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Rebekah Carter, Yenna Salamonson, Lucie M Ramjan, Elizabeth Halcomb
BACKGROUND: Timely and meaningful feedback is essential to promote active learning and student engagement with learning. However, achieving this remains elusive, particularly in undergraduate nursing programs that admit large student cohorts. One strategy to provide meaningful en masse feedback is to provide feed-forward support by using exemplars. To date, there has been limited evaluation of the effectiveness of this feedback strategy. OBJECTIVE: To review the impact of using exemplars as a feedback strategy to support student academic writing in higher education...
March 3, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Charrise M Ramkissoon, Pau Herrero, Jorge Bondia, Josep Vehi
The artificial pancreas (AP) system is designed to regulate blood glucose in subjects with type 1 diabetes using a continuous glucose monitor informed controller that adjusts insulin infusion via an insulin pump. However, current AP developments are mainly hybrid closed-loop systems that include feed-forward actions triggered by the announcement of meals or exercise. The first step to fully closing the loop in the AP requires removing meal announcement, which is currently the most effective way to alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia due to the delay in insulin action...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Joshua L Haworth, Adam J Strang, Mathias Hieronymus, Mark S Walsh
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Many people use balance training as a rehabilitation or habilitation modality. Although the time course of changes to temporal and spatial aspects of postural sway over the initial weeks of such training is as yet unclear. Particularly, we sought to explore the effects of training on sway during a dynamic task of stance on an ultra-compliant surface. Such a task provides different mechanical, and thus sensorimotor, constraints compared to stance on a solid surface...
March 15, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Sabrina Pitzalis, Francesca Strappini, Alessandro Bultrini, Francesco Di Russo
Neuroimaging studies have identified so far, several color-sensitive visual areas in the human brain, and the temporal dynamics of these activities have been separately investigated using the visual-evoked potentials (VEPs). In the present study, we combined electrophysiological and neuroimaging methods to determine a detailed spatiotemporal profile of chromatic VEP and to localize its neural generators. The accuracy of the present co-registration study was obtained by combining standard fMRI data with retinotopic and motion mapping data at the individual level...
March 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Mohsen Bakouri
In this study, the physiological control algorithm using sliding mode control method is implemented to track the reference input signal. The controller is developed using feed-forward part, reference model, and steady-state flow estimator. The proposed control method is evaluated using a dynamic heart-pump interaction model incorporating descriptions of the cardiovascular system - rotary blood pump. The immediate response of the controller to preload as well as afterload was studied. Stability and feasibility of the control system were demonstrated through the tests...
April 2018: IET Systems Biology
Onur Güntürkün, Charlotte Koenen, Fabrizio Iovine, Alexis Garland, Roland Pusch
We are surrounded by an endless variation of objects. The ability to categorize these objects represents a core cognitive competence of humans and possibly all vertebrates. Research on category learning in nonhuman animals started with the seminal studies of Richard Herrnstein on the category "human" in pigeons. Since then, we have learned that pigeons are able to categorize a large number of stimulus sets, ranging from Cubist paintings to English orthography. Strangely, this prolific field has largely neglected to also study the avian neurobiology of categorization...
March 12, 2018: Learning & Behavior
Lei Guo, Wei Zhang, Jialei Zhang
A ten-layer feed forward network is constructed in the presence of an exogenous alternating magnetic field. Specifically, our results indicate that for rate coding, the firing rate is significantly increased in the presence of an exogenous alternating magnetic field and particularly with increasing enhancement of the alternating magnetic field amplitude. For temporal coding, the interspike intervals of the spiking sequence are decreased and the distribution of the interspike intervals of the spiking sequence tends to be uniform in the presence of alternating magnetic field...
