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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088003/the-effect-of-the-antioxidant-on-the-properties-of-thiolated-poly-aspartic-acid-polymers-in-aqueous-ocular-formulations
#1
Mária Budai-Szűcs, Gabriella Horvát, Benjámin Gyarmati, Barnabás Áron Szilágyi, András Szilágyi, Szilvia Berkó, Rita Ambrus, Piroska Szabó-Révész, Giuseppina Sandri, Maria Cristina Bonferoni, Carla Caramella, Erzsébet Csányi
Thiolated polymers are a promising new group of excipients, but their stability against atmospheric oxidation has not been investigated in detail, and only a few efforts have been made to improve their stability. The oxidation of the thiol groups in solutions of thiolated polymers may result in a decrease of mucoadhesion and unpredictable in situ gelation. The aims of our work were to study the stability of aqueous solutions of thiolated polymers and the effects of stabilizing agents. We investigated thiolated poly(aspartic acid) polymers stabilized with dithiothreitol, glutathione or acetylcysteine...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087353/thiolated-polymers-as-mucoadhesive-drug-delivery-systems
#2
REVIEW
Sarah Duggan, Wayne Cummins, Orla O' Donovan, Helen Hughes, Eleanor Owens
Mucoadhesion is the process of binding a material to the mucosal layer of the body. Utilising both natural and synthetic polymers, mucoadhesive drug delivery is a method of controlled drug release which allows for intimate contact between the polymer and a target tissue. It has the potential to increase bioavailability, decrease potential side effects and offer protection to more sensitive drugs such as proteins and peptide based drugs. The thiolation of polymers has, in the last number of years, come to the fore of mucoadhesive drug delivery, markedly improving mucoadhesion due to the introduction of free thiol groups onto the polymer backbone while also offering a more cohesive polymeric matrix for the slower and more controlled release of drug...
January 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081043/the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-endemic-maintaining-disease-transmission-in-at-risk-urban-areas
#3
Richard B Rothenberg, Dajun Dai, Mary Anne Adams, John Wesley Heath
OBJECTIVES: A study of network relationships, geographic contiguity, and risk behavior was designed to test the hypothesis that all 3 are required to maintain endemicity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in at-risk urban communities. Specifically, a highly interactive network, close geographic proximity, and compound risk (multiple high-risk activities with multiple partners) would be required. METHODS: We enrolled 927 participants from two contiguous geographic areas in Atlanta, GA: a higher-risk area and lower-risk area, as measured by history of HIV reporting...
February 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081008/elastic-properties-of-amorphous-t-0-75y0-75b14-t%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-sc-ti-v-y-zr-nb-and-the-effect-of-o-incorporation-on-bonding-density-and-elasticity-t-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-ti-zr
#4
Oliver Hunold, Philipp Keuter, Pascal Bliem, Denis Music, Friederike Wittmers, Anna L Ravensburg, Daniel Primetzhofer, Jochen M Schneider
We have systematically studied the effect of transition metal valence electron concentration (VEC) of amorphous T 0.75Y0.75B14 (a-T 0.75Y0.75B14, T  =  Sc, Ti, V, Y, Zr, Nb) on the elastic properties, bonding, density and electronic structure using ab initio molecular dynamics. As the transition metal VEC is increased in both periods, the bulk modulus increases linearly with molar- and mass density. This trend can be understood by a concomitant decrease in cohesive energy. T'  =  Ti and Zr were selected to validate the predicted data experimentally...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077952/the-irr1-scc3-protein-implicated-in-chromosome-segregation-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-has-a-dual-nuclear-cytoplasmic-localization
#5
Piotr Kowalec, Jan Fronk, Anna Kurlandzka
BACKGROUND: Correct chromosome segregation depends on the sister chromatid cohesion complex. The essential, evolutionarily conserved regulatory protein Irr1/Scc3, is responsible for the complex loading onto DNA and for its removal. We found that, unexpectedly, Irr1 is present not only in the nucleus but also in the cytoplasm. RESULTS: We show that Irr1 protein is enriched in the cytoplasm upon arrest of yeast cells in G1 phase following nitrogen starvation, diauxic shift or α-factor action, and also during normal cell cycle...
2017: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077708/dynamic-shifts-in-large-scale-brain-network-balance-as-a-function-of-arousal
#6
Christina B Young, Gal Raz, Daphne Everaerd, Christian F Beckmann, Indira Tendolkar, Talma Hendler, Guillén Fernández, Erno J Hermans
: The ability to temporarily prioritize rapid and vigilant reactions over slower higher-order cognitive functions is essential for adaptive responding to threat. This reprioritization is believed to reflect shifts in resource allocation between large-scale brain networks that support these cognitive functions, including the salience and executive control networks. However, how changes in communication within and between such networks dynamically unfold as a function of threat-related arousal remains unknown...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077430/successful-aging-as-the-intersection-of-individual-resources-age-environment-and-experiences-of-well-being-in-daily-activities
#7
Shannon T Mejía, Lindsay H Ryan, Richard Gonzalez, Jacqui Smith
OBJECTIVE: We conceptualize successful aging as a cumulative index of individual resources (the absence of disease and disability, high cognitive and physical functioning, social embeddedness) in the service of successful aging outcomes (global well-being, experienced well-being, and vital status), and conditioned by age, social structure, and environment. METHOD: The study used baseline and follow-up data from the 2008-2014 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (N = 17,230; age = 51-101)...
