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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080975/neural-correlates-of-heart-focused-interoception-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Stefan M Schulz
Interoception is the ability to perceive one's internal body state including visceral sensations. Heart-focused interoception has received particular attention, in part due to a readily available task for behavioural assessment, but also due to accumulating evidence for a significant role in emotional experience, decision-making and clinical disorders such as anxiety and depression. Improved understanding of the underlying neural correlates is important to promote development of anatomical-functional models and suitable intervention strategies...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078839/widespread-membrane-potential-changes-and-cardiorespiratory-synchronization-involved-in-anxiety-and-sleep-wake-transitions
#2
R Jerath, S M Cearley, M Jensen
Located within the ascending reticular activating system are nuclei which release neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. These nuclei have widespread projections that extend into the limbic system and throughout cortex. Activation of these neurotransmitters during awake states leads to arousal, while inhibition leads to the loss of consciousness experienced during slow-wave sleep. Previously, we proposed a mechanism in which cardiorespiratory synchronization may underlie the widespread hyperpolarization that occurs throughout the brain during slow-wave sleep...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077893/the-prediction-of-the-risk-level-of-pulmonary-embolism-and-deep-vein-thrombosis-through-artificial-neural-network
#3
Laleh Agharezaei, Zhila Agharezaei, Ali Nemati, Kambiz Bahaadinbeigy, Farshid Keynia, Mohammad Reza Baneshi, Abedin Iranpour, Moslem Agharezaei
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism is a common cause of mortality among hospitalized patients and yet it is preventable through detecting the precipitating factors and a prompt diagnosis by specialists. The present study has been carried out in order to assist specialists in the diagnosis and prediction of the risk level of pulmonary embolism in patients, by means of artificial neural network. METHOD: A number of 31 risk factors have been used in this study in order to evaluate the conditions of 294 patients hospitalized in 3 educational hospitals affiliated with Kerman University of Medical Sciences...
October 2016: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071670/benzyl-isothiocyanate-potentiates-p53-signaling-and-antitumor-effects-against-breast-cancer-through-activation-of-p53-lkb1-and-p73-lkb1-axes
#4
Bei Xie, Arumugam Nagalingam, Panjamurthy Kuppusamy, Nethaji Muniraj, Peter Langford, Balázs Győrffy, Neeraj K Saxena, Dipali Sharma
Functional reactivation of p53 pathway, although arduous, can potentially provide a broad-based strategy for cancer therapy owing to frequent p53 inactivation in human cancer. Using a phosphoprotein-screening array, we found that Benzyl Isothiocynate, (BITC) increases p53 phosphorylation in breast cancer cells and reveal an important role of ERK and PRAS40/MDM2 in BITC-mediated p53 activation. We show that BITC rescues and activates p53-signaling network and inhibits growth of p53-mutant cells. Mechanistically, BITC induces p73 expression in p53-mutant cells, disrupts the interaction of p73 and mutant-p53, thereby releasing p73 from sequestration and allowing it to be transcriptionally active...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069610/an-incoherent-feed-forward-loop-mediates-robustness-and-tunability-in-a-plant-immune-network
#5
Akira Mine, Tatsuya Nobori, Maria C Salazar-Rondon, Thomas M Winkelmüller, Shajahan Anver, Dieter Becker, Kenichi Tsuda
Immune signaling networks must be tunable to alleviate fitness costs associated with immunity and, at the same time, robust against pathogen interferences. How these properties mechanistically emerge in plant immune signaling networks is poorly understood. Here, we discovered a molecular mechanism by which the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana achieves robust and tunable immunity triggered by the microbe-associated molecular pattern, flg22. Salicylic acid (SA) is a major plant immune signal molecule...
January 9, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067383/the-functional-consequences-and-prognostic-value-of-dosage-sensitivity-in-ovarian-cancer
#6
Zichuang Yan, Yongjing Liu, Yunzhen Wei, Ning Zhao, Qiang Zhang, Cheng Wu, Zhiqiang Chang, Yan Xu
Copy number alteration (CNA) represents an important class of genetic variations that may contribute to tumorigenesis, tumor growth and metastatic spread. CNA can directly affect the expression of genes within the CNA regions; however, genes within the CNA regions exhibit heterogeneity in gene dosage sensitivity. In this study, a computational framework was built to identify 1170 dosage-sensitive genes (DSGs) and 1215 dosage-resistant genes (DRGs) that were related to ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV) through the association between CNA and gene expression...
January 9, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061352/surveillance-for-secure-differentiation
#7
William B Hamilton, Joshua M Brickman
The precise place and time where embryonic differentiation begins is regulated by regionalized signaling. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Wang et al. (2017) investigate how converging Wnt and Nodal signals promote mesendoderm through a p53, Wnt3 feed-forward loop, pointing to a mechanism by which cells gauge time and fitness during differentiation.