2018: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
Ivan Grbatinić, Nebojsa Milosevic, Dusica Maric
The aim of this study is to determine whether the dentate neurons can be translaminary neuromorphotopologically classified as ventrolateral or dorsomedial type. Adult human dentate 2D binary interneuron images are used for the purposes of the analysis. The analysis is performed on the real and the virtual neuron sample. The total of 29 parameters is used. They can be divided into the classes: neuron surface, shape, length, branching and complexity. The clustering is performed through the algorithm consisted from of the steps of predictor extraction (matrix attractor analysis/non-negative matrix factorization and cluster analysis of predictor factors, separate unifactor analysis/Student's t-test and MANOVA) and multivariate cluster analysis set (cluster analysis, principal component analysis, factor analysis with pro/varimax rotation, Fisher's linear discriminant analysis and feed-forward backpropagation artificial neural networks)...
2018: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
Yohei Mikami, Gianluca Scarno, Beatrice Zitti, Han-Yu Shih, Yuka Kanno, Angela Santoni, John J O'Shea, Giuseppe Sciumè
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) producing IL-22 and/or IL-17, designated as ILC3, comprise a heterogeneous subset of cells involved in regulation of gut barrier homeostasis and inflammation. Exogenous environmental cues in conjunction with regulated expression of endogenous factors are key determinants of plasticity of ILC3 towards the type 1 fate. Herein, by using mouse models and transcriptomic approaches, we defined at the molecular level, initial events driving ILC3 expressing natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCR+ ILC3) to acquire type 1 features...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Sreekala S Nampoothiri, S M Fayaz, G K Rajanikant
The complex and interlinked cascade of events regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs), transcription factors (TF), and target genes highlight the multifactorial nature of ischemic stroke pathology. The complexity of ischemic stroke requires a wider assessment than the existing experimental research that deals with only a few regulatory components. Here, we assessed a massive set of genes, miRNAs, and transcription factors to build a miRNA-gene-transcription factor regulatory network to elucidate the underlying post-transcriptional mechanisms in ischemic stroke...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Akimitsu Yamada, Masayuki Nagahashi, Tomoyoshi Aoyagi, Wei-Ching Huang, Santiago Lima, Nitai C Hait, Aparna Maiti, Kumiko Kida, Krista P Terracina, Hiroshi Miyazaki, Takashi Ishikawa, Itaru Endo, Michael R Waters, Qianya Qi, Li Yan, Sheldon Milstien, Sarah Spiegel, Kazuaki Takabe
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive sphingolipid mediator, has been implicated in regulation of many processes important for breast cancer progression. Previously we observed that S1P is exported out of human breast cancer cells by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCC1, but not by ABCB1, both known multidrug resistance proteins that efflux chemotherapeutic agents. However, the pathological consequences of these events to breast cancer progression and metastasis has not been elucidated. Here, it is demonstrated that high expression of ABCC1, but not ABCB1, is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Keesha E Erickson, Oleksii S Rukhlenko, Richard G Posner, William S Hlavacek, Boris N Kholodenko
RAS is the most frequently mutated gene across human cancers, but developing inhibitors of mutant RAS has proven to be challenging. Given the difficulties of targeting RAS directly, drugs that impact the other components of pathways where mutant RAS operates may potentially be effective. However, the system-level features, including different localizations of RAS isoforms, competition between downstream effectors, and interlocking feedback and feed-forward loops, must be understood to fully grasp the opportunities and limitations of inhibiting specific targets...
March 5, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Zeynep Ciğeroğlu, Ömür Aras, Carlos A Pinto, Mahmut Bayramoglu, Ş İsmail Kırbaşlar, José M Lorenzo, Francisco J Barba, Jorge A Saraiva, Selin Şahin
BACKGROUND: The extraction of phenolic compounds from grapefruit leaves assisted by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was optimized using a response surface methodology (RSM) by means of D-optimal experimental design and artificial neural network (ANN). For this purpose, five numeric factors were selected: ethanol concentration (0-50 %), extraction time (15-60 min), extraction temperature (25-50 °C), solid/liquid ratio (50-100 g L-1 ) and calorimetric energy density of ultrasound (0...
