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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923015/project-shikamana-baseline-findings-from-a-community-empowerment-based-combination-hiv-prevention-trial-among-female-sex-workers-in-iringa-tanzania
#1
Deanna Kerrigan, Jessie Mbwambo, Samuel Likindikoki, Sarah Beckham, Ard Mwampashi, Catherine Shembilu, Andrea Mantsios, Anna Leddy, Wendy Davis, Noya Galai
BACKGROUND: Community empowerment approaches have been found to be effective in responding to HIV among female sex workers (FSWs) in South Asia and Latin America. To date, limited rigorous evaluations of these approaches have been conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A phase II community randomized controlled trial is being conducted in Iringa, Tanzania, to evaluate the effectiveness of a community empowerment-based combination HIV prevention model (Project Shikamana) among a stratified sample of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected FSWs...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918688/racial-ethnic-and-income-differences-in-obesity-among-older-adults-the-role-of-leisure-time-physical-activity-and-neighborhood-social-cohesion
#2
Chia-Yuan Yu
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the associations among social cohesion, physical activity, and obesity in older adults. This study explored the influences of social cohesion and leisure-time physical activity on obesity in older adults, and tested whether these relationships varied by race/ethnicity and income level. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of adults in the 2013 National Health Interview Study (NHIS) who were over 65 years of age (N=7714) was used...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918289/a-bioreactor-with-an-electro-responsive-elastomeric-membrane-for-mimicking-intestinal-peristalsis
#3
Daniele Cei, Joana Costa, Giulia Gori, Gabriele Frediani, Claudio Domenici, Federico Carpi, Arti Ahluwalia
This study describes an actuated bioreactor which mimics the pulsatile contractile motion of the intestinal barrier using electro-responsive elastomers as smart materials that undergo deformation upon electrical stimulation. The device consists of an annular dielectric elastomer actuator working as a radial artificial muscle able to rhythmically contract and relax a central cell culture well. The bioreactor maintained up to 4 h of actuation at a frequency of 0.15 Hz and a strain of 8%-10%, to those of the cyclic contraction and relaxation of the small intestine...
December 5, 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917322/bioinformatical-analysis-of-eukaryotic-shugoshins-reveals-meiosis-specific-features-of-vertebrate-shugoshins
#4
Tatiana M Grishaeva, Darya Kulichenko, Yuri F Bogdanov
BACKGROUND: Shugoshins (SGOs) are proteins that protect cohesins located at the centromeres of sister chromatids from their early cleavage during mitosis and meiosis in plants, fungi, and animals. Their function is to prevent premature sister-chromatid disjunction and segregation. The study focused on the structural differences among SGOs acting during mitosis and meiosis that cause differences in chromosome behavior in these two types of cell division in different organisms. METHODS: A bioinformatical analysis of protein domains, conserved amino acid motifs, and physicochemical properties of 32 proteins from 25 species of plants, fungi, and animals was performed...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917010/fragmented-patterns-of-flood-change-across-the-united-states
#5
S A Archfield, R M Hirsch, A Viglione, G Blöschl
Trends in the peak magnitude, frequency, duration, and volume of frequent floods (floods occurring at an average of two events per year relative to a base period) across the United States show large changes; however, few trends are found to be statistically significant. The multidimensional behavior of flood change across the United States can be described by four distinct groups, with streamgages experiencing (1) minimal change, (2) increasing frequency, (3) decreasing frequency, or (4) increases in all flood properties...
October 16, 2016: Geophysical Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916662/acetylation-of-pcna-sliding-surface-by-eco1-promotes-genome-stability-through-homologous-recombination
#6
Pierre Billon, Jian Li, Jean-Philippe Lambert, Yizhang Chen, Véronique Tremblay, Joseph S Brunzelle, Anne-Claude Gingras, Alain Verreault, Tomohiko Sugiyama, Jean-Francois Couture, Jacques Côté
During DNA replication, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) adopts a ring-shaped structure to promote processive DNA synthesis, acting as a sliding clamp for polymerases. Known posttranslational modifications function at the outer surface of the PCNA ring to favor DNA damage bypass. Here, we demonstrate that acetylation of lysine residues at the inner surface of PCNA is induced by DNA lesions. We show that cohesin acetyltransferase Eco1 targets lysine 20 at the sliding surface of the PCNA ring in vitro and in vivo in response to DNA damage...