January 5, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060933/an-arabidopsis-natural-epiallele-maintained-by-a-feed-forward-silencing-loop-between-histone-and-dna
#8
Astrid Agorio, Stéphanie Durand, Elisa Fiume, Cécile Brousse, Isabelle Gy, Matthieu Simon, Sarit Anava, Oded Rechavi, Olivier Loudet, Christine Camilleri, Nicolas Bouché
The extent of epigenetic variation is currently well documented, but the number of natural epialleles described so far remains very limited. Determining the relevance of epigenetic changes for natural variation is an important question of research that we investigate by isolating natural epialleles segregating in Arabidopsis recombinant populations. We previously described a genetic incompatibility among Arabidopsis strains based on the silencing of a gene involved in fitness. Here, we isolated a new epiallele resulting from the silencing of a transfer-RNA editing gene in an Arabidopsis accession from the Netherlands (Nok-1)...
January 6, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045400/the-ominous-triad-of-adipose-tissue-dysfunction-inflammation-fibrosis-and-impaired-angiogenesis
#9
Clair Crewe, Yu Aaron An, Philipp E Scherer
There are three dominant contributors to the pathogenesis of dysfunctional adipose tissue (AT) in obesity: unresolved inflammation, inappropriate extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and insufficient angiogenic potential. The interactions of these processes during AT expansion reflect both a linear progression as well as feed-forward mechanisms. For example, both inflammation and inadequate angiogenic remodeling can drive fibrosis, which can in turn promote migration of immune cells into adipose depots and impede further angiogenesis...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043056/speed-resistance-and-unexpected-accelerations-modulate-feed-forward-and-feedback-control-during-a-novel-weight-bearing-task
#10
Shih-Chiao Tseng, Keith R Cole, Michael A Shaffer, Michael A Petrie, Chu-Ling Yen, Richard K Shields
We developed a method to investigate feed-forward and feedback movement control during a weight bearing visuomotor knee tracking task. We hypothesized that a systematic increase in speed and resistance would show a linear decrease in movement accuracy, while unexpected perturbations would induce a velocity-dependent decrease in movement accuracy. We determined the effects of manipulating the speed, resistance, and unexpected events on error during a functional weight bearing task. Our long term objective is to benchmark neuromuscular control performance across various groups based on age, injury, disease, rehabilitation status, and/or training...
December 15, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033094/binocular-matching-of-thalamocortical-and-intracortical-circuits-in-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#11
Yu Gu, Jianhua Cang
Visual cortical neurons are tuned to similar orientations through the two eyes. The binocularly-matched orientation preference is established during a critical period in early life, but the underlying circuit mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we optogenetically isolated the thalamocortical and intracortical excitatory inputs to individual layer 4 neurons and studied their binocular matching. In adult mice, the thalamic and cortical inputs representing the same eyes are similarly tuned and both are matched binocularly...
December 29, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028200/differences-in-glomerular-layer-mediated-feed-forward-inhibition-onto-mitral-and-tufted-cells-lead-to-distinct-modes-of-intensity-coding
#12
Matthew Geramita, Nathan N Urban
: Understanding how each of the many interneuron subtypes affects brain network activity is critical. In the mouse olfactory system, mitral cells (MCs) and tufted cells (TCs) comprise parallel pathways of olfactory bulb output that are thought to play distinct functional roles in odor coding. Here, in acute mouse olfactory bulb slices, we test how the two major classes of olfactory bulb interneurons differentially contribute to differences in MC vs. TC response properties. We show that while TCs respond to olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) stimulation with short latencies, regardless of stimulation intensity, MC latencies negatively correlate with stimulation intensity...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011637/tribbles-pseudokinase-3-induces-both-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-neuronal-death
#13
Suraiya Saleem, Subhas Chandra Biswas
Amyloid-β (Aβ) induced neuron death is considered central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). Among several death modalities, autophagy and apoptosis play important roles in Aβ-induced neuron death suggesting that there may be regulatory mechanisms that initiate both cell death pathways. However, molecules that govern both pathways have not been identified. Here, we report that, upon Aβ treatment, tribbles pseudokinase 3 (TRIB3, an ortholog of Drosophila Tribbles), is upregulated in neurons, both in vivo and in vitro...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009532/feed-forward-regulation-of-self-selected-exercise-intensity-in-response-to-different-rates-of-arterial-deoxygenation
#14
Saro D Farra
Arterial desaturation impairs exercise performance in a dose-dependent manner. However, new theories of exercise-induced fatigue suggest that increasing rates of arterial deoxygenation augment the fatigue response during exercise. The purpose of this dissertation is to clarify if self-selected exercise intensity, while exercising at a constant rate of perceived exertion (RPE), is sensitive to alterations in the absolute arterial saturation (SPO2) and/or the rate of change in SPO2. Subjects performed constant RPE exercise for 30 min...
