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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784651/immune-recognition-of-%C3%AE-cells-neoepitopes-as-key-players-in-the-loss-of-tolerance
#1
Eddie A James, Massimo Pietropaolo, Mark J Mamula
Prior to the onset of type 1 diabetes, there is progressive loss of immune self-tolerance, evidenced by the accumulation of islet autoantibodies and emergence of autoreactive T cells. Continued autoimmune activity leads to the destruction of pancreatic β-cells and loss of insulin secretion. Studies of samples from patients with type 1 diabetes and of murine disease models have generated important insights about genetic and environmental factors that contribute to susceptibility and immune pathways that are important for pathogenesis...
June 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769759/a-p2p-botnet-detection-scheme-based-on-decision-tree-and-adaptive-multilayer-neural-networks
#2
Mohammad Alauthaman, Nauman Aslam, Li Zhang, Rafe Alasem, M A Hossain
In recent years, Botnets have been adopted as a popular method to carry and spread many malicious codes on the Internet. These malicious codes pave the way to execute many fraudulent activities including spam mail, distributed denial-of-service attacks and click fraud. While many Botnets are set up using centralized communication architecture, the peer-to-peer (P2P) Botnets can adopt a decentralized architecture using an overlay network for exchanging command and control data making their detection even more difficult...
2018: Neural Computing & Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764918/a-feed-forward-relay-integrates-the-regulatory-activities-of-bicoid-and-orthodenticle-via-sequential-binding-to-suboptimal-sites
#3
Rhea R Datta, Jia Ling, Jesse Kurland, Xiaotong Ren, Zhe Xu, Gozde Yucel, Jackie Moore, Leila Shokri, Isabel Baker, Timothy Bishop, Paolo Struffi, Rimma Levina, Martha L Bulyk, Robert J Johnston, Stephen Small
The K50 (lysine at amino acid position 50) homeodomain (HD) protein Orthodenticle (Otd) is critical for anterior patterning and brain and eye development in most metazoans. In Drosophila melanogaster , another K50HD protein, Bicoid (Bcd), has evolved to replace Otd's ancestral function in embryo patterning. Bcd is distributed as a long-range maternal gradient and activates transcription of a large number of target genes, including otd Otd and Bcd bind similar DNA sequences in vitro, but how their transcriptional activities are integrated to pattern anterior regions of the embryo is unknown...
May 15, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742315/solitary-chemosensory-cells-producing-interleukin-25-and-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-are-enriched-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-nasal-polyps
#4
Neil N Patel, Michael A Kohanski, Ivy W Maina, Vasiliki Triantafillou, Alan D Workman, Charles C L Tong, Edward C Kuan, John V Bosso, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, De'Broski R Herbert, Noam A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is commonly characterized by type-2 inflammation. It is established that group-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a subset of immune cells important in orchestrating mucosal type-2 response. IL-25 is an epithelial-derived cytokine that is a critical activator of ILC2s. Recent evidence demonstrates that specialized taster epithelial cells, such as solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs), may be producers of IL-25. To elucidate the relationship between SCCs and ILC2s in CRSwNP, we sought to quantify ILC2s and SCCs to determine if these cell types are enriched in nasal polyps compared to healthy sinonasal mucosa...
May 9, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742030/the-quality-of-visual-information-about-the-lower-extremities-influences-visuomotor-coordination-during-virtual-obstacle-negotiation
#5
Aram Kim, Kari S Kretch, Zixuan Zhou, James M Finley
Successful negotiation of obstacles during walking relies on the integration of visual information about the environment with ongoing locomotor commands. When information about the body and environment are removed through occlusion of the lower visual field, individuals increase downward head pitch angle, reduce foot placement precision, and increase safety margins during crossing. However, whether these effects are mediated by loss of visual information about the lower extremities, the obstacle, or both remains to be seen...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740411/an-srna-and-cold-shock-protein-homolog-based-feedforward-loop-post-transcriptionally-controls-cell-cycle-master-regulator-ctra
#6
Marta Robledo, Jan-Philip Schlüter, Lars O Loehr, Uwe Linne, Stefan P Albaum, José I Jiménez-Zurdo, Anke Becker
Adjustment of cell cycle progression is crucial for bacterial survival and adaptation under adverse conditions. However, the understanding of modulation of cell cycle control in response to environmental changes is rather incomplete. In α-proteobacteria, the broadly conserved cell cycle master regulator CtrA underlies multiple levels of control, including coupling of cell cycle and cell differentiation. CtrA levels are known to be tightly controlled through diverse transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738710/mute-directly-orchestrates-cell-state-switch-and-the-single-symmetric-division-to-create-stomata
#7
Soon-Ki Han, Xingyun Qi, Kei Sugihara, Jonathan H Dang, Takaho A Endo, Kristen L Miller, Eun-Deok Kim, Takashi Miura, Keiko U Torii
Precise cell division control is critical for developmental patterning. For the differentiation of a functional stoma, a cellular valve for efficient gas exchange, the single symmetric division of an immediate precursor is absolutely essential. Yet, the mechanism governing this event remains unclear. Here we report comprehensive inventories of gene expression by the Arabidopsis bHLH protein MUTE, a potent inducer of stomatal differentiation. MUTE switches the gene expression program initiated by SPEECHLESS...