November 16, 2016: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915392/sediment-suspension-and-the-dynamic-mechanism-during-storms-in-the-yellow-river-delta
#7
Shuhua Bian, Zjian Hu, Jianqiang Liu, Zichen Zhu
The suspension and hydrodynamic characteristics of the Yellow River Delta during storms were analyzed based on suspended samples obtained using automatic samplers during a storm event in the Yellow River Delta. Synchronous data for winds, waves, and tides were also collected from a nearby station. The results show that under wind speeds of 5-15 m/s and wave heights of 50-150 cm, the suspended content reached 5.7-49.6 kg/m(3), which is 10-100 times higher than that under normal weather conditions. The medium diameter of suspended particles was 1...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911478/modulation-of-whistle-production-related-to-training-sessions-in-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus-under-human-care
#8
Juliana Lopez Marulanda, Olivier Adam, Fabienne Delfour
Bottlenose dolphins are highly social cetaceans with an extensive sound production including clicks, burst-pulsed sounds, and whistles. Some whistles, known as signature whistles, are individually specific. These acoustic signatures are commonly described as being emitted in contexts of stress during forced isolation and as group cohesion calls. Interactions between humans and captive dolphins is largely based on positive reinforcement conditioning within several training/feeding sessions per day. Vocal behavior of dolphins during these interactions might vary...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910919/group-benefit-associated-with-polymorphic-trichromacy-in-a-malagasy-primate-propithecus-verreauxi
#9
Carrie C Veilleux, Clara J Scarry, Anthony Di Fiore, E Christopher Kirk, Deborah A Bolnick, Rebecca J Lewis
In some primate lineages, polymorphisms in the X-linked M/LWS opsin gene have produced intraspecific variation in color vision. In these species, heterozygous females exhibit trichromacy, while males and homozygous females exhibit dichromacy. The evolutionary persistence of these polymorphisms suggests that balancing selection maintains color vision variation, possibly through a 'trichromat advantage' in detecting yellow/orange/red foods against foliage. We identified genetic evidence of polymorphic trichromacy in a population of Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) at Kirindy Mitea National Park in Madagascar, and explored effects of color vision on reproductive success and feeding behavior using nine years of morphological, demographic, and feeding data...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910254/identification-and-analysis-of-factors-contributing-to-the-reduction-in-seclusion-and-restraint-for-a-population-with-intellectual-disability
#10
Caroline Larue, Marie-Hélène Goulet, Marie-Josée Prevost, Alexandre Dumais, Jacques Bellavance
BACKGROUND: A cohort of 11 patients with an intellectual disability and a psychiatric diagnosis present severe behavioural disorders in psychiatric hospital of Quebec in 2009. Control-measure use for this clientele has now been reduced. How do management personnel, families and care teams explain the changes? What clinical interventions did management and care providers implement that contributed to the reduction? METHOD: A retrospective case study was conducted...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909252/nurses-as-antibiotic-brokers-institutionalized-praxis-in-the-hospital
#11
Alex Broom, Jennifer Broom, Emma Kirby, Graham Scambler
We are likely moving rapidly toward a post-antibiotic era, as a result of escalating antimicrobial resistance, rapidly declining antibiotic production and profligate overuse. Hitherto research has almost exclusively focused on doctors' prescribing, with nurses' roles in antibiotic use remaining virtually invisible. Drawing on interviews with 30 nurses, we focus on nurses as brokers of doctors' antibiotic decisions, nursing capacity to challenge doctors' decisions, and, "back stage" strategies for circumnavigating organizational constraints...
November 30, 2016: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909095/dynamic-shifts-in-large-scale-brain-network-balance-as-a-function-of-arousal
#12
Christina B Young, Gal Raz, Daphne Everaerd, Christian F Beckmann, Indira Tendolkar, Talma Hendler, Guillén Fernández, Erno J Hermans
: The ability to temporarily prioritize rapid and vigilant reactions over slower higher-order cognitive functions is essential for adaptive responding to threat. This reprioritization is believed to reflect shifts in resource allocation between large-scale brain networks that support these cognitive functions, including the salience and executive control networks. How changes in communication within and between such networks dynamically unfold as a function of threat-related arousal, however, remains unknown...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907996/probabilistic-information-transmission-in-a-network-of-coupled-oscillators-reveals-speed-accuracy-trade-off-in-responding-to-threats
#13
Amanda Chicoli, Derek A Paley
Individuals in a group may obtain information from other group members about the environment, including the location of a food source or the presence of a predator. Here, we model how information spreads in a group using a susceptible-infected-removed epidemic model. We apply this model to a simulated shoal of fish using the motion dynamics of a coupled oscillator model, in order to test the biological hypothesis that polarized or aligned shoaling leads to faster and more accurate escape responses. The contributions of this study are the (i) application of a probabilistic model of epidemics to the study of collective animal behavior; (ii) testing the biological hypothesis that group cohesion improves predator escape; (iii) quantification of the effect of social cues on startle propagation; and (iv) investigation of the variation in response based on network connectivity...
