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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428077/molecular-bases-of-the-crosstalk-between-bone-and-muscle
#1
Gerard Karsenty, Paula Mera
Exercise is an evolutionary conserved survival function that nowadays has beneficial health effects. The increased metabolic activity of contracting skeletal muscle affects the biology of many organs involved in regulating muscle functions. The discovery of hormones and cytokines secreted by bone and skeletal muscle during exercise, has recently added experimental credence to the notion that a crosstalk exists between these organs. Bone through the hormone osteocalcin, promotes exercise capacity in the mouse...
April 17, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424170/ros-induced-ros-release-orchestrated-by-nox4-nox2-and-mitochondria-in-vegf-signaling-and-angiogenesis
#2
Young-Mee Kim, Seok-Jo Kim, Ryosuke Tatsunami, Hisao Yamamura, Tohru Fukai, Masuko Ushio-Fukai
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from NADPH oxidase (NOX) and mitochondria play a critical role in growth factor-induced switch from a quiescent to an angiogenic phenotype in endothelial cells (ECs). However, how highly diffusible ROS produced from different sources can coordinate to stimulate VEGF signaling and drive the angiogenic process remains unknown. Using the cytosol- and mitochondria-targeted redox-sensitive RoGFP biosensors with real-time imaging, here we show that VEGF stimulation in human ECs rapidly increases cytosolic RoGFP oxidation within 1 min, followed by mitochondrial RoGFP oxidation within 5 min, which continues at least for 60 min...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419310/calmodulin-as-a-ca2-sensing-subunit-of-arabidopsis-cyclic-nucleotide-gated-channel-complexes
#3
Cornelia Fischer, Thomas A DeFalco, Purva Karia, Wayne A Snedden, Wolfgang Moeder, Keiko Yoshioka, Petra Dietrich
Ca2+ serves as a universal second messenger in eukaryotic signaling pathways, and the spatial and temporal patterns of Ca2+ concentration changes are determined by feedback and feed-forward regulation of the involved transport proteins. Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGCs) are Ca2+-permeable channels that interact with the ubiquitous Ca2+ sensor calmodulin (CaM). CNGCs interact with CaMs via diverse CaM-binding sites, including an IQ-motif, which has been identified in the C-termini of CNGC20 and CNGC12...
April 13, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415199/identifying-polymer-states-by-machine-learning
#4
Qianshi Wei, Roger G Melko, Jeff Z Y Chen
The ability of a feed-forward neural network to learn and classify different states of polymer configurations is systematically explored. Performing numerical experiments, we find that a simple network model can, after adequate training, recognize multiple structures, including gaslike coil, liquidlike globular, and crystalline anti-Mackay and Mackay structures. The network can be trained to identify the transition points between various states, which compare well with those identified by independent specific-heat calculations...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412664/new-model-for-prediction-binary-mixture-of-antihistamine-decongestant-using-artificial-neural-networks-and-least-squares-support-vector-machine-by-spectrophotometry-method
#5
Shirin Mofavvaz, Mahmoud Reza Sohrabi, Alireza Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh
In the present study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) as intelligent methods based on absorption spectra in the range of 230-300nm have been used for determination of antihistamine decongestant contents. In the first step, one type of network (feed-forward back-propagation) from the artificial neural network with two different training algorithms, Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) and gradient descent with momentum and adaptive learning rate back-propagation (GDX) algorithm, were employed and their performance was evaluated...
April 5, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408984/b-cell-tolerance-and-autoimmunity
#6
REVIEW
Takeshi Tsubata
Self-reactive B cells are tolerized at various stages of B-cell development and differentiation, including the immature B-cell stage (central tolerance) and the germinal center (GC) B-cell stage, and B-cell tolerance involves various mechanisms such as deletion, anergy, and receptor editing. Self-reactive B cells generated by random immunoglobulin variable gene rearrangements are tolerized by central tolerance and anergy in the periphery, and these processes involve apoptosis regulated by Bim, a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, and regulation of B-cell signaling by various phosphatases, including SHIP-1 and SHP-1...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403746/feed-forwardness-of-spinal-networks-in-posture-and-locomotion
#7
Yury Gerasimenko, Dimitry Sayenko, Parag Gad, Chao-Tuan Liu, Niranjala J K Tillakaratne, Roland R Roy, Inessa Kozlovskaya, V Reggie Edgerton
We present a new perspective on the concept of feed-forward compared to feedback mechanisms for motor control. We propose that conceptually all sensory information in real time provided to the brain and spinal cord can be viewed as a feed-forward phenomenon. We also propose that the spinal cord continually adapts to a broad array of ongoing sensory information that is used to adjust the probability of making timely and predictable decisions of selected networks that will execute a given response. One interpretation of the term feedback historically entails responses with short delays...