May 7, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733896/discovery-of-feed-forward-regulation-in-l-tryptophan-biosynthesis-and-its-use-in-metabolic-engineering-of-e-coli-for-efficient-tryptophan-bioproduction
#8
Lin Chen, Minliang Chen, Chengwei Ma, An-Ping Zeng
The L-tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis pathway is highly regulated at multiple levels. The three types of regulations identified so far, namely repression, attenuation, and feedback inhibition have greatly impacted our understanding and engineering of cellular metabolism. In this study, feed-forward regulation is discovered as a novel regulation of this pathway and explored for engineering Escherichia coli for more efficient Trp biosynthesis. Specifically, indole glycerol phosphate synthase (IGPS) of the multifunctional enzyme TrpC from E...
May 4, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730206/comparative-analysis-of-human-genes-frequently-and-occasionally-regulated-by-m-6-a-modification
#9
Yuan Zhou, Qinghua Cui
The m6 A modification has been implicated as an important epitranscriptomic marker, which plays extensive roles in the regulation of transcript stability, splicing, translation, and localization. Nevertheless, only some genes are repeatedly modified across various conditions and the principle of m6 A regulation remains elusive. In this study, we performed a systems-level analysis of human genes frequently regulated by m6 A modification (m6 Afreq genes) and those occasionally regulated by m6 A modification (m6 Aocca genes)...
May 3, 2018: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728852/glial-cells-shape-pathology-and-repair-after-spinal-cord-injury
#10
REVIEW
Andrew D Gaudet, Laura K Fonken
Glial cell types were classified less than 100 years ago by del Rio-Hortega. For instance, he correctly surmised that microglia in pathologic central nervous system (CNS) were "voracious monsters" that helped clean the tissue. Although these historical predictions were remarkably accurate, innovative technologies have revealed novel molecular, cellular, and dynamic physiologic aspects of CNS glia. In this review, we integrate recent findings regarding the roles of glia and glial interactions in healthy and injured spinal cord...
May 4, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728596/microrna-143-modulates-the-expression-of-natriuretic-peptide-receptor-3-in-cardiac-cells
#11
Juan Wang, Kai Sing Tong, Lee Lee Wong, Oi-Wah Liew, Divya Raghuram, Arthur Mark Richards, Yei-Tsung Chen
Natriuretic Peptide Receptor 3 (NPR3), the clearance receptor for extracellular bio-active natriuretic peptides (NPs), plays important roles in the homeostasis of body fluid volume and vascular tone. Using luciferase reporter and antagomir-based silencing assays, we demonstrated that the expression of NPR3 could be modulated by microRNA-143 (miR-143-3p), a microRNA species with up-regulated circulating concentrations in clinical heart failure. The regulatory effect of miR-143 on NPR3 expression was further evidenced by the reciprocal relationship between miR-143 and NPR3 levels observed in hypoxia-treated human cardiac cells and in left ventricular tissue from rats undergoing experimental myocardial infarction...
May 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721422/runx2-osterix-and-zinc-uptake-synergize-to-orchestrate-osteogenic-differentiation-and-citrate-containing-bone-apatite-formation
#12
Xuekun Fu, Yunyan Li, Tongling Huang, Zhiwu Yu, Kun Ma, Meng Yang, Qingli Liu, Haobo Pan, Huaiyu Wang, Junfeng Wang, Min Guan
Citrate is essential to biomineralization of the bone especially as an integral part of apatite nanocomposite. Citrate precipitate of apatite is hypothesized to be derived from mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) upon differentiation into mature osteoblasts. Based on 13 C-labeled signals identified by solid-state multinuclear magnetic resonance analysis, boosted mitochondrial activity and carbon-source replenishment of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates coordinate to feed forward mitochondrial anabolism and deposition of citrate...
April 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717330/use-of-ultraviolet-visible-spectrophotometry-associated-with-artificial-neural-networks-as-an-alternative-for-determining-the-water-quality-index
#13
Edson Marcelino Alves, Ramon Juliano Rodrigues, Caroline Dos Santos Corrêa, Tiago Fidemann, José Celso Rocha, José Leonel Lemos Buzzo, Pedro de Oliva Neto, Eutimio Gustavo Fernández Núñez
The water quality index (WQI) is an important tool for water resource management and planning. However, it has major disadvantages: the generation of chemical waste, is costly, and time-consuming. In order to overcome these drawbacks, we propose to simplify this index determination by replacing traditional analytical methods with ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry associated with artificial neural network (ANN). A total of 100 water samples were collected from two rivers located in Assis, SP, Brazil and calculated the WQI by the conventional method...