November 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907143/increased-exploration-capacity-promotes-group-fission-in-gregarious-foraging-herbivores
#14
Sophie Lardy, Daniel Fortin, Olivier Pays
Many gregarious species display rapid fission-fusion dynamics with individuals frequently leaving their groups to reunite or to form new ones soon after. The adaptive value of such ephemeral associations might reflect a frequent tilt in the balance between the costs and benefits of maintaining group cohesion. The lack of information on the short-term advantages of group fission, however, hampers our understanding of group dynamics. We investigated the effect of group fission on area-restricted search, a search tactic that is commonly used when food distribution is spatially autocorrelated...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905956/summarizing-health-related-quality-of-life-hrqol-development-and-testing-of-a-one-factor-model
#15
Shaoman Yin, Rashid Njai, Lawrence Barker, Paul Z Siegel, Youlian Liao
BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a multi-dimensional concept commonly used to examine the impact of health status on quality of life. HRQOL is often measured by four core questions that asked about general health status and number of unhealthy days in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Use of these measures individually, however, may not provide a cohesive picture of overall HRQOL. To address this concern, this study developed and tested a method for combining these four measures into a summary score...
July 11, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905815/medicare-program-merit-based-incentive-payment-system-mips-and-alternative-payment-model-apm-incentive-under-the-physician-fee-schedule-and-criteria-for-physician-focused-payment-models-final-rule-with-comment-period
#16
(no author information available yet)
The Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA) repeals the Medicare sustainable growth rate (SGR) methodology for updates to the physician fee schedule (PFS) and replaces it with a new approach to payment called the Quality Payment Program that rewards the delivery of high-quality patient care through two avenues: Advanced Alternative Payment Models (Advanced APMs) and the Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) for eligible clinicians or groups under the PFS. This final rule with comment period establishes incentives for participation in certain alternative payment models (APMs) and includes the criteria for use by the Physician-Focused Payment Model Technical Advisory Committee (PTAC) in making comments and recommendations on physician-focused payment models (PFPMs)...
November 4, 2016: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905587/the-premolten-layer-of-ice-next-to-a-hydrophilic-solid-surface-correlating-adhesion-with-molecular-properties
#17
Jonathan F D Liljeblad, István Furó, Eric C Tyrode
In order to establish the potential correlation between the macroscopic ice adhesion and the molecular properties of the premolten layer (PML), the adhesion strength between ice and hydrophilic silica has been measured as a function of temperature. In addition, temperature-dependent molecular properties have been determined using techniques that are sensitive to different aspects of the PML, specifically total internal reflection (TIR) Raman, vibrational sum frequency (VSFS) and NMR spectroscopies. The ice shear adhesion strength was observed to increase linearly with decreasing temperature until -25 °C, where a plateau marked the adhesive strength having reached the cohesive strength of ice...
December 1, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902664/team-based-learning-improves-staff-nurses-knowledge-of-open-and-closed-chest-cardiac-surgical-resuscitation
#18
Marion E McRae, Alice Chan, Ai Jin Lee, Renee Hulett, Bernice Coleman
BACKGROUND: There are few reports of the use of 1-session team-based learning (TBL) in hospital settings and none to teach cardiac surgical resuscitation (CSR). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether 1-session TBL is an effective method to increase nursing knowledge of CSR. METHODS: The participating subjects viewed a PowerPoint presentation about CSR prior to the learning session. Participants completed a 16-item individual readiness assessment test...
January 2017: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900762/multiple-levels-of-family-factors-and-oppositional-defiant-disorder-symptoms-among-chinese-children
#19
Xiuyun Lin, Longfeng Li, Melissa A Heath, Peilian Chi, Shousen Xu, Xiaoyi Fang
Family factors are closely associated with child developmental outcomes. This study examined the relationship of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and factors at whole family, dyadic, and individual levels in Chinese children. Participants, who were recruited from 14 primary schools in north, east, and south-west China, included 80 father-child dyads and 169 mother-child dyads. Children in the participating dyads were previously diagnosed with ODD. Results revealed that family cohesion/adaptability was indirectly associated with ODD symptoms via parent-child relationship and child emotion regulation...
November 30, 2016: Family Process
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899637/a-genome-wide-dosage-suppressor-network-reveals-genomic-robustness
#20
Biranchi Patra, Yoshiko Kon, Gitanjali Yadav, Anthony W Sevold, Jesse P Frumkin, Ravishankar R Vallabhajosyula, Arend Hintze, Bjørn Østman, Jory Schossau, Ashish Bhan, Bruz Marzolf, Jenna K Tamashiro, Amardeep Kaur, Nitin S Baliga, Elizabeth J Grayhack, Christoph Adami, David J Galas, Alpan Raval, Eric M Phizicky, Animesh Ray
Genomic robustness is the extent to which an organism has evolved to withstand the effects of deleterious mutations. We explored the extent of genomic robustness in budding yeast by genome wide dosage suppressor analysis of 53 conditional lethal mutations in cell division cycle and RNA synthesis related genes, revealing 660 suppressor interactions of which 642 are novel. This collection has several distinctive features, including high co-occurrence of mutant-suppressor pairs within protein modules, highly correlated functions between the pairs and higher diversity of functions among the co-suppressors than previously observed...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
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