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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454904/protective-effect-of-sodium-stearate-on-the-moisture-induced-deterioration-of-hygroscopic-spray-dried-powders
#1
Jiaqi Yu, Maria-Cristina Romeo, Alex A Cavallaro, Hak-Kim Chan
Amorphous powders are thermodynamically unstable, significantly impacting the processing, storage and performance of a product. Therefore, stabilization of the amorphous contents is in demand. In this study, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) powder was chosen as a model drug because it is amorphous and highly hygroscopic after spray drying. Sodium stearate (NaSt) was co-spray dried with DSCG at various concentrations (10, 50 and 90% w/w) to investigate its effect against moisture-induced deterioration on the in vitro aerosolization performance of DSCG...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454256/five-month-old-infants-have-expectations-for-the-accumulation-of-nonsolid-substances
#2
Erin M Anderson, Susan J Hespos, Lance J Rips
Infants fail to represent quantities of non-cohesive substances in paradigms where they succeed with solid objects. Some investigators have interpreted these results as evidence that infants do not yet have representations for substances. More recent research, however, shows that 5-month-old infants expect objects and substances to behave and interact in different ways. In the present experiments, we test whether infants have expectations for substances when the outcomes are not simply the opposite of those for objects...
February 14, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453336/alternative-splicing-of-alcam-enables-tunable-regulation-of-cell-cell-adhesion-through-differential-proteolysis
#3
Katie E Hebron, Elizabeth Y Li, Shanna A Arnold Egloff, Ariana K von Lersner, Chase Taylor, Joep Houkes, David K Flaherty, Adel Eskaros, Thomas P Stricker, Andries Zijlstra
While many adhesion receptors are known to influence tumor progression, the mechanisms by which they dynamically regulate cell-cell adhesion remain elusive. We previously identified Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM) as a clinically relevant driver of metastasis and hypothesized that a tunable mechanism of ectodomain shedding regulates its contribution to dissemination. To test this hypothesis, we examined an under-explored ALCAM splice variant (ALCAM-Iso2) and demonstrated that loss of the membrane-proximal region of ALCAM (exon 13) increased metastasis four-fold...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452560/health-care-efficiencies-consolidation-and-alternative-models-vs-health-care-and-antitrust-regulation-irreconcilable-differences
#4
Michael W King
Despite the U.S. substantially outspending peer high income nations with almost 18% of GDP dedicated to health care, on any number of statistical measurements from life expectancy to birth rates to chronic disease, 1 the U.S. achieves inferior health outcomes. In short, Americans receive a very disappointing return on investment on their health care dollars, causing economic and social strain. 2 Accordingly, the debates rage on: what is the top driver of health care spending? Among the culprits: poor communication and coordination among disparate providers, paperwork required by payors and regulations, well-intentioned physicians overprescribing treatments, drugs and devices, outright fraud and abuse, and medical malpractice litigation...
November 2017: American Journal of Law & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449846/pemphigus-a-disease-of-desmosome-dysfunction-caused-by-multiple-mechanisms
#5
Volker Spindler, Jens Waschke
Pemphigus is a severe autoimmune-blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes caused by autoantibodies reducing desmosomal adhesion between epithelial cells. Autoantibodies against the desmosomal cadherins desmogleins (Dsgs) 1 and 3 as well as desmocollin 3 were shown to be pathogenic, whereas the role of other antibodies is unclear. Dsg3 interactions can be directly reduced by specific autoantibodies. Autoantibodies also alter the activity of signaling pathways, some of which regulate cell cohesion under baseline conditions and alter the turnover of desmosomal components...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448388/patterning-of-a-cohesionless-granular-layer-under-pure-shear
#6
Héctor Alarcón, Jean-Christophe Géminard, Francisco Melo
The response of a thin layer of granular material to an external pure shear imposed at its base is investigated. The experiments show that, even for noncohesive materials, the resulting deformation of the material is inhomogeneous. Indeed, a novel smooth pattern, consisting of a periodic modulation of the shear deformation of the free surface, is revealed by an image-correlation technique. These observations are in contrast with the previous observation of the fracture pattern in cohesive granular materials subjected to stretching...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447441/design-factors-of-femur-fracture-fixation-plates-made-of-shape-memory-alloy-based-on-the-taguchi-method-by-finite-element-analysis
#7
Cheolwoong Ko, Mikyung Yang, Taemin Byun, Sang-Wook Lee
This study proposed a way to design femur fracture fixation plates made of shape memory alloy based on CT (Computed Tomography) images of Korean cadaveric femurs. To this end, 3 major design factors of femur fracture fixation plates (circumference angle, thickness, and inner diameter) were selected based on the contact pressure when a femur fracture fixation plate was applied to a cylinder model using the Taguchi Method. Then the effects of the design factors were analyzed. It was shown that the design factors were statistically significant at a level of p=0...
