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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334869/emerging-concepts-in-sporadic-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy
#1
Andreas Charidimou, Gregoire Boulouis, M Edip Gurol, Cenk Ayata, Brian J Bacskai, Matthew P Frosch, Anand Viswanathan, Steven M Greenberg
Sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a common, well-defined small vessel disease and a largely untreatable cause of intracerebral haemorrhage and contributor to age-related cognitive decline. The term 'cerebral amyloid angiopathy' now encompasses not only a specific cerebrovascular pathological finding, but also different clinical syndromes (both acute and progressive), brain parenchymal lesions seen on neuroimaging and a set of diagnostic criteria-the Boston criteria, which have resulted in increasingly detected disease during life...
March 13, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329000/trajectory-formation-principles-are-the-same-after-mild-or-moderate-stroke
#2
Denis Mottet, Liesjet Elisabeth Henriette van Dokkum, Jérôme Froger, Abdelkader Gouaïch, Isabelle Laffont
When we make rapid reaching movements, we have to trade speed for accuracy. To do so, the trajectory of our hand is the result of an optimal balance between feed-forward and feed-back control in the face of signal-dependant noise in the sensorimotor system. How far do these principles of trajectory formation still apply after a stroke, for persons with mild to moderate sensorimotor deficits who recovered some reaching ability? Here, we examine the accuracy of fast hand reaching movements with a focus on the information capacity of the sensorimotor system and its relation to trajectory formation in young adults, in persons who had a stroke and in age-matched control participants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323983/autophagic-degradation-of-collagen-1a1-by-cortisol-in-human-amnion-fibroblasts
#3
Yabing Mi, Wangsheng Wang, Chuyue Zhang, Chao Liu, Jiangwen Lu, Wenjiao Li, Rujuan Zuo, Leslie Myatt, Kang Sun
Rupture of fetal membranes can initiate parturition at both term and preterm. Collagen is the crucial factor determining the tensile strength of the membranes. Toward the end of gestation, a feed-forward regeneration of cortisol via 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 exists in fetal membranes. It remains undetermined whether cortisol contributes to collagen reduction in fetal membranes. Here we have examined whether cortisol accumulation is a causative factor for collagen reduction in human amnion fibroblasts, the major source of collagens in the membranes...
January 17, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321787/a-mathematical-theory-of-shape-and-neuro-fuzzy-methodology-based-diagnostic-analysis-a-comparative-study-on-early-detection-and-treatment-planning-of-brain-cancer
#4
Subrata Kar, D Dutta Majumder
BACKGROUND: Investigation of brain cancer can detect the abnormal growth of tissue in the brain using computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance (MR) images of patients. The proposed method classifies brain cancer on shape-based feature extraction as either benign or malignant. The authors used input variables such as shape distance (SD) and shape similarity measure (SSM) in fuzzy tools, and used fuzzy rules to evaluate the risk status as an output variable. We presented a classifier neural network system (NNS), namely Levenberg-Marquardt (LM), which is a feed-forward back-propagation learning algorithm used to train the NN for the status of brain cancer, if any, and which achieved satisfactory performance with 100% accuracy...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321182/sparse-and-specific-coding-during-information-transmission-between-co-cultured-dentate-gyrus-and-ca3-hippocampal-networks
#5
Daniele Poli, Srikanth Thiagarajan, Thomas B DeMarse, Bruce C Wheeler, Gregory J Brewer
To better understand encoding and decoding of stimulus information in two specific hippocampal sub-regions, we isolated and co-cultured rat primary dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 neurons within a two-chamber device with axonal connectivity via micro-tunnels. We tested the hypothesis that, in these engineered networks, decoding performance of stimulus site information would be more accurate when stimuli and information flow occur in anatomically correct feed-forward DG to CA3 vs. CA3 back to DG. In particular, we characterized the neural code of these sub-regions by measuring sparseness and uniqueness of the responses evoked by specific paired-pulse stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318085/inflammatory-double-hit-model-of-temporomandibular-joint-disorder-with-elevated-ccl2-cxcl9-cxcl10-rantes-and-behavioural-hypersensitivity-in-tnfr1-r2-mice
#6
S L McIlwrath, R Nesemeier, F Ma, H S Oz, L Zhang, K N Westlund
BACKGROUND: Patients with temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD), reactive arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis often have combined etiology of hereditary and microenvironmental factors contributing to joint pain. Multiple clinical and animal studies indicate 'double-hit' inflammatory insults can cause chronic inflammation. The first inflammatory insult primes the immune system and subsequent insults elicit amplified responses. The present 'double hit' study produced a chronic orofacial pain model in mice with genetic deletion of both TNFα receptors (TNFR1/R2-/-), investigating the main nociceptive signalling pathways in comparisons to wild type mice...
