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Kelly Jones, Ngara Keeler, Chris Morris, David Brennan, Kaye Roberts-Thompson, Lisa Jamieson
OBJECTIVE: To explore and document self-reported factors contributing to Indigenous Australians' attendance and non-attendance at South Australian public dental clinics. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people (18 males and 26 females) referred for oral care through the Aboriginal Liaison Program of the South Australian Dental Service. Thematic analysis was performed on 44 transcribed conversations and a conceptual model developed. RESULTS: Persons completing all recommended treatment reported high self-efficacy, health literacy, social cohesion and previous use of dental services and presence of a health advocate...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Zhilin Qu, Michael B Liu, Michael Nivala
Intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) alternans is a dynamical phenomenon in ventricular myocytes, which is linked to the genesis of lethal arrhythmias. Iterated map models of intracellular Ca(2+) cycling dynamics in ventricular myocytes under periodic pacing have been developed to study the mechanisms of Ca(2+) alternans. Two mechanisms of Ca(2+) alternans have been demonstrated in these models: one relies mainly on fractional sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release and uptake, and the other on refractoriness and other properties of Ca(2+) sparks...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Matthias Lehmann, Philipp Maier, Matthias Grüne, Markus Hügel
The molecular design of crowded hexasubstituted star mesogens based on a benzene core and alternating substitution with oligo(phenylenevinylene) arms and aryl units generates free space between the conjugated arm scaffolds. Various arylcarboxy building blocks, decorated with alkoxy chains have been incorporated in the void by mixing, hydrogen bonding or covalent bonds to the aryl groups. The mesogens assemble in columnar stacks ranging from soft crystals to rectangular and hexagonal columnar liquid crystals, revealed by polarized optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray scattering and modelling...
October 20, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Gus P Cairns, Kane Race, Pedro Goicochea
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been and continues to be an intervention that causes controversy and debate between stakeholders involved in providing or advocating for it, and within communities in need of it. These controversies extend beyond the intrinsically complex issues of making it available. In this commentary, some of the possible roots of the air of dissent and drama that accompanies PrEP are explored. The similarities between the controversies that dogged the earliest human trials of PrEP and the ones we see today in the era of licensing and implementation are explored...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Frances M Cowan, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Eduard J Sanders, Nelly R Mugo, Fernand A Guedou, Michel Alary, Luc Behanzin, Owen Mugurungi, Linda-Gail Bekker
INTRODUCTION: Of the two million new HIV infections in adults in 2014, 70% occurred in sub-Saharan Africa. Several African countries have already approved guidelines for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for individuals at substantial risk of HIV as part of combination HIV prevention but key questions remain about how to identify and deliver PrEP to those at greatest need. Throughout the continent, individuals in sero-discordant relationships, and members of key populations (sex workers, men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender women and injection drug users) are likely to benefit from the availability of PrEP...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Maria Augusta Carrasco, Clare Barrington, Caitlin Kennedy, Martha Perez, Yeycy Donastorg, Deanna Kerrigan
This study explores social cohesion as a strategy used by female sex workers to address layered HIV and sex work-related stigma. Data derive from a thematic analysis of 23 in-depth interviews and 2 focus groups with female sex workers living with HIV enrolled in a multi-level HIV/STI prevention, treatment and care intervention in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Drawing on Foucault's conceptualisation of modern power, discipline and resistance, we argue that social cohesion provides the psychosocial space (of trust, solidarity and mutual aid) to subvert oppressive societal norms, enabling the reconstruction of identity...
October 20, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Miguel A Brieño-Enríquez, Stefannie L Moak, Melissa Toledo, Joshua J Filter, Stephen Gray, José L Barbero, Paula E Cohen, J Kim Holloway
Mammalian NIMA-like kinase-1 (NEK1) is a dual-specificity kinase highly expressed in mouse germ cells during prophase I of meiosis. Loss of NEK1 induces retention of cohesin on chromosomes at meiotic prophase I. Timely deposition and removal of cohesin is essential for accurate chromosome segregation. Two processes regulate cohesin removal: a non-proteolytic mechanism involving WAPL, sororin, and PDS5B and direct cleavage by separase. Here, we demonstrate a role for NEK1 in the regulation of WAPL loading during meiotic prophase I, via an interaction between NEK1 and PDS5B...
October 18, 2016: Cell Reports
Weiwei Luo, Zi Zhao Lieu, Ed Manser, Alexander D Bershadsky, Michael P Sheetz
A nodal cytoplasmic actin network underlies actin cytoplasm cohesion in the absence of stress fibers. We previously described such a network that forms upon Latrunculin A (LatA) treatment, in which formin DAAM1 was localized at these nodes. Knock down of DAAM1 reduced the mobility of actin nodes but the nodes remained. Here we have investigated DAAM1 containing nodes after LatA washout. DAAM1 was found to be distributed between the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane. The membrane binding likely occurs through an interaction with lipid rafts, but is not required for F-actin assembly...
2016: PloS One
Q Mahmood, M Hassan, N A Noor
The structural, magnetic and optical characteristics of Zn1-x TM x S/Se (TM  =  Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and x  =  6.25%) have been investigated through the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method within the framework of density functional theory. The optimized structures have been used to calculate the ferromagnetic and the antiferromagnetic ground-state energies. The stability of the ferromagnetic phase has been confirmed from the formation and the cohesive energies. The Heisenberg model is used to elucidate the Curie temperature (T c) of these alloys...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Yusuf Ransome, Ichiro Kawachi, Lorraine T Dean
High neighborhood social capital could facilitate earlier diagnosis of HIV and higher rates of linkage and HIV care engagement. Multivariate analysis was used to examine whether social capital (social cohesion, social participation, and collective engagement) in 2004/2006 was associated with lower 5-year average (2007-2011) prevalence of (a) late HIV diagnosis, (b) linked to HIV care, and (c) engaged in HIV care within Philadelphia, PA, United States. Census tracts (N = 332). Higher average neighborhood social participation was associated with higher prevalence of late HIV diagnosis (b = 1...
