point, called setpoint, and counteracts any mismatches...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108683/arduino-control-of-a-pulsatile-flow-rig
#11
S Drost, B J de Kruif, D Newport
This note describes the design and testing of a programmable pulsatile flow pump using an Arduino micro-controller. The goal of this work is to build a compact and affordable system that can relatively easily be programmed to generate physiological waveforms. The system described here was designed to be used in an in-vitro set-up for vascular access hemodynamics research, and hence incorporates a gear pump that delivers a mean flow of 900 ml/min in a test flow loop, and a peak flow of 1106 ml/min. After a number of simple identification experiments to assess the dynamic behaviour of the system, a feed-forward control routine was implemented...
November 3, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104149/spatial-attention-modulates-visual-gamma-oscillations-across-the-human-ventral-stream
#12
Lorenzo Magazzini, Krish D Singh
Oscillatory synchronization in the gamma frequency range has been proposed as a neuronal mechanism to prioritize processing of relevant stimuli over competing ones. Recent studies in animals found that selective spatial attention enhanced gamma-band synchronization in high-order visual areas (V4) and increased the gamma peak frequency in V1. The existence of such mechanisms in the human visual system is yet to be fully demonstrated. In this study, we used MEG, in combination with an optimised stimulus design, to record visual gamma oscillations from human early visual cortex, while participants performed a visuospatial attention cueing task...
November 2, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101209/oral-epithelial-cells-orchestrate-innate-type-17-responses-to-candida-albicans-through-the-virulence-factor-candidalysin
#13
Akash H Verma, Jonathan P Richardson, Chunsheng Zhou, Bianca M Coleman, David L Moyes, Jemima Ho, Anna R Huppler, Kritika Ramani, Mandy J McGeachy, Ilgiz A Mufazalov, Ari Waisman, Lawrence P Kane, Partha S Biswas, Bernhard Hube, Julian R Naglik, Sarah L Gaffen
Candida albicans is a dimorphic commensal fungus that causes severe oral infections in immunodeficient patients. Invasion of C. albicans hyphae into oral epithelium is an essential virulence trait. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) signaling is required for both innate and adaptive immunity to C. albicans During the innate response, IL-17 is produced by γδ T cells and a poorly understood population of innate-acting CD4(+) αβ T cell receptor (TCRαβ)(+) cells, but only the TCRαβ(+) cells expand during acute infection...
November 3, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101008/use-of-a-neural-net-to-model-the-impact-of-optical-coherence-tomography-abnormalities-on-vision-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#14
Tariq M Aslam, Haider R Zaki, Sajjad Mahmood, Zaria C Ali, Nur A Ahmad, Mariana R Thorell, Konstantinos Balaskas
PURPOSE: To develop a neural network for the estimation of visual acuity from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of patients with neovascular age related macular degeneration and to demonstrate its use to model the impact of specific controlled OCT changes on vision. DESIGN: Artificial Intelligence (neural network) study. METHODS: We assessed 1400 OCT scans of patients with neovascular age related macular degeneration (AMD). 15 physical features for each eligible OCT as well as patient age were used as input data and corresponding recorded visual acuity as the target data to train, validate and test a supervised neural network...
October 31, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098397/modification-of-masticatory-rhythmicity-leading-to-the-initiation-of-the-swallowing-reflex-in-humans
#15
Masaki Yoneda, Kazuya Saitoh
Modification of movements by proprioceptive feedback during mastication has an important role in shifting from the oral to the pharyngeal phase of swallowing. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics of masticatory muscles throughout a sequence of oropharyngeal swallowing and to present a hypothetical model of the involvement of the nervous system in the transition from mastication to the swallowing reflex. Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from the jaw-closing masseter muscles and the jaw-opening suprahyoid muscle group when a piece of bread (3-5 g) was ingested...
November 2, 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096588/non-nmda-receptor-mediated-vibrotactile-responses-of-neurons-from-the-hindpaw-representation-in-the-rat-si-cortex
#16
Bige Vardar, Burak Güçlü
Non-NMDA receptor-mediated vibrotactile responses of neurons from the hindpaw representation were investigated in the rat SI cortex. We recorded single-unit spikes evoked by sinusoidal (duration: 500 ms; frequency: 5, 40, and 250 Hz; amplitude: 100 μm peak-to-peak) stimulation of the glabrous skin. The responses were obtained with microinjection of aCSF (sham), bicuculline, and AMPA near the isolated neurons in anaesthetized rats. Blocking most of the NMDA receptors by ketamine revealed local dynamics differentially modulated by each drug...
September 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089520/invariant-object-recognition-is-a-personalized-selection-of-invariant-features-in-humans-not-simply-explained-by-hierarchical-feed-forward-vision-models
#17
Hamid Karimi-Rouzbahani, Nasour Bagheri, Reza Ebrahimpour
One key ability of human brain is invariant object recognition, which refers to rapid and accurate recognition of objects in the presence of variations such as size, rotation and position. Despite decades of research into the topic, it remains unknown how the brain constructs invariant representations of objects. Providing brain-plausible object representations and reaching human-level accuracy in recognition, hierarchical models of human vision have suggested that, human brain implements similar feed-forward operations to obtain invariant representations...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084280/maximum-entropy-methods-for-extracting-the-learned-features-of-deep-neural-networks
#18
Alex Finnegan, Jun S Song
New architectures of multilayer artificial neural networks and new methods for training them are rapidly revolutionizing the application of machine learning in diverse fields, including business, social science, physical sciences, and biology. Interpreting deep neural networks, however, currently remains elusive, and a critical challenge lies in understanding which meaningful features a network is actually learning. We present a general method for interpreting deep neural networks and extracting network-learned features from input data...
October 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081611/use-of-a-neural-network-to-predict-normalized-signal-strengths-from-a-dna-sequencing-microarray
#19
Charles Chilaka, Steven Carr, Nabil Shalaby, Wolfgang Banzhaf
A microarray DNA sequencing experiment for a molecule of N bases produces a 4xN data matrix, where for each of the N positions each quartet comprises the signal strength of binding of an experimental DNA to a reference oligonucleotide affixed to the microarray, for the four possible bases (A, C, G, or T). The strongest signal in each quartet should result from a perfect complementary match between experimental and reference DNA sequence, and therefore indicate the correct base call at that position. The linear series of calls should constitute the DNA sequence...
2017: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081006/callosal-responses-in-a-retrosplenial-column
#20
Alejandro Sempere-Ferràndez, Belén Andrés-Bayón, Emilio Geijo-Barrientos
The axons forming the corpus callosum sustain the interhemispheric communication across homotopic cortical areas. We have studied how neurons throughout the columnar extension of the retrosplenial cortex integrate the contralateral input from callosal projecting neurons in cortical slices. Our results show that pyramidal neurons in layers 2/3 and the large, thick-tufted pyramidal neurons in layer 5B showed larger excitatory callosal responses than layer 5A and layer 5B thin-tufted pyramidal neurons, while layer 6 remained silent to this input...
October 28, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
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