January 10, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073453/the-use-of-a-mucus-trap-by-dinophysis-acuta-for-the-capture-of-mesodinium-rubrum-prey-under-culture-conditions
#8
Gemma Giménez Papiol, Veronica Beuzenberg, Andrew I Selwood, Lincoln MacKenzie, Michael A Packer
A capture mechanism observed in a culture of the dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuta when preying on the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum (also sometimes referred to as Myrionecta rubra) is described. The dinoflagellate released cohesive clumps of mucilage into the culture media. When M. rubrum cells came into contact with this mucilage, they were immediately immobilized, but remained alive for a short period of time. Observations of D. acuta cells 'visiting and probing' trapped M. rubrum cells were made and at a critical point D...
September 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071897/wear-protection-without-surface-modification-using-a-synergistic-mixture-of-molecular-brushes-and-linear-polymers
#9
Jimmy Faivre, Buddha R Shrestha, Joanna Burdyńska, Guojun Xie, Florina Moldovan, Thierry Delair, Stéphane Benayoun, Laurent David, Krzysztof Matyjaszewski, Xavier Banquy
We describe the design of lubricating and wear protecting fluids based on synergistic mixtures of bottlebrushes (BB) and linear polymers solutions. To illustrate this concept we used hyaluronic acid (HA) - a naturally occurring linear polyelectrolyte, and a water soluble synthetic BB polymer. Individually, these two polymers exhibit poor wear protecting capabilities compared to saline solutions. Mixture of the two polymers in pure water or in saline allows to drastically increase wear protection of surfaces under a wide range of shearing conditions...
January 10, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071716/lytic-polysaccharide-monooxygenases-disrupt-the-cellulose-fibers-structure
#10
Ana Villares, Céline Moreau, Chloé Bennati-Granier, Sona Garajova, Loïc Foucat, Xavier Falourd, Bodo Saake, Jean-Guy Berrin, Bernard Cathala
Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are a class of powerful oxidative enzymes that breakdown recalcitrant polysaccharides such as cellulose. Here we investigate the action of LPMOs on cellulose fibers. After enzymatic treatment and dispersion, LPMO-treated fibers show intense fibrillation. Cellulose structure modifications visualized at different scales indicate that LPMO creates nicking points that trigger the disintegration of the cellulose fibrillar structure with rupture of chains and release of elementary nanofibrils...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069316/-hyaluronic-acid-rheology-basics-and-clinical-applications-in-facial-rejuvenation
#11
R Billon, B Hersant, J P Meningaud
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is the most widely used dermal filler to treat facial volume deficits and winkles specially for facial rejuvenation. Depending on various areas of the face, filler is exposed to two different forces (shear deformation and compression/stretching forces) resulting from intrinsec and external mechanical stress. The purpose of this technical note is to explain how rheology, which is the study of the flow and deformation of matter under strains, can be used in our clinical practice of facial volumization with fillers...
January 6, 2017: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069118/microstructural-textural-and-sensory-properties-of-whole-wheat-noodle-modified-by-enzymes-and-emulsifiers
#12
Meng Niu, Gary G Hou, Julie Kindelspire, Padmanaban Krishnan, Siming Zhao
With the utilization of enzymes including endoxylanase, glucose oxidase (GOX) and transglutaminase (TG), and emulsifiers comprising sodium stearoyl lactate (SSL) and soy lecithin, the microstructural, textural, and sensory properties of whole-wheat noodle (WWN) were modified. The development time and stability of whole-wheat dough (WWD) were enhanced by TG due to the formation of a more compact gluten network, and by SSL resulting from the enhanced gluten strength. Microstructure graphs by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) verified that TG and SSL promoted the connectivity of gluten network and the coverage of starch granules in WWN...