December 1, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397001/gait-ataxia-in-humans-vestibular-and-cerebellar-control-of-dynamic-stability
#8
Roman Schniepp, Ken Möhwald, Max Wuehr
During human locomotion, vestibular feedback control is fundamental for maintaining dynamic stability and adapting the gait pattern to external circumstances. Within the supraspinal locomotor network, the cerebellum represents the key site for the integration of vestibular feedback information. The cerebellum is further important for the fine-tuning and coordination of limb movements during walking. The aim of this review article is to highlight the shared structural and functional sensorimotor principles in vestibular and cerebellar locomotion control...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396068/evaluating-deep-learning-architectures-for-speech-emotion-recognition
#9
Haytham M Fayek, Margaret Lech, Lawrence Cavedon
Speech Emotion Recognition (SER) can be regarded as a static or dynamic classification problem, which makes SER an excellent test bed for investigating and comparing various deep learning architectures. We describe a frame-based formulation to SER that relies on minimal speech processing and end-to-end deep learning to model intra-utterance dynamics. We use the proposed SER system to empirically explore feed-forward and recurrent neural network architectures and their variants. Experiments conducted illuminate the advantages and limitations of these architectures in paralinguistic speech recognition and emotion recognition in particular...
March 21, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389362/modeling-of-feed-forward-control-using-the-partial-least-squares-regression-method-in-the-tablet-compression-process
#10
Yusuke Hattori, Makoto Otsuka
In the pharmaceutical industry, the implementation of continuous manufacturing has been widely promoted in lieu of the traditional batch manufacturing approach. More specially, in recent years, the innovative concept of feed-forward control has been introduced in relation to process analytical technology. In the present study, we successfully developed a feed-forward control model for the tablet compression process by integrating data obtained from near-infrared (NIR) spectra and the physical properties of granules...
April 5, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385730/transcription-factor-interplay-between-leafy-and-apetala1-cauliflower-during-floral-initiation
#11
Kevin Goslin, Beibei Zheng, Antonio Serrano-Mislata, Liina Rae, Patrick T Ryan, Kamila Kwaśniewska, Bennett Thomson, Diarmuid O'Maoileidigh, Francisco Madueno, Frank Wellmer, Emmanuelle Graciet
The transcription factors LEAFY (LFY) and APETALA1 (AP1), together with the AP1 paralog CAULIFLOWER (CAL), control the onset of flower development in a partially redundant manner. This redundancy is thought to be mediated, at least in part, through the regulation of a shared set of target genes. However, whether these genes are independently or cooperatively regulated by LFY and AP1/CAL, is currently unknown. To better understand the regulatory relationship between LFY and AP1/CAL during floral initiation, we monitored the activity of LFY in the absence of AP1/CAL function...
April 6, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384293/different-reprogramming-propensities-in-plants-and-mammals-are-small-variations-in-the-core-network-wirings-responsible
#12
Victor Olariu, Julia Nilsson, Henrik Jönsson, Carsten Peterson
Although the plant and animal kingdoms were separated more than 1,6 billion years ago, multicellular development is for both guided by similar transcriptional, epigenetic and posttranscriptional machinery. One may ask to what extent there are similarities and differences in the gene regulation circuits and their dynamics when it comes to important processes like stem cell regulation. The key players in mouse embryonic stem cells governing pluripotency versus differentiation are Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog. Correspondingly, the WUSCHEL and CLAVATA3 genes represent a core in the Shoot Apical Meristem regulation for plants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381057/optical-filter-requirements-in-an-eml-based-single-sideband-pam4-intensity-modulation-and-direct-detection-transmission-system
#13
Hsing-Yu Chen, Noriaki Kaneda, Jeffrey Lee, Jyehong Chen, Young-Kai Chen
The feasibility of a single sideband (SSB) PAM4 intensity-modulation and direct-detection (IM/DD) transmission based on a CMOS ADC and DAC is experimentally demonstrated in this work. To cost effectively build a >50 Gb/s system as well as to extend the transmission distance, a low cost EML and a passive optical filter are utilized to generate the SSB signal. However, the EML-induced chirp and dispersion-induced power fading limit the requirements of the SSB filter. To separate the effect of signal-signal beating interference, filters with different roll-off factors are employed to demonstrate the performance tolerance at different transmission distance...
