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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222737/differences-by-sexual-orientation-in-perceptions-of-neighborhood-cohesion-implications-for-health
#1
Carrie Henning-Smith, Gilbert Gonzales
A large body of research documents the relationship between health and place, including the positive association between neighborhood cohesion and health. However, very little research has examined neighborhood cohesion by sexual orientation. This paper addresses that gap by examining differences in perceived neighborhood cohesion by sexual orientation. We use data from the 2016 National Health Interview Survey (n = 28,164 respondents aged 18 years and older) to examine bivariate differences by sexual orientation in four measures of neighborhood cohesion...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222557/accentuate-the-negative-grammatical-errors-during-narrative-production-as-a-clinical-marker-of-central-nervous-system-abnormality-in-school-aged-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#2
John C Thorne
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine (a) whether increased grammatical error rates during a standardized narrative task are a more clinically useful marker of central nervous system abnormality in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) than common measures of productivity or grammatical complexity and (b) whether combining the rate of grammatical errors with the rate of cohesive referencing errors can improve utility of a standardized narrative assessment task for FASD diagnosis...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222184/phosphorylation-of-the-synaptonemal-complex-protein-syp-1-promotes-meiotic-chromosome-segregation
#3
Aya Sato-Carlton, Chihiro Nakamura-Tabuchi, Stephane Kazuki Chartrand, Tomoki Uchino, Peter Mark Carlton
Chromosomes that have undergone crossing over in meiotic prophase must maintain sister chromatid cohesion somewhere along their length between the first and second meiotic divisions. Although many eukaryotes use the centromere as a site to maintain cohesion, the holocentric organism Caenorhabditis elegans instead creates two chromosome domains of unequal length termed the short arm and long arm, which become the first and second site of cohesion loss at meiosis I and II. The mechanisms that confer distinct functions to the short and long arm domains remain poorly understood...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222170/imprecision-and-dna-break-repair-biased-towards-incompatible-end-joining-in-leukemia
#4
Franz Josef Gassner, Maria Schubert, Stefan Rebhandl, