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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211791/motor-control-of-drosophila-feeding-behavior
#1
Olivia Schwarz, Ali Asgar Bohra, Xinyu Liu, Heinrich Reichert, Krishnaswamy VijayRaghavan, Jan Pielage
The precise coordination of body parts is essential for survival and behavior of higher organisms. While progress has been made towards the identification of central mechanisms coordinating limb movement, only limited knowledge exists regarding the generation and execution of sequential motor action patterns at the level of individual motoneurons. Here we use Drosophila proboscis extension as a model system for a reaching-like behavior. We first provide a neuroanatomical description of the motoneurons and muscles contributing to proboscis motion...
February 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209521/impaired-visual-competition-in-patients-with-homonymous-visual-field-defects
#2
A C Geuzebroek, A V van den Berg
Intense visual training can lead to partial recovery of visual field defects caused by lesions of the primary visual cortex. However, the standard visual detection and discrimination tasks, used to assess this recovery process tend to ignore the complexity of the natural visual environment, where multiple stimuli continuously interact. Visual competition is an essential component for natural search tasks and detecting unexpected events. Our study focused on visual decision-making and to what extent the recovered visual field can compete for attention with the 'intact' visual field...
February 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208697/hybrid-analytical-and-data-driven-modeling-for-feed-forward-robot-control-%C3%A2
#3
René Felix Reinhart, Zeeshan Shareef, Jochen Jakob Steil
Feed-forward model-based control relies on models of the controlled plant, e.g., in robotics on accurate knowledge of manipulator kinematics or dynamics. However, mechanical and analytical models do not capture all aspects of a plant's intrinsic properties and there remain unmodeled dynamics due to varying parameters, unmodeled friction or soft materials. In this context, machine learning is an alternative suitable technique to extract non-linear plant models from data. However, fully data-based models suffer from inaccuracies as well and are inefficient if they include learning of well known analytical models...
February 8, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202588/control-and-regulation-of-pathways-via-negative-feedback
#4
REVIEW
Herbert M Sauro
The biochemical networks found in living organisms include a huge variety of control mechanisms at multiple levels of organization. While the mechanistic and molecular details of many of these control mechanisms are understood, their exact role in driving cellular behaviour is not. For example, yeast glycolysis has been studied for almost 80 years but it is only recently that we have come to understand the systemic role of the multitude of feedback and feed-forward controls that exist in this pathway. In this article, control theory is discussed as an approach to dissect the control logic of complex pathways...
February 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202520/evolution-of-cancer-stem-like-cells-in-endocrine-resistant-metastatic-breast-cancers-is-mediated-by-stromal-microvesicles
#5
Pasquale Sansone, Marjan Berishaj, Vinagolu K Rajasekhar, Claudio Ceccarelli, Qing Chang, Antonio Strillacci, Claudia Savini, Lauren Shapiro, Robert Bowman, Chiara Mastroleo, Sabrina De Carolis, Laura Daly, Alberto Benito-Martin, Fabiana Perna, Nicola Fabbri, John H Healey, Enzo Spisni, Monica Cricca, David Lyden, Massimiliano Bonafé, Jacqueline Bromberg
The hypothesis that microvesicle (MV)-mediated microRNA transfer converts non-cancer stem cells into cancer stem cells (CSCs) leading to therapy resistance remains poorly investigated. Here we provide direct evidence supporting this hypothesis, by demonstrating how MV derived from cancer associated fibroblasts (CAF) transfer miR-221 to promote hormonal therapy resistance (HTR) in models of luminal breast cancer. We determined that CAF-derived MV horizontally transferred miR221 to tumor cells and, in combination with hormone therapy activated an ERlo/Notchhi feed-forward loop responsible for the generation of CD133hi CSC...
February 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181111/activation-of-na-k-atpase-with-drm217-attenuates-oxidative-stress-induced-myocardial-cell-injury-via-closing-na-k-atpase-src-ros-amplifier
#6
Xiaofei Yan, Meng Xun, Xiaojuan Dou, Litao Wu, Fujun Zhang, Jin Zheng
Reduced Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity has close relationship with cardiomyocyte death. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) also plays an important role in cardiac cell damage. It has been proved that Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and ROS form a feed-forward amplifier. The aim of this study was to explore whether DRm217, a proved Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase's DR-region specific monoclonal antibody and direct activator, could disrupt Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase/ROS amplifier and protect cardiac cells from ROS-induced injury. We found that DRm217 protected myocardial cells against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cardiac cell injury and mitochondrial dysfunction...
February 8, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179525/differentiation-dependent-lmp1-expression-is-required-for-efficient-lytic-ebv-reactivation-in-epithelial-cells
#7
Dhananjay M Nawandar, Makoto Ohashi, Reza Djavadian, Elizabeth Barlow, Kathleen Makielski, Ahmed Ali, Denis Lee, Paul F Lambert, Eric Johannsen, Shannon C Kenney
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated diseases of epithelial cells, including tumors such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) that have latent infection, and oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) lesions that have lytic infection, frequently express the viral latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1). In lytically-infected cells, LMP1 expression is activated by the BRLF1 (R) immediate-early (IE) protein. However, the mechanisms by which LMP1 expression is normally regulated in epithelial cells remain poorly understood, and its potential roles in regulating lytic reactivation in epithelial cells are as yet unexplored...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179221/frontostriatal-and-behavioral-adaptations-to-daily-sugar-sweetened-beverage-intake-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Kyle S Burger
Background: Current obesity theories suggest that the repeated intake of highly palatable high-sugar foods causes adaptions in the striatum, parietal lobe, and prefrontal and visual cortices in the brain that may serve to perpetuate consumption in a feed-forward manner. However, the data for humans are cross-sectional and observational, leaving little ability to determine the temporal precedence of repeated consumption on brain response.Objective: We tested the impact of regular sugar-sweetened beverage intake on brain and behavioral responses to beverage stimuli...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179187/scaffolding-function-of-pi3kgamma-emerges-from-enzyme-s-shadow
#9
REVIEW
Maradumane L Mohan, Sathyamangla V Naga Prasad
Traditionally an enzyme is a protein that mediates biochemical action by binding to the substrate and catalyzing the reaction that translates external cues into biological responses. Sequential dissemination of information from one enzyme to another facilitates signal transduction in biological systems providing for feed-forward and feed-back mechanisms. Given this view-point, an enzyme without its catalytic activity is generally considered to be an inert organizational protein without catalytic function and has classically been termed as pseudoenzymes...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178169/an-artificial-neural-network-prediction-model-of-congenital-heart-disease-based-on-risk-factors-a-hospital-based-case-control-study
#10
Huixia Li, Miyang Luo, Jianfei Zheng, Jiayou Luo, Rong Zeng, Na Feng, Qiyun Du, Junqun Fang
An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to predict the risks of congenital heart disease (CHD) in pregnant women.This hospital-based case-control study involved 119 CHD cases and 239 controls all recruited from birth defect surveillance hospitals in Hunan Province between July 2013 and June 2014. All subjects were interviewed face-to-face to fill in a questionnaire that covered 36 CHD-related variables. The 358 subjects were randomly divided into a training set and a testing set at the ratio of 85:15...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174749/hypoxia-positively-regulates-the-expression-of-ph-sensing-g-protein-coupled-receptor-ogr1-gpr68
#11
Cheryl de Vallière, Jesus Cosin-Roger, Simona Simmen, Kirstin Atrott, Hassan Melhem, Jonas Zeitz, Mehdi Madanchi, Irina Tcymbarevich, Michael Fried, Gerd A Kullak-Ublick, Stephan R Vavricka, Benjamin Misselwitz, Klaus Seuwen, Carsten A Wagner, Jyrki J Eloranta, Gerhard Rogler, Pedro A Ruiz
BACKGROUND & AIMS: A novel family of proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors, including ovarian cancer G-protein-coupled receptor 1 (OGR1) (GPR68) has been identified to play a role in pH homeostasis. Hypoxia is known to change tissue pH as a result of anaerobic glucose metabolism through the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. We investigated how hypoxia regulates the expression of OGR1 in the intestinal mucosa and associated cells. METHODS: OGR1 expression in murine tumors, human colonic tissue, and myeloid cells was determined by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction...
November 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174265/sgk3-sustains-er%C3%AE-signaling-and-drives-acquired-aromatase-inhibitor-resistance-through-maintaining-endoplasmic-reticulum-homeostasis
#12
Yuanzhong Wang, Dujin Zhou, Sheryl Phung, Charles Warden, Rumana Rashid, Nymph Chan, Shiuan Chen
Many estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-positive breast cancers initially respond to aromatase inhibitors (AIs), but eventually acquire resistance. Here, we report that serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 3 (SGK3), a kinase transcriptionally regulated by ERα in breast cancer, sustains ERα signaling and drives acquired AI resistance. SGK3 is up-regulated and essential for endoplasmic reticulum (EnR) homeostasis through preserving sarcoplasmic/EnR calcium ATPase 2b (SERCA2b) function in AI-resistant cells...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166495/beyond-a-gaussian-denoiser-residual-learning-of-deep-cnn-for-image-denoising
#13
Kai Zhang, Wangmeng Zuo, Yunjin Chen, Deyu Meng, Lei Zhang
Discriminative model learning for image denoising has been recently attracting considerable attentions due to its favorable denoising performance. In this paper, we take one step forward by investigating the construction of feed-forward denoising convolutional neural networks (DnCNNs) to embrace the progress in very deep architecture, learning algorithm, and regularization method into image denoising. Specifically, residual learning and batch normalization are utilized to speed up the training process as well as boost the denoising performance...
February 1, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147492/patterns-of-synchrony-for-feed-forward-and-auto-regulation-feed-forward-neural-networks
#14
Manuela A D Aguiar, Ana Paula S Dias, Flora Ferreira
We consider feed-forward and auto-regulation feed-forward neural (weighted) coupled cell networks. In feed-forward neural networks, cells are arranged in layers such that the cells of the first layer have empty input set and cells of each other layer receive only inputs from cells of the previous layer. An auto-regulation feed-forward neural coupled cell network is a feed-forward neural network where additionally some cells of the first layer have auto-regulation, that is, they have a self-loop. Given a network structure, a robust pattern of synchrony is a space defined in terms of equalities of cell coordinates that is flow-invariant for any coupled cell system (with additive input structure) associated with the network...
January 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145081/chronic-sleep-restriction-induces-cognitive-deficits-and-cortical-beta-amyloid-deposition-in-mice-via-bace1-antisense-activation
#15
Hong-Yi Zhao, Hui-Juan Wu, Jia-Lin He, Jian-Hua Zhuang, Zhen-Yu Liu, Liu-Qing Huang, Zhong-Xin Zhao
AIMS: To clarify the correlation between chronic sleep restriction (CSR) and sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD), we determined in wild-type mice the impact of CSR, on cognitive performance, beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptides, and its feed-forward regulators regarding AD pathogenesis. METHODS: Sixteen nine-month-old C57BL/6 male mice were equally divided into the CSR and control groups. CSR was achieved by application of a slowly rotating drum for 2 months. The Morris water maze test was used to assess cognitive impairment...
February 1, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139208/diagonal-recurrent-neural-network-based-adaptive-control-of-nonlinear-dynamical-systems-using-lyapunov-stability-criterion
#16
Rajesh Kumar, Smriti Srivastava, J R P Gupta
In this paper adaptive control of nonlinear dynamical systems using diagonal recurrent neural network (DRNN) is proposed. The structure of DRNN is a modification of fully connected recurrent neural network (FCRNN). Presence of self-recurrent neurons in the hidden layer of DRNN gives it an ability to capture the dynamic behaviour of the nonlinear plant under consideration (to be controlled). To ensure stability, update rules are developed using lyapunov stability criterion. These rules are then used for adjusting the various parameters of DRNN...
January 27, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131826/the-core-regulatory-network-in-human-cells
#17
Man-Sun Kim, Dongsan Kim, Nam Sook Kang, Jeong-Rae Kim
In order to discover the common characteristics of various cell types in the human body, many researches have been conducted to find the set of genes commonly expressed in various cell types and tissues. However, the functional characteristics of a cell is determined by the complex regulatory relationships among the genes rather than by expressed genes themselves. Therefore, it is more important to identify and analyze a core regulatory network where all regulatory relationship between genes are active across all cell types to uncover the common features of various cell types...
January 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125034/prediction-of-air-pollutants-concentration-based-on-an-extreme-learning-machine-the-case-of-hong-kong
#18
Jiangshe Zhang, Weifu Ding
With the development of the economy and society all over the world, most metropolitan cities are experiencing elevated concentrations of ground-level air pollutants. It is urgent to predict and evaluate the concentration of air pollutants for some local environmental or health agencies. Feed-forward artificial neural networks have been widely used in the prediction of air pollutants concentration. However, there are some drawbacks, such as the low convergence rate and the local minimum. The extreme learning machine for single hidden layer feed-forward neural networks tends to provide good generalization performance at an extremely fast learning speed...
January 24, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119240/statistical-optimization-and-artificial-neural-network-modeling-for-acridine-orange-dye-degradation-using-in-situ-synthesized-polymer-capped-zno-nanoparticles
#19
Nitesh Dhiman, Markandeya, Amrita Singh, Neeraj K Verma, Nidhi Ajaria, Satyakam Patnaik
ZnO NPs were synthesized by a prudent green chemistry approach in presence of polyacrylamide grafted guar gum polymer (pAAm-g-GG) to ensure uniform morphology, and functionality and appraised for their ability to degrade photocatalytically Acridine Orange (AO) dye. These ZnO@pAAm-g-GG NPs were thoroughly characterized by various spectroscopic, XRD and electron microscopic techniques. The relative quantity of ZnO NPs in polymeric matrix has been estimated by spectro-analytical procedure; AAS and TGA analysis...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115720/drosophila-larvae-synthesize-the-putative-oncometabolite-l-2-hydroxyglutarate-during-normal-developmental-growth
#20
Hongde Li, Geetanjali Chawla, Alexander J Hurlburt, Maria C Sterrett, Olga Zaslaver, James Cox, Jonathan A Karty, Adam P Rosebrock, Amy A Caudy, Jason M Tennessen
L-2-hydroxyglutarate (L-2HG) has emerged as a putative oncometabolite that is capable of inhibiting enzymes involved in metabolism, chromatin modification, and cell differentiation. However, despite the ability of L-2HG to interfere with a broad range of cellular processes, this molecule is often characterized as a metabolic waste product. Here, we demonstrate that Drosophila larvae use the metabolic conditions established by aerobic glycolysis to both synthesize and accumulate high concentrations of L-2HG during normal developmental growth...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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