May 2, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717062/vegf-neuropilin-2-signaling-promotes-stem-like-traits-in-breast-cancer-cells-by-taz-mediated-repression-of-the-rac-gap-%C3%AE-2-chimaerin
#14
Ameer L Elaimy, Santosh Guru, Cheng Chang, Jianhong Ou, John J Amante, Lihua Julie Zhu, Hira Lal Goel, Arthur M Mercurio
The role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling in cancer is not only well known in the context of angiogenesis but also important in the functional regulation of tumor cells. Autocrine VEGF signaling mediated by its co-receptors called neuropilins (NRPs) appears to be essential for sustaining the proliferation and survival of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are implicated in mediating tumor growth, progression, and drug resistance. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms involved in VEGF-mediated support of CSCs is critical to successfully treating cancer patients...
May 1, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716247/underwater-acoustic-source-localization-using-generalized-regression-neural-network
#15
Yun Wang, Hua Peng
In this paper, machine learning is introduced to source localization in underwater ocean waveguides. Source localization is regarded as a supervised learning regression problem and is solved by generalized regression neural network (GRNN). As a feed-forward network, GRNN is built using training data with fixed structure and configuration. The normalized sample covariance matrix (SCM) formed over a number of snapshots, and the corresponding source position are used as the input and output for GRNN. The source position can be estimated directly from the normalized SCM with GRNN; the proposed approach is thus in theory data driven...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715839/high-port-low-latency-optical-switch-architecture-with-optical-feed-forward-buffering-for-256-node-disaggregated-data-centers
#16
Nikos Terzenidis, Miltiadis Moralis-Pegios, George Mourgias-Alexandris, Konstantinos Vyrsokinos, Nikos Pleros
Departing from traditional server-centric data center architectures towards disaggregated systems that can offer increased resource utilization at reduced cost and energy envelopes, the use of high-port switching with highly stringent latency and bandwidth requirements becomes a necessity. We present an optical switch architecture exploiting a hybrid broadcast-and-select/wavelength routing scheme with small-scale optical feedforward buffering. The architecture is experimentally demonstrated at 10Gb/s, reporting error-free performance with a power penalty of <2...
April 2, 2018: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713439/ann-and-fuzzy-logic-based-model-to-evaluate-huntington-disease-symptoms
#17
Andrius Lauraitis, Rytis Maskeliūnas, Robertas Damaševičius
We introduce an approach to predict deterioration of reaction state for people having neurological movement disorders such as hand tremors and nonvoluntary movements. These involuntary motor features are closely related to the symptoms occurring in patients suffering from Huntington's disease (HD). We propose a hybrid (neurofuzzy) model that combines an artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the functional capacity level (FCL) of a person and a fuzzy logic system (FLS) to determine a stage of reaction. We analyzed our own dataset of 3032 records collected from 20 test subjects (both healthy and HD patients) using smart phones or tablets by asking a patient to locate circular objects on the device's screen...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710012/-viral-and-electrophysiological-approaches-for-elucidating-the-structure-and-function-of-retinal-circuits
#18
Masanari Onda, Kouki Sansawa, Fumitaka Osakada
 The mammalian retina consists of five classes of neurons: photoreceptor, horizontal, bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells. Based on cell morphology, electrophysiological properties, connectivity, and gene expression patterns, each class of retinal neurons is further subdivided into many distinct cell types. Each type of photoreceptor, bipolar, and ganglion cell tiles the retina, collectively providing a complete representation across the visual scene. Visual signals are processed by at least 80 distinct cell types and at least 20 separate circuits in the retina...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709626/cortical-depth-dependent-population-receptive-field-attraction-by-spatial-attention-in-human-v1
#19
Barrie P Klein, Alessio Fracasso, Jelle A van Dijk, Chris L E Paffen, Susan F Te Pas, Serge O Dumoulin
Visual spatial attention concentrates neural resources at the attended location. Recently, we demonstrated that voluntary spatial attention attracts population receptive fields (pRFs) toward its location throughout the visual hierarchy. Theoretically, both a feed forward or feedback mechanism could underlie pRF attraction in a given cortical area. Here, we use sub-millimeter ultra-high field functional MRI to measure pRF attraction across cortical depth and assess the contribution of feed forward and feedback signals to pRF attraction...
April 27, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705844/increasing-resilience-to-traumatic-stress-understanding-the-protective-role-of-well-being
#20
J Tory Toole, Mark A Rice, Jordan Cargill, Travis J A Craddock, Barry Nierenberg, Nancy G Klimas, Mary Ann Fletcher, Mariana Morris, Joel Zysman, Gordon Broderick
The brain maintains homeostasis in part through a network of feedback and feed-forward mechanisms, where neurochemicals and immune markers act as mediators. Using a previously constructed model of biobehavioral feedback, we found that in addition to healthy equilibrium another stable regulatory program supported chronic depression and anxiety. Exploring mechanisms that might underlie the contributions of subjective well-being to improved therapeutic outcomes in depression, we iteratively screened 288 candidate feedback patterns linking well-being to molecular signaling networks for those that maintained the original homeostatic regimes...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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