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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802240/late-summer-photosynthesis-and-storage-carbohydrates-in-walnut-juglans-regia-l-feed-back-and-feed-forward-effects
#1
Stefano Moscatello, Simona Proietti, Angela Augusti, Andrea Scartazza, Robert P Walker, Franco Famiani, Alberto Battistelli
The effect of late summer - autumn limitation of phloem export on growth, photosynthesis and storage carbohydrate accumulation, was evaluated in walnut (Juglans regia L.). This was done by girdling current years shoots, with either all or with only a third of the leaves left in place. Nineteen days after girdling, photosynthesis was greatly reduced and after 46 days, it was about 70% lower in both girdling treatments compared to the control (ungirdled shoots). This reduction is consistent with a feed-back effect of an increased carbohydrate content of the leaves...
July 31, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794031/combinatorial-effects-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-and-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-transcription-factor-15-on-bovine-herpesvirus-1-transcription-and-productive-infection
#2
Fouad S El-Mayet, Laximan Sawant, Prasanth Thunuguntla, Clinton Jones
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), an important bovine pathogen, establishes life-long latency in sensory neurons. Latently infected calves consistently reactivate from latency following a single intravenous injection of the synthetic corticosteroid dexamethasone. The immediate early transcription unit 1 (IEtu1) promoter, which drives bICP0 and bICP4 expression, is stimulated by dexamethasone because it contains two glucocorticoid receptor (GR) response elements (GREs). Several Krüppel-like transcription factors (KLF), including KLF15, are induced during reactivation from latency and they stimulate certain viral promoters and productive infection...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780051/linked-gauss-diffusion-processes-for-modeling-a-finite-size-neuronal-network
#3
M F Carfora, E Pirozzi
A Leaky Integrate-and-Fire (LIF) model with stochastic current-based linkages is considered to describe the firing activity of neurons interacting in a (2×2)-size feed-forward network. In the subthreshold regime and under the assumption that no more than one spike is exchanged between coupled neurons, the stochastic evolution of the neuronal membrane voltage is subject to random jumps due to interactions in the network. Linked Gauss-Diffusion processes are proposed to describe this dynamics and to provide estimates of the firing probability density of each neuron...
August 2, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774019/analytical-modelling-and-optimization-of-the-temperature-dependent-dynamic-mechanical-properties-of-fused-deposition-fabricated-parts-made-of-pc-abs
#4
Omar Ahmed Mohamed, Syed Hasan Masood, Jahar Lal Bhowmik
Fused deposition modeling (FDM) additive manufacturing has been intensively used for many industrial applications due to its attractive advantages over traditional manufacturing processes. The process parameters used in FDM have significant influence on the part quality and its properties. This process produces the plastic part through complex mechanisms and it involves complex relationships between the manufacturing conditions and the quality of the processed part. In the present study, the influence of multi-level manufacturing parameters on the temperature-dependent dynamic mechanical properties of FDM processed parts was investigated using IV-optimality response surface methodology (RSM) and multilayer feed-forward neural networks (MFNNs)...
November 4, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768738/altered-tactile-sensitivity-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactive-disorder
#5
Nicolaas A J Puts, Ashley D Harris, Mark Mikkelsen, Mark Tommerdahl, Richard Ae Edden, Stewart H Mostofsky
ADHD is characterized by an inability to concentrate, heightened activity, and hypermotoric behavior, but sensory, e.g. tactile, problems are common. The literature on tactile impairments in ADHD is limited, with most work employing clinical observations or questionnaires. Here, we study tactile processing in children with ADHD, and hypothesize that children with ADHD show reduced performance in tasks closely linked to inhibition. Sixty seven children with ADHD and 62 typically developing children performed a battery of tasks grouped in domains: simple and choice reaction time; static and dynamic detection threshold (probing feed-forward inhibition); amplitude discrimination without adaptation, and with dual, and single-site adaptation (probing lateral inhibition and adaptation); sequential and simultaneous frequency discrimination (previously linked to GABA); and temporal order judgment with and without a synchronous carrier stimulus...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768710/yap-taz-deletion-in-gli-cell-derived-myofibroblasts-attenuates-fibrosis
#6
Ming Liang, Michael Yu, Ruohan Xia, Ke Song, Jun Wang, Jinlong Luo, Guang Chen, Jizhong Cheng
In damaged kidneys, increased extracellular matrix (ECM) and tissue stiffness stimulate kidney fibrosis through incompletely characterized molecular mechanisms. The transcriptional coactivators yes-associated protein (Yap) and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (Taz) function as mechanosensors in cancer cells and have been implicated in the regulation of myofibroblasts in the kidney. We hypothesized that the development of kidney fibrosis depends on Yap-induced activation and proliferation of kidney fibroblasts...