May 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068769/high-resolution-coarse-grained-model-of-hydrated-anion-exchange-membranes-that-accounts-for-hydrophobic-and-ionic-interactions-through-short-ranged-potentials
#13
Jibao Lu, Liam C Jacobson, Yamila A Perez Sirkin, Valeria Molinero
Molecular simulations provide a versatile tool to study the structure, anion conductivity, and stability of anion-exchange membrane (AEM) materials and can provide a fundamental understanding of the relation between structure and property of membranes that is key for their use in fuel cells and other applications. The quest for large spatial and temporal scales required to model the multiscale structure and transport processes in the polymer electrolyte membranes, however, cannot be met with fully atomistic models, and the available coarse-grained (CG) models suffer from several challenges associated with their low-resolution...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068389/cooperative-interactions-between-different-classes-of-disordered-proteins-play-a-functional-role-in-the-nuclear-pore-complex-of-baker-s-yeast
#14
David Ando, Ajay Gopinathan
Nucleocytoplasmic transport is highly selective, efficient, and is regulated by a poorly understood mechanism involving hundreds of disordered FG nucleoporin proteins (FG nups) lining the inside wall of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Previous research has concluded that FG nups in Baker's yeast (S. cerevisiae) are present in a bimodal distribution, with the "Forest Model" classifying FG nups as either di-block polymer like "trees" or single-block polymer like "shrubs". Using a combination of coarse-grained modeling and polymer brush modeling, the function of the di-block FG nups has previously been hypothesized in the Di-block Copolymer Brush Gate (DCBG) model to form a higher-order polymer brush architecture which can open and close to regulate transport across the NPC...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065933/non-contact-hemodynamic-imaging-reveals-the-jugular-venous-pulse-waveform
#15
Robert Amelard, Richard L Hughson, Danielle K Greaves, Kaylen J Pfisterer, Jason Leung, David A Clausi, Alexander Wong
Cardiovascular monitoring is important to prevent diseases from progressing. The jugular venous pulse (JVP) waveform offers important clinical information about cardiac health, but is not routinely examined due to its invasive catheterisation procedure. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the JVP can be consistently observed in a non-contact manner using a photoplethysmographic imaging system. The observed jugular waveform was strongly negatively correlated to the arterial waveform (r = -0.73 ± 0...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065321/studying-cytokinesis-in-drosophila-epithelial-tissues
#16
D Pinheiro, Y Bellaïche
Epithelial tissue cohesiveness is ensured through cell-cell junctions that maintain both adhesion and mechanical coupling between neighboring cells. During development, epithelial tissues undergo intensive cell proliferation. Cell division, and particularly cytokinesis, is coupled to the formation of new adhesive contacts, thereby preserving tissue integrity and propagating cell polarity. Remarkably, the geometry of the new interfaces is determined by the combined action of the dividing cell and its neighbors...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062851/human-cactin-interacts-with-dhx8-and-srrm2-to-assure-efficient-pre-mrna-splicing-and-sister-chromatid-cohesion
#17
Isabella M Y Zanini, Charlotte Soneson, Luca E Lorenzi, Claus M Azzalin
Cactins constitute a family of eukaryotic proteins broadly conserved from yeast to human and required for fundamental processes such as cell proliferation, genome stability maintenance, organismal development and immune response. Cactin proteins have been found to associate with the spliceosome in several model organisms, nevertheless their molecular functions await elucidation. Here we show that depletion of human Cactin (hCactin) leads to premature sister chromatid separation, genome instability and cell proliferation arrest...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062529/a-mixed-reality-simulator-concept-for-future-medical-emergency-response-team-training
#18
Robert J Stone, R Guest, P Mahoney, D Lamb, C Gibson
The UK Defence Medical Service's Pre-Hospital Emergency Care (PHEC) capability includes rapid-deployment Medical Emergency Response Teams (MERTs) comprising tri-service trauma consultants, paramedics and specialised nurses, all of whom are qualified to administer emergency care under extreme conditions to improve the survival prospects of combat casualties. The pre-deployment training of MERT personnel is designed to foster individual knowledge, skills and abilities in PHEC and in small team performance and cohesion in 'mission-specific' contexts...
January 6, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062472/is-having-a-family-member-with-chronic-health-concerns-bad-for-young-people-s-health-cross-sectional-evidence-from-a-national-survey-of-young-australians
#19
Anna K Moffat, Gerry Redmond
OBJECTIVES: Young people's perspectives on the association between having a family member with a chronic health concern (FHC) and their own health are under-researched. This study used young people's reports to assess the prevalence of FHCs and their association with negative health outcomes, with an aim of identifying potential inequalities between marginalised and non-marginalised young people. Family cohesion was examined as a moderating factor. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data from the Australian Child Wellbeing Project survey were used...
January 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061510/bacterial-coaggregation-among-the-most-commonly-isolated-bacteria-from-contact-lens-cases
#20
Ananya Datta, Fiona Stapleton, Mark D P Willcox
Purpose: To examine the coaggregation and cohesion between the commonly isolated bacteria from contact lens cases. Methods: Four or five strains each of commonly isolated bacteria from contact lens cases, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia marcescens, were grown, washed, mixed in equal proportions, and allowed to coaggregate for 24 hours. Lactose (0.06 M), sucrose (0.06 M), and pronase (2 mg/mL; 2 hours, 37°C) were used to inhibit coaggregation...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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