March 20, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377709/the-role-of-architectural-and-learning-constraints-in-neural-network-models-a-case-study-on-visual-space-coding
#14
Alberto Testolin, Michele De Filippo De Grazia, Marco Zorzi
The recent "deep learning revolution" in artificial neural networks had strong impact and widespread deployment for engineering applications, but the use of deep learning for neurocomputational modeling has been so far limited. In this article we argue that unsupervised deep learning represents an important step forward for improving neurocomputational models of perception and cognition, because it emphasizes the role of generative learning as opposed to discriminative (supervised) learning. As a case study, we present a series of simulations investigating the emergence of neural coding of visual space for sensorimotor transformations...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377161/category-selectivity-in-human-visual-cortex-beyond-visual-object-recognition
#15
Marius V Peelen, Paul E Downing
Human ventral temporal cortex shows a categorical organization, with regions responding selectively to faces, bodies, tools, scenes, words, and other categories. Why is this? Traditional accounts explain category selectivity as arising within a hierarchical system dedicated to visual object recognition. For example, it has been proposed that category selectivity reflects the clustering of category-associated visual feature representations, or that it reflects category-specific computational algorithms needed to achieve view invariance...
April 1, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375189/elimination-of-harmonic-force-and-torque-in-active-magnetic-bearing-systems-with-repetitive-control-and-notch-filters
#16
Xiangbo Xu, Shao Chen, Jinhao Liu
Harmonic force and torque, which are caused by rotor imbalance and sensor runout, are the dominant disturbances in active magnetic bearing (AMB) systems. To eliminate the harmonic force and torque, a novel control method based on repetitive control and notch filters is proposed. Firstly, the dynamics of a four radial degrees of freedom AMB system is described, and the AMB model can be described in terms of the translational and rotational motions, respectively. Next, a closed-loop generalized notch filter is utilized to identify the synchronous displacement resulting from the rotor imbalance, and a feed-forward compensation of the synchronous force and torque related to the AMB displacement stiffness is formulated by using the identified synchronous displacement...
April 4, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337978/microrna-filters-hox-temporal-transcription-noise-to-confer-boundary-formation-in-the-spinal-cord
#17
Chung-Jung Li, Tian Hong, Ying-Tsen Tung, Ya-Ping Yen, Ho-Chiang Hsu, Ya-Lin Lu, Mien Chang, Qing Nie, Jun-An Chen
The initial rostrocaudal patterning of the neural tube leads to differential expression of Hox genes that contribute to the specification of motor neuron (MN) subtype identity. Although several 3' Hox mRNAs are expressed in progenitors in a noisy manner, these Hox proteins are not expressed in the progenitors and only become detectable in postmitotic MNs. MicroRNA biogenesis impairment leads to precocious expression and propagates the noise of Hoxa5 at the protein level, resulting in an imprecise Hoxa5-Hoxc8 boundary...
March 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335810/structured-relearning-of-activities-of-daily-living-in-dementia-the-randomized-controlled-redali-dem-trial-on-errorless-learning
#18
Sebastian Voigt-Radloff, Maartje M E de Werd, Rainer Leonhart, Danielle H E Boelen, Marcel G M Olde Rikkert, Klaus Fliessbach, Stefan Klöppel, Bernhard Heimbach, Andreas Fellgiebel, Richard Dodel, Gerhard W Eschweiler, Lucrezia Hausner, Roy P C Kessels, Michael Hüll
BACKGROUND: Errorless learning (EL) is a method for optimizing learning, which uses feed-forward instructions in order to prevent people from making mistakes during the learning process. The majority of previous studies on EL taught patients with dementia artificial tasks of little or no relevance for their daily lives. Furthermore, only a few controlled studies on EL have so far been performed and just a handful of studies have examined the long-term effects of EL. Tasks were not always trained in the patients' natural or home environment, limiting the external validity of these studies...
March 23, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334869/emerging-concepts-in-sporadic-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy
#19
Andreas Charidimou, Gregoire Boulouis, M Edip Gurol, Cenk Ayata, Brian J Bacskai, Matthew P Frosch, Anand Viswanathan, Steven M Greenberg
Sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a common, well-defined small vessel disease and a largely untreatable cause of intracerebral haemorrhage and contributor to age-related cognitive decline. The term 'cerebral amyloid angiopathy' now encompasses not only a specific cerebrovascular pathological finding, but also different clinical syndromes (both acute and progressive), brain parenchymal lesions seen on neuroimaging and a set of diagnostic criteria-the Boston criteria, which have resulted in increasingly detected disease during life...
March 13, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329000/trajectory-formation-principles-are-the-same-after-mild-or-moderate-stroke
#20
Denis Mottet, Liesjet Elisabeth Henriette van Dokkum, Jérôme Froger, Abdelkader Gouaïch, Isabelle Laffont
When we make rapid reaching movements, we have to trade speed for accuracy. To do so, the trajectory of our hand is the result of an optimal balance between feed-forward and feed-back control in the face of signal-dependant noise in the sensorimotor system. How far do these principles of trajectory formation still apply after a stroke, for persons with mild to moderate sensorimotor deficits who recovered some reaching ability? Here, we examine the accuracy of fast hand reaching movements with a focus on the information capacity of the sensorimotor system and its relation to trajectory formation in young adults, in persons who had a stroke and in age-matched control participants...
2017: PloS One
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