August 2, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760770/transcriptional-mechanisms-that-control-expression-of-the-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-receptor-locus
#7
REVIEW
Rocio Rojo, Clare Pridans, David Langlais, David A Hume
The proliferation, differentiation, and survival of cells of the macrophage lineage depends upon signals from the macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF) receptor (CSF1R). CSF1R is expressed by embryonic macrophages and induced early in adult hematopoiesis, upon commitment of multipotent progenitors to the myeloid lineage. Transcriptional activation of CSF1R requires interaction between members of the E26 transformation-specific family of transcription factors (Ets) (notably PU.1), C/EBP, RUNX, AP-1/ATF, interferon regulatory factor (IRF), STAT, KLF, REL, FUS/TLS (fused in sarcoma/ranslocated in liposarcoma) families, and conserved regulatory elements within the mouse and human CSF1R locus...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759050/rps26-directs-mrna-specific-translation-by-recognition-of-kozak-sequence-elements
#8
Max B Ferretti, Homa Ghalei, Ethan A Ward, Elizabeth L Potts, Katrin Karbstein
We describe a novel approach to separate two ribosome populations from the same cells and use this method in combination with RNA-seq to identify mRNAs bound to Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomes with and without Rps26, a protein linked to the pathogenesis of Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA). These analyses reveal that Rps26 contributes to mRNA-specific translation by recognition of the Kozak sequence in well-translated mRNAs and that Rps26-deficient ribosomes preferentially translate mRNA from select stress-response pathways...
July 31, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751865/breakdown-of-modularity-in-complex-networks
#9
Sergi Valverde
The presence of modular organization is a common property of a wide range of complex systems, from cellular or brain networks to technological graphs. Modularity allows some degree of segregation between different parts of the network and has been suggested to be a prerequisite for the evolvability of biological systems. In technology, modularity defines a clear division of tasks and it is an explicit design target. However, many natural and artificial systems experience a breakdown in their modular pattern of connections, which has been associated with failures in hub nodes or the activation of global stress responses...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749464/the-cohesin-complex-prevents-myc-induced-replication-stress
#10
Sara Rohban, Aurora Cerutti, Marco J Morelli, Fabrizio d'Adda di Fagagna, Stefano Campaner
The cohesin complex is mutated in cancer and in a number of rare syndromes collectively known as Cohesinopathies. In the latter case, cohesin deficiencies have been linked to transcriptional alterations affecting Myc and its target genes. Here, we set out to understand to what extent the role of cohesins in controlling cell cycle is dependent on Myc expression and activity. Inactivation of the cohesin complex by silencing the RAD21 subunit led to cell cycle arrest due to both transcriptional impairment of Myc target genes and alterations of replication forks, which were fewer and preferentially unidirectional...
July 27, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732302/a-familiar-size-stroop-effect-in-the-absence-of-basic-level-recognition
#11
Bria Long, Talia Konkle
When we view a picture of an object, we automatically recognize what the object is and know how big it typically is in the world (Konkle & Oliva, 2012). Is information about an object's size activated only after we've identified the object, or can this size information be activated before object recognition even occurs? We previously found that big and small objects differ in mid-level perceptual features (Long, Konkle, Cohen, & Alvarez, 2016). Here we asked whether these perceptual features can automatically trigger real-world size processing, bypassing the need for basic-level object recognition...
July 18, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731622/mechanistic-modeling-based-pat-implementation-for-ion-exchange-process-chromatography-of-charge-variants-of-monoclonal-antibody-products
#12
Vijesh Kumar, Anurag S Rathore
Process chromatography is typically used to remove product related impurities and variants that have very similar physicochemical properties to the product. Baseline separation may not be achieved in most cases due to high protein loading and thus, pooling of the elution peak can be challenging for maximizing yield and achieving consistency in product quality. Batch-to-batch variability in quality of the feed material also occurs in commercial manufacturing. Mechanistic modeling of process chromatography, though non-trivial, can be an enabler for implementation of Process Analytical Technology...
July 21, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729418/myc-regulated-mevalonate-metabolism-maintains-brain-tumor-initiating-cells
#13
Xiuxing Wang, Zhi Huang, Qiulian Wu, Briana C Prager, Stephen C Mack, Kailin Yang, Leo J Y Kim, Ryan C Gimple, Yu Shi, Sisi Lai, Qi Xie, Tyler E Miller, Christopher G Hubert, Anne Song, Zhen Dong, Wenchao Zhou, Xiaoguang Fang, Zhe Zhu, Vaidehi Mahadev, Shideng Bao, Jeremy N Rich
Metabolic dysregulation drives tumor initiation in a subset of glioblastomas harboring isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations, but metabolic alterations in glioblastomas with wildtype IDH are poorly understood. MYC promotes metabolic reprogramming in cancer, but targeting MYC has proven notoriously challenging. Here, we link metabolic dysregulation in patient-derived brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs) to a nexus between MYC and mevalonate signaling, which can be inhibited by statin or 6-fluoromevalonate treatment...