February 15, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447171/brca2-pds5-and-wapl-differentially-control-cohesin-chromosome-association-and-function
#8
Ziva Misulovin, Michelle Pherson, Maria Gause, Dale Dorsett
The cohesin complex topologically encircles chromosomes and mediates sister chromatid cohesion to ensure accurate chromosome segregation upon cell division. Cohesin also participates in DNA repair and gene transcription. The Nipped-B-Mau2 protein complex loads cohesin onto chromosomes and the Pds5-Wapl complex removes cohesin. Pds5 is also essential for sister chromatid cohesion, indicating that it has functions beyond cohesin removal. The Brca2 DNA repair protein interacts with Pds5, but the roles of this complex beyond DNA repair are unknown...
February 15, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447091/obesity-in-pregnancy-a-comparison-of-four-national-guidelines
#9
Dana Vitner, Kristin Harris, Cynthia Maxwell, M D Farine
BACKGROUND: Obesity in pregnancy has become one of the most important challenges in obstetrical care given its prevalence and potential adverse impact on both mother and fetus. The primary objective of this descriptive review is to identify common themes and distinctions within the current recommendations for maternal obesity in the most updated version of four published national guidelines. METHODS: We reviewed the following guidelines for obesity in pregnancy: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) 2015, Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (RANZCOG) 2013, Royal College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (RCOG) 2010, and Society of Obstetrics and Gynecologists of Canada (SOGC) 2010...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446958/a-dft-u-study-of-the-segregation-of-pt-to-the-ceo-2-x-grain-boundary
#10
Guoli Zhou, Pan Li, Qing-Min Ma, Zhixue Tian, Ying Liu
Grain boundaries (GBs) can be used as traps for solute atoms and defects, and the interaction between segregants and GBs is crucial for understanding the properties of nanocrystalline materials. In this study, we have systematically investigated the Pt segregation and Pt-oxygen vacancies interaction at the ∑3 (111) GB in ceria (CeO2). The Pt atom has a stronger tendency to segregate to the ∑3 (111) GB than to the (111) and (110) free surfaces, but the tendency is weaker than to (112) and (100). Lattice distortion plays a dominant role in Pt segregation...
February 15, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444385/improving-near-peer-teaching-quality-in-anatomy-by-educating-teaching-assistants-an-example-from-sweden
#11
Ellen Johansson, Tobias E Holmin, Bengt R Johansson, Magnus Braide
Peer-assisted learning has gained momentum in a variety of disciplines, including medical education. In Gothenburg, Sweden, medical students who have finished their compulsory anatomy courses have the option of working as teaching assistants (TAs). Teaching assistants provide small group teaching sessions as a complement to lectures given by faculty. Previously, TAs were left to handle the role as junior teachers by themselves, but since 2011, a continuation course in anatomy has been developed with the aim of providing the TAs better anatomy knowledge and guidance for teaching...
February 14, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443932/relationships-between-characteristics-of-urban-green-land-cover-and-mental-health-in-u-s-metropolitan-areas
#12
Wei-Lun Tsai, Melissa R McHale, Viniece Jennings, Oriol Marquet, J Aaron Hipp, Yu-Fai Leung, Myron F Floyd
Urbanization increases risk for depression and other mental disorders. A growing body of research indicates the natural environment confers numerous psychological benefits including alleviation of mental distress. This study examined land cover types and landscape metrics in relation to mental health for 276 U.S. counties within metropolitan areas having a population of 1 million or more. County Health Rankings and Behavioral Risk and Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) provided a measure of mental health. The 2011 National Land Cover Database (NLCD) provided data on green land cover types, from which seven landscape metrics were generated to characterize landscape patterns...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443896/dexamethasone-mediated-upregulation-of-calreticulin-inhibits-primary-human-glioblastoma-dispersal-ex-vivo
#13
Mohan Nair, Juan Romero, Aria Mahtabfar, Ahmed M Meleis, Ramsey A Foty, Siobhan A Corbett
Dispersal of Glioblastoma (GBM) renders localized therapy ineffective and is a major cause of recurrence. Previous studies have demonstrated that Dexamethasone (Dex), a drug currently used to treat brain tumor-related edema, can also significantly reduce dispersal of human primary GBM cells from neurospheres. It does so by triggering α5 integrin activity, leading to restoration of fibronectin matrix assembly (FNMA), increased neurosphere cohesion, and reduction of neurosphere dispersal velocity (DV). How Dex specifically activates α5 integrin in these GBM lines is unknown...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443000/novel-elastic-lattice-dynamics-and-thermodynamic-properties-of-metallic-single-layer-transition-metal-phosphides-2h-m-sub-2-sub-p-mo-sub-2-sub-p-w-sub-2-sub-p-nb-sub-2-sub-p-and-ta-sub-2-sub-p
#14
Jiuren Yin, Bozhao Wu, Yanggang Wang, Zhimi Li, Yuanpeng Yao, Yong Jiang, Yanhuai Ding, Fu Xu, Ping Zhang
A surge of interest has been poured into research of two dimensional (2D) phosphides due to their unique physical properties and potential applications in nanoelectronics. In this paper the lattice dynamics, electronic, elastic, and thermodynamics properties of 2D transition metal phosphides M2Ps (Mo2P, W2P, Nb2P and Ta2P) were investigated by first-principles calculations. Results show that these M2Ps exhibit high stability and metallic properties. The calculated cohesive energy and electron localization functions (ELFs) demonstrate that bare M2Ps hold strong covalent bonds...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441656/patterns-of-wounding-in-hamadryas-baboons-papio-hamadryas-in-north-american-zoos
#15
Jodi N Wiley, Austin Leeds, Kamisha D Carpenter, Corinne J Kendall
In North American zoos, hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) have traditionally been housed as single one-male units (single male groups). In recent years, efforts have been made to house hamadryas in groups composed of multiple one-male units (multi-male groups) to more closely mirror their natural social structure, in addition to all-male or bachelor groups to manage surplus males. Given that the majority of social conflict in hamadryas occurs between males during the acquisition and defense of females, it was thought that managing hamadryas in these multi-male groups would result in increased rates of wounding...