March 20, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314817/fef-controlled-alpha-delay-activity-precedes-stimulus-induced-gamma-band-activity-in-visual-cortex
#7
Tzvetan Popov, Sabine Kastner, Ole Jensen
Recent findings in the visual system of non-human primates have demonstrated an important role of gamma band activity (40 - 100 Hz) in the feed-forward flow of sensory information, whereas feedback control appears to be dynamically established by oscillations in the alpha (8 - 13 Hz) and beta bands (13 - 18 Hz) (van Kerkoerle et al., 2014; Bastos et al., 2015). It is not clear, however, how alpha oscillations are controlled and how they interact with the flow of visual information mediated by gamma band activity...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302654/palmitate-induced-vacuolar-type-h-atpase-inhibition-feeds-forward-into-insulin-resistance-and-contractile-dysfunction
#8
Yilin Liu, Laura K M Steinbusch, Miranda Nabben, Dimitris Kapsokalyvas, Marc van Zandvoort, Patrick Schönleitner, Gudrun Antoons, Peter J Simons, Will A Coumans, Amber Geomini, Dipanjan Chanda, Jan F C Glatz, Dietbert Neumann, Joost J F P Luiken
Dietary fat overconsumption leads to myocardial lipid accumulation through mechanisms that are incompletely resolved. Previously, we identified increased translocation of the fatty acid transporter CD36 from its endosomal storage compartment to the sarcolemma as primary mechanism of excessive myocellular lipid import. Here, we show that increased CD36 translocation is caused by alkalinization of endosomes due to inhibition of proton pumping activity of vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (v-ATPase). Endosomal alkalinization was observed in hearts from rats fed a lard-based high fat-diet and in rodent and human cardiomyocytes upon palmitate overexposure, and appeared as early lipid-induced event preceding the onset of insulin resistance...
March 16, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296572/srna154-a-newly-identified-regulator-of-nitrogen-fixation-in-methanosarcina%C3%A2-mazei-strain-g%C3%A3-1
#9
Daniela Prasse, Konrad U Förstner, Dominik Jäger, Rolf Backofen, Ruth A Schmitz
Trans-encoded sRNA154 is exclusively expressed under nitrogen (N)-deficiency in Methanosarcina mazei strain Gö1. The sRNA154 deletion strain showed a significant decrease in growth under N-limitation, pointing towards a regulatory role of sRNA154 in N-metabolism. Aiming to elucidate its regulatory function we characterized sRNA154 by means of biochemical and genetic approaches. 24 homologs of sRNA154 were identified in recently reported draft genomes of Methanosarcina strains, demonstrating high conservation in sequence and predicted secondary structure with two highly conserved single stranded loops...
March 15, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289680/synergy-repetition-training-versus-task-repetition-training-in-acquiring-new-skill
#10
Vrajeshri Patel, Jamie Craig, Michelle Schumacher, Martin K Burns, Ionut Florescu, Ramana Vinjamuri
Traditionally, repetitive practice of a task is used to learn a new skill, exhibiting as immediately improved performance. Research suggests, however, that a more experience-based rather than exposure-based training protocol may allow for better transference of the skill to related tasks. In synergy-based motor control theory, fundamental motor skills, such as hand grasping, are represented with a synergy subspace that captures essential motor patterns. In this study, we propose that motor-skill learning through synergy-based mechanisms may provide advantages over traditional task repetition learning...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289131/brc1-expression-regulates-bud-activation-potential-but-is-not-necessary-or-sufficient-for-bud-growth-inhibition-in-arabidopsis
#11
Madeleine Seale, Tom Bennett, Ottoline Leyser
The degree of shoot branching in Arabidopsis is determined by the activation of axillary buds. Bud activity is regulated by diverse environmental and developmental signals, often mediated via plant hormones including auxin, strigolactone and cytokinin. The transcription factor, BRANCHED1 (BRC1), has been proposed to integrate these regulatory signals. This idea is based on increased branching in brc1 mutants, the effects of bud-regulating hormones on BRC1 expression, and a general correlation between BRC1 expression and bud growth inhibition...
March 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288099/nlrp12-attenuates-colon-inflammation-by-maintaining-colonic-microbial-diversity-and-promoting-protective-commensal-bacterial-growth
#12
Liang Chen, Justin E Wilson, Mark J Koenigsknecht, Wei-Chun Chou, Stephanie A Montgomery, Agnieszka D Truax, W June Brickey, Christopher D Packey, Nitsan Maharshak, Glenn K Matsushima, Scott E Plevy, Vincent B Young, R Balfour Sartor, Jenny P-Y Ting
Inflammatory bowel diseases involve the dynamic interaction of host genetics, the microbiome and inflammatory responses. Here we found lower expression of NLRP12 (which encodes a negative regulator of innate immunity) in human ulcerative colitis, by comparing monozygotic twins and other patient cohorts. In parallel, Nlrp12 deficiency in mice caused increased basal colonic inflammation, which led to a less-diverse microbiome and loss of protective gut commensal strains (of the family Lachnospiraceae) and a greater abundance of colitogenic strains (of the family Erysipelotrichaceae)...