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009191/experimental-rectification-of-entropy-production-by-maxwell-s-demon-in-a-quantum-system
#15
Patrice A Camati, John P S Peterson, Tiago B Batalhão, Kaonan Micadei, Alexandre M Souza, Roberto S Sarthour, Ivan S Oliveira, Roberto M Serra
Maxwell's demon explores the role of information in physical processes. Employing information about microscopic degrees of freedom, this "intelligent observer" is capable of compensating entropy production (or extracting work), apparently challenging the second law of thermodynamics. In a modern standpoint, it is regarded as a feedback control mechanism and the limits of thermodynamics are recast incorporating information-to-energy conversion. We derive a trade-off relation between information-theoretic quantities empowering the design of an efficient Maxwell's demon in a quantum system...
December 9, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002513/a-computer-aided-diagnostic-system-for-intestinal-polyps-identified-by-wireless-capsule-endoscopy
#16
Adriana Florentina Constantinescu, Mihaela Ionescu, Vlad Florin Iovănescu, Marius Eugen Ciurea, Alin Gabriel Ionescu, Costin Teodor Streba, Marius Gabriel Bunescu, Ion Rogoveanu, Cristin Constantin Vere
Small bowel polyps present in images acquired by wireless capsule endoscopy are more difficult to detect using computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) systems. We aimed to identify the optimum morphological characteristics that best describe a polyp and convert them into feature vectors used for automatic detection of polyps present in images acquired by wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE). We prospectively included 54 patients with clinical indications for WCE. Initially, physicians analyzed all images acquired, identifying the frames that contained small bowel polyps...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001315/glandular-trichome-specific-wrky-1-promotes-artemisinin-biosynthesis-in-artemisia-annua
#17
Minghui Chen, Tingxiang Yan, Qian Shen, Xu Lu, Qifang Pan, Youran Huang, Yueli Tang, Xueqing Fu, Meng Liu, Weimin Jiang, Zongyou Lv, Pu Shi, Ya-Nan Ma, Xiaolong Hao, Lida Zhang, Ling Li, Kexuan Tang
Artemisinin is a type of sesquiterpene lactone well known as an antimalarial drug, and is specifically produced in glandular trichomes of Artemisia annua. However, the regulatory network for the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway remains poorly understood. Exploration of trichome-specific transcription factors would facilitate the elucidation of regulatory mechanism of artemisinin biosynthesis. The WRKY transcription factor GLANDULAR TRICHOME-SPECIFIC WRKY 1 (AaGSW1) was cloned and analysed in A. annua. AaGSW1 exhibited similar expression patterns to the trichome-specific genes of the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway and AP2/ERF transcription factor AaORA...
December 21, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998718/camkii-mediated-phosphorylation-of-glun2b-regulates-recombinant-nmda-receptor-currents-in-a-chloride-dependent-manner
#18
Steven J Tavalin, Roger J Colbran
Some forms of long-term synaptic plasticity require docking of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α (CaMKIIα) to residues 1290-1309 within the intracellular C-terminal tail of the GluN2B N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit. The phosphorylation of Ser1303 within this region destabilizes CaMKII binding. Interestingly, Ser1303 is a substrate for CaMKII itself, as well as PKC and DAPK1, but these kinases have been reported to have contradictory effects on the activity of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors...
December 17, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995067/brain-imaging-correlates-of-recovered-swallowing-after-dysphagic-stroke-a-fmri-and-dwi-study
#19
Paul Glad Mihai, Mareile Otto, Martin Domin, Thomas Platz, Shaheen Hamdy, Martin Lotze
Neurogenic dysphagia frequently occurs after stroke and deglutitive aspiration is one of the main reasons for subacute death after stroke. Although promising therapeutic interventions for neurogenic dysphagia are being developed, the functional neuroanatomy of recovered swallowing in this population remains uncertain. Here, we investigated 18 patients post-stroke who recovered from dysphagia using an event related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of swallowing. Patients were characterized by initial dysphagia score (mild to severe), lesion mapping, white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) of the pyramidal tracts, and swallowing performance measurement during fMRI scanning...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994064/a-novel-nfia-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-feed-forward-loop-contributes-to-glioblastoma-cell-survival
#20
JunSung Lee, Edlira Hoxha, Hae-Ri Song
BACKGROUND: The nuclear factor I-A (NFIA) transcription factor promotes glioma growth and inhibits apoptosis in glioblastoma (GBM) cells. Here we report that the NFIA pro-survival effect in GBM is mediated in part via a novel NFIA-nuclear factor-kappaB (NFκB) p65 feed-forward loop. METHODS: We examined effects of gain- and loss-of-function manipulations of NFIA and NFκB p65 on each other's transcription, cell growth, apoptosis and sensitivity to chemotherapy in patient-derived GBM cells and established GBM cell lines...
December 18, 2016: Neuro-oncology
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