February 14, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441364/impaired-cohesion-and-homologous-recombination-during-replicative-aging-in-budding-yeast
#16
Sangita Pal, Spike D Postnikoff, Myrriah Chavez, Jessica K Tyler
The causal relationship between genomic instability and replicative aging is unclear. We reveal here that genomic instability at the budding yeast ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus increases during aging, potentially due to the reduced cohesion that we uncovered during aging caused by the reduced abundance of multiple cohesin subunits, promoting increased global chromosomal instability. In agreement, cohesion is lost during aging at other chromosomal locations in addition to the rDNA, including centromeres. The genomic instability in old cells is exacerbated by a defect in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair that we uncovered in old yeast...
February 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438548/descriptive-sensory-and-instrumental-texture-profile-analysis-of-woody-breast-in-marinated-chicken
#17
M E Aguirre, C M Owens, R K Miller, C Z Alvarado
The broiler industry is currently experiencing a muscle anomaly referred to as "woody breast," and the effect of different cooking methods on the marination properties of severe woody breast (SWB) has not yet been reported. This study compared the texture attributes of marinated (injected) normal (NOR) and SWB using a convection oven and a flat-top grill. The objectives were 1) to develop and validate a descriptive texture attribute panel with 6 trained panelists using a 16-point scale and 2) to evaluate the instrumental texture profile analysis (TPA) using a texture analyzer...
February 8, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438265/keep-your-eyes-wide-open-on-visual-and-vision-related-measurements-to-better-understand-multiple-sclerosis-pathophysiology
#18
Yael Backner, Netta Levin
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS), a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, is multifaceted. It manifests as acute episodes as well as an accumulative chronic disability; myelin involvement as well as axonal damage; local as well as global effects; and disease load elements as well as compensatory mechanisms. The visual system, with its clear structural organization and relatively direct reflection of damage, may serve as an appropriate model to study MS. METHODS: In recent years, we have witnessed a blossoming in the field of visual measures in MS...
March 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437398/structural-rearrangement-of-energetic-materials-under-an-external-electric-field-a-case-study-of-nitromethane
#19
Yingzhe Liu, Yiding Ma, Tao Yu, Weipeng Lai, Wangjun Guo, Zhongxue Ge, Zhinan Ma
As a significant stimulus, the external electric field (EFF) can change the decomposition mechanism and energy release of energetic materials (EMs). Hence, understanding the response of EMs to an EFF is greatly meaningful for their safe usage. Herein, the structural arrangement, a crucial factor to the impact sensitivity and detonation performance of EMs, under the EFF ranging from 0.0 to 0.5 V/Å was investigated via molecular dynamics simulation. Nitromethane (NM) was taken as a case study due to the simple structure...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436769/what-the-patient-wants-addressing-patients-treatment-targets-in-an-integrative-group-psychotherapy-programme
#20
David Kealy, Anthony S Joyce, Rainer Weber, Johannes C Ehrenthal, John S Ogrodniczuk
OBJECTIVES: Limited empirical attention has been devoted to individualized treatment objectives in intensive group therapy for personality dysfunction. This study investigated patients' ratings of distress associated with individual therapy goals - referred to as target object severity - in an intensive Evening Treatment Programme for patients with personality dysfunction. DESIGN: Change in target objective severity was examined in a sample of 81 patients who completed treatment in an intensive, integrative group therapy programme...
February 13, 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
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