October 17, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
David Sean Boucher, Jason S Howell
Empirical data indicates that several good solvents for C60 and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) have substantial polar and hydrogen-bonding components, which are not intrinsic to the structure of the molecules themselves. Functional solubility parameter (FSP) and convex solubility parameter (CSP) computations are performed on C60 and PCBM using solubility data available in the literature. The CSP and FSP results are compared to previously reported Hansen solubility parameters (HSPs) and to the parameters calculated using additive functional group contribution methods...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Sue Jensen, Nina Mottern
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Professional Case Management
Frederick A Jakobiec, Anna M Stagner, Natalie Homer, Michael K Yoon
PURPOSE: To further define the histopathologic features of breast carcinoma conducive to orbital metastasis. METHODS: Ten new female patients with orbital or eyelid breast cancer metastases encountered between 2011 and 2016 had their medical records reviewed for determining their clinical characteristics. Microscopic glass slides from biopsies and immunohistochemical test results were also analyzed. Biomarkers studied included cytokeratin 7, nuclear estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER2, and E-cadherin...
October 5, 2016: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Fiona Mactaggart, Liane McDermott, Anna Tynan, Maxine Whittaker
Health and well-being outcomes in communities living in proximity to mining activity may be influenced by a broad spectrum of factors including population growth, economic instability or land degradation. This review aims to synthesise broader outcomes associated with mining activity and in doing so, further explore possible determinants in communities of low- and middle-income countries. Four databases were systematically searched and articles were included if the study targeted adults residing in proximity to mining activity, and measured individual or community-level health or well-being outcomes...
October 17, 2016: Global Public Health
Alexander J Mizenko, Brian C Tefft, Lindsay S Arnold, Jurek G Grabowski
BACKGROUND: Due to a decreasing birth rate and longer life expectancy, the proportion of Americans over the age of 65 is expected to rise in coming years. Drivers over 65 drive two billion miles yearly, a number that will increase. For that reason, it is imperative to understand their attitudes and perceptions. It is also important to understand whether drivers over 65 can be treated as one cohesive group, or if there are differences among them. METHODS: A web-enabled survey was conducted among Americans in the years 2011-2013...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
HaiMing Li, JinBu Wei, YaChao Ge, ZhanQuan Wang, Ye Wang, YingLong Li
This experiment was conducted with an indoor sand-column device, the migration of colloids with the presence of Na(+) and Ca(2+) and the migration of ammonia nitrogen with the presence of Na(+), Ca(2+) or/and colloids was studied. The results showed that the migration of colloids was influenced by the ion valence state, different ions with different valence could block the migration of colloids. In addition, the blocking effect of bivalent ions was more obvious than that of monovalent ions. In the presence of Na(+) and Ca(2+), the Rd value of the ammonia-nitrogen migration process were 1...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Rivka B Fidel, David A Laird, Michael L Thompson, Michael Lawrinenko
Lack of knowledge regarding the nature of biochar alkalis has hindered understanding of pH-sensitive biochar-soil interactions. Here we investigate the nature of biochar alkalinity and present a cohesive suite of methods for its quantification. Biochars produced from cellulose, corn stover and wood feedstocks had significant low-pKa organic structural (0.03-0.34 meq g(-1)), other organic (0-0.92 meq g(-1)), carbonate (0.02-1.5 meq g(-1)), and other inorganic (0-0.26 meq g(-1)) alkalinities. All four categories of biochar alkalinity contributed to total biochar alkalinity and are therefore relevant to pH-sensitive soil processes...
October 12, 2016: Chemosphere
Magali De Koninck, Ana Losada
Cohesin is a large ring-shaped protein complex, conserved from yeast to human, which participates in most DNA transactions that take place in the nucleus. It mediates sister chromatid cohesion, which is essential for chromosome segregation and homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DNA repair. Together with architectural proteins and transcriptional regulators, such as CTCF and Mediator, respectively, it contributes to genome organization at different scales and thereby affects transcription, DNA replication, and locus rearrangement...
October 14, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Karin Kornmueller, Bernhard Lehofer, Claudia Meindl, Eleonore Fröhlich, Gerd Leitinger, Heinz Amenitsch, Ruth Prassl
Self-assembling amphiphilic designer peptides have been successfully applied as nanomaterials in biomedical applications. Understanding molecular interactions at the peptide-membrane interface is crucial, since interactions at this site often determine (in)compatibility. The present study aims to elucidate how model membrane systems of different complexity (in particular single-component phospholipid bilayers and lipoproteins) respond to the presence of amphiphilic designer peptides. We focused on two short anionic peptides, V₄WD₂ and A₆YD, which are structurally similar, but showed a different self-assembly behavior...
October 14, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Laurent Piccolo, Z Y Li, Ilker Demiroglu, Florian Moyon, Zere Konuspayeva, Gilles Berhault, Pavel Afanasiev, Williams Lefebvre, Jun Yuan, Roy L Johnston
Heterogeneous catalysis, which is widely used in the chemical industry, makes a great use of supported late-transition-metal nanoparticles, and bimetallic catalysts often show superior catalytic performances as compared to their single metal counterparts. In order to optimize catalyst efficiency and discover new active combinations, an atomic-level understanding and control of the catalyst structure is desirable. In this work, the structure of catalytically active AuRh bimetallic nanoparticles prepared by colloidal methods and immobilized on rutile titania nanorods was investigated using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
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