March 6, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Ying Wu, Bo Shan, Jianli Dai, Zhixiong Xia, Jie Cai, Tianwei Chen, Songya Lv, Yuxiong Feng, Ling Zheng, Yan Wang, Jianfeng Liu, Jing Fang, Dong Xie, Liangyou Rui, Jianmiao Liu, Yong Liu
Obesity is associated with both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and chronic metabolic inflammation. ER stress activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) and has been implicated in a variety of cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is unclear whether individual UPR pathways are mechanistically linked to HCC development, however. Here we report a dual role for inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α), the ER-localized UPR signal transducer, in obesity-promoted HCC development. We found that genetic ablation of IRE1α in hepatocytes not only markedly reduced the occurrence of diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced HCC in LKO mice when fed a normal chow (NC) diet, but also protected against the acceleration of HCC progression during high-fat diet (HFD) feeding...
March 5, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Marieke Dewitte, Axel Mayer
Current models of sexual responding emphasize the role of contextual and relational factors in shaping sexual behavior. The present study used a prospective diary design to examine the temporal sequence and variability of the link between sexual and relationship variables in a sample of couples. Studying sexual responding in the everyday context of the relationship is necessary to get research more aligned with the complex reality of having sex in a relationship, thereby increasing ecological validity and taking into account the dyadic interplay between partners...
March 1, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
S Charles Doret
We present an inexpensive, low-noise (<260 μVrms , 0.1 Hz-100 kHz) design for a piezo driver suitable for frequency tuning of external-cavity diode lasers. This simple driver improves upon many commercially available drivers by incorporating circuitry to produce a "feed-forward" signal appropriate for making simultaneous adjustments to the piezo voltage and laser current, enabling dramatic improvements in a mode-hop-free laser frequency tuning range. We present the theory behind our driver's operation, characterize its output noise, and demonstrate its use in absorption spectroscopy on the rubidium D1 line...
February 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Yan Li, Galen Missig, Beate C Finger, Samantha M Landino, Abigail J Alexander, Emery Mokler, James Robbins, Yunona Manasian, Woori Kim, Kwang-Soo Kim, Christopher J McDougle, William A Carlezon, Vadim Y Bolshakov
Inflammatory processes may be involved in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric illnesses including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Evidence from studies in rodents indicates that immune activation during early development can produce core features of ASD (social interaction deficits, dysregulation of communication, increases in stereotyped behaviors and anxiety), although the neural mechanisms of these effects are not thoroughly understood. We treated timed-pregnant mice with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C), which simulates a viral infection, or vehicle on gestational day 12...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Shohei Shibata, Yuki Inaba, Shinsuke Yoshioka, Senshi Fukashiro
This study had two objectives: (a) revealing the difference in finger segments between the conventional and finger models during aimed throwing and (b) examining the central nervous system's timing control between the wrist torque and finger torque. Participants were seven baseball players. Finger kinetics was calculated by an inverse dynamics method. In the conventional model, wrist flexion torque was smaller than that in the finger model because of the error in ball position approximation. The maximal correlation coefficient between the wrist torque and finger torque was high (r = ...
February 28, 2018: Motor Control
Vincent Di Lollo
Attention has been defined as a filter, a limited resource, a spotlight, a zoom lens, and even as a glue that binds disconnected visual features into a coherent object. Here, I claim that all of these metaphor-based explanations are circular. As such, they fail to provide adequate accounts of the phenomena they are purported to explain. In contrast, those very phenomena can be explained on the idea that perceptions emerge from iterative exchanges between cortical regions linked by two-way pathways. Processing can occur in one of two modes: feed-forward and reentrant...
February 23, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Mohamad Shamas, Pascal Benquet, Isabelle Merlet, Mohamad Khalil, Wassim El Falou, Anca Nica, Fabrice Wendling
OBJECTIVE: In this study we aim to identify the key (patho)physiological mechanisms and biophysical factors which impact the observability and spectral features of High Frequency Oscillations (HFOs). METHODS: In order to accurately replicate HFOs we developed virtual-brain/virtual-electrode simulation environment combining novel neurophysiological models of neuronal populations with biophysical models for the source/sensor relationship. Both (patho)physiological mechanisms (synaptic transmission, depolarizing GABAA effect, hyperexcitability) and physical factors (geometry of extended cortical sources, size and position of electrodes) were taken into account...
February 11, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
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