March 13, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287830/artificial-neural-network-system-to-predict-the-postoperative-outcome-of-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy
#13
Alireza Aminsharifi, Dariush Irani, Shima Pooyesh, Hamid Parvin, Sakineh Dehghani, Khalilolah Yousofi, Ebrahim Fazel, Fatemeh Zibaie
PURPOSE: To construct, train, and apply an artificial neural network (ANN) system for prediction of different outcome variables of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). We calculated predictive accuracy, sensitivity, and precision for each outcome variable. METHODS: During the study period, all adult patients who underwent PCNL at our institute were enrolled in the study. Preoperative and postoperative variables were recorded, and stone-free status was assessed perioperatively with computed tomography scans...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286987/endometriosis-after-menopause-physiopathology-and-management-of-an-uncommon-condition
#14
I Streuli, H Gaitzsch, J-M Wenger, P Petignat
Endometriosis is a hormone-dependent inflammatory disease that is usually characterized by infertility and pain symptoms. This disease mainly occurs during the reproductive years and is rarely diagnosed after menopause. We discuss the physiopathology of this condition after menopause as well as treatment options and the risk of malignant transformation. Occurrence or progression of postmenopausal endometriosis lesions could be related to extra-ovarian production of estrogen by endometriosis lesions and adipose tissue, which becomes the major estrogen-producing tissue after menopause...
April 2017: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270611/coordination-of-auxin-triggered-leaf-initiation-by-tomato-leafless
#15
Yossi Capua, Yuval Eshed
Lateral plant organs, particularly leaves, initiate at the flanks of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) following auxin maxima signals; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Here, we show that tomato leafless (lfs) mutants fail to produce cotyledons and leaves and grow a naked pin while maintaining an active SAM. A similar phenotype was observed among pin-like shoots induced by polar auxin transport inhibitors such as 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA). Both types of pin-like shoots showed reduced expression of primordia markers as well as abnormal auxin distribution, as evidenced by expression of the auxin reporters pPIN1:PIN1:GFP and DR5:YFP Upon auxin microapplication, both lfs meristems and TIBA-pin apices activated DR5:YFP expression with similar kinetics; however, only lfs plants failed to concurrently initiate leaf primordia...
March 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270552/of-nerves-and-stomach-cancer
#16
Leslie K Ferrarelli
Blocking a feed-forward cholinergic loop between gastric neurons and the mucosal epithelium may inhibit proliferation in tumor-associated stem cells.
March 7, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269643/identifying-montages-that-best-detect-the-electroencephalogram-power-spectrum-alteration-during-freezing-of-gait-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#17
Quynh Tran Ly, A M Ardi Handojoseno, Moran Gilat, Nghia Nguyen, Rifai Chai, Yvonne Tran, Simon J G Lewis, Hung T Nguyen
Our research team has previously used four Electroencephalography (EEG) leads to successfully detect and predict Freezing of Gait (FOG) in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it remained to be determined whether these four sensor locations that were arbitrarily chosen based on their role in motor control are indeed the most optimal for FOG detection. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the most optimal location and combination of sensors to detect FOG amongst a 32-channel EEG montage using our EEG classification system...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269488/influence-of-force-feedback-on-grasp-force-modulation-in-prosthetic-applications-a-preliminary-study
#18
Sasha B Godfrey, Matteo Bianchi, Antonio Bicchi, Marco Santello
In typical movement, humans use a combination of feed-forward and feedback motor control strategies to interact with the world around them. However, when sensory input is impaired or absent, as in the case of various neuropathies or amputation, the ability to perform everyday tasks, like modulating grip force to object weight, can be affected. In this study, we show the results of a preliminary study using a pressure cuff-like force feedback device (CUFF) with the SoftHand Pro (SHP) prosthetic hand. Subjects lifted an object of various weights using their own hand, with the SHP without feedback, and the SHP with force feedback...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257835/stratifying-melanoma-and-breast-cancer-tcga-datasets-on-the-basis-of-the-cnv-of-transcription-factor-binding-sites-common-to-proliferation-and-apoptosis-effector-genes
#19
James A Mauro, John M Yavorski, George Blanck
Transcription factors that activate both proliferation- and apoptosis-effector genes, along with a number of related observations, have led to a proposal for a feed forward mechanism of activating the two gene classes, whereby a certain concentration of a transcription factor activates the proliferation-effector genes and a higher concentration of the transcription factor activates the apoptosis-effector genes. We reasoned that this paradigm of regulation could lead to, in the cancer setting, a selection for relatively reduced copy numbers of apoptosis-effector gene, transcription factor binding sites (TFBS)...
February 28, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249500/note-efficient-diode-laser-line-narrowing-using-dual-feed-forward-feed-back-laser-frequency-control
#20
M Lintz, D H Phung, J-P Coulon, B Faure, T Lévèque
We have achieved distributed feedback laser diode line narrowing by simultaneously acting on the diode current via a feed-back loop and on an external electrooptic phase modulator in feed-forward actuator. This configuration turns out to be very efficient in reaching large bandwidth in the phase correction: up to 15 MHz with commercial laser control units. About 98% of the laser power undergoes narrowing. The full width at half maximum of the narrowed optical spectrum is of less than 4 kHz. This configuration appears to be very convenient as the delay in the feed-forward control electronics is easily compensated for by a 20 m optical fiber roll...
February 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
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