July 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723578/convolutional-neural-network-based-encoding-and-decoding-of-visual-object-recognition-in-space-and-time
#14
REVIEW
K Seeliger, M Fritsche, U Güçlü, S Schoenmakers, J-M Schoffelen, S E Bosch, M A J van Gerven
Representations learned by deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for object recognition are a widely investigated model of the processing hierarchy in the human visual system. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, CNN representations of visual stimuli have previously been shown to correspond to processing stages in the ventral and dorsal streams of the visual system. Whether this correspondence between models and brain signals also holds for activity acquired at high temporal resolution has been explored less exhaustively...
July 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719829/detection-of-driver-engagement-in-secondary-tasks-from-observed-naturalistic-driving-behavior
#15
Mengqiu Ye, Osama A Osman, Sherif Ishak, Bita Hashemi
Distracted driving has long been acknowledged as one of the leading causes of death or injury in roadway crashes. The focus of past research has been mainly on the impact of different causes of distraction on driving behavior. However, only a few studies attempted to address how some driving behavior attributes could be linked to the cause of distraction. In essence, this study takes advantage of the rich SHRP 2 Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) database to develop a model for detecting the likelihood of a driver's involvement in secondary tasks from distinctive attributes of driving behavior...
July 15, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704206/an-autonomous-robot-inspired-by-insect-neurophysiology-pursues-moving-features-in-natural-environments
#16
Zahra M Bagheri, Benjamin S Cazzolato, Steven Grainger, David C O'Carroll, Steven D Wiederman
OBJECTIVE: Many computer vision and robotic applications require the implementation of robust and efficient target-tracking algorithms on a moving platform. However, deployment of a real-time system is challenging, even with the computational power of modern hardware. Lightweight and low-powered flying insects, such as dragonflies, track prey or conspecifics within cluttered natural environments, illustrating an efficient biological solution to the target-tracking problem. APPROACH: We used our recent recordings from 'small target motion detector' neurons in the dragonfly brain to inspire the development of a closed-loop target detection and tracking algorithm...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691694/context-dependent-adaptation-improves-robustness-of-myoelectric-control-for-upper-limb-prostheses
#17
Gauravkumar K Patel, Janne Mathias Hahne, Claudio Castellini, Dario Farina, Strahinja Dosen
OBJECTIVE: Dexterous upper-limb prostheses are available today to restore grasping, but an effective and reliable feed-forward control is still missing. The aim of this work was to improve the robustness and reliability of myoelectric control by using context information from sensors embedded within the prosthesis. APPROACH: We developed a context-driven myoelectric control scheme (cxMYO) that incorporates the inference of context information from proprioception (inertial measurement unit) and exteroception (force and grip aperture) sensors to modulate the outputs of myoelectric control...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690409/turbulent-boundary-layer-under-the-control-of-different-schemes
#18
Z X Qiao, Y Zhou, Z Wu
This work explores experimentally the control of a turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate based on wall perturbation generated by piezo-ceramic actuators. Different schemes are investigated, including the feed-forward, the feedback, and the combined feed-forward and feedback strategies, with a view to suppressing the near-wall high-speed events and hence reducing skin friction drag. While the strategies may achieve a local maximum drag reduction slightly less than their counterpart of the open-loop control, the corresponding duty cycles are substantially reduced when compared with that of the open-loop control...
June 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674489/multi-finger-interaction-and-synergies-in-finger-flexion-and-extension-force-production
#19
Jaebum Park, Dayuan Xu
The aim of this study was to discover finger interaction indices during single-finger ramp tasks and multi-finger coordination during a steady state force production in two directions, flexion, and extension. Furthermore, the indices of anticipatory adjustment of elemental variables (i.e., finger forces) prior to a quick pulse force production were quantified. It is currently unknown whether the organization and anticipatory modulation of stability properties are affected by force directions and strengths of in multi-finger actions...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674389/insulated-transcriptional-elements-enable-precise-design-of-genetic-circuits
#20
Yeqing Zong, Haoqian M Zhang, Cheng Lyu, Xiangyu Ji, Junran Hou, Xian Guo, Qi Ouyang, Chunbo Lou
Rational engineering of biological systems is often complicated by the complex but unwanted interactions between cellular components at multiple levels. Here we address this issue at the level of prokaryotic transcription by insulating minimal promoters and operators to prevent their interaction and enable the biophysical modeling of synthetic transcription without free parameters. This approach allows genetic circuit design with extraordinary precision and diversity, and consequently simplifies the design-build-test-learn cycle of circuit engineering to a mix-and-match workflow...
July 3, 2017: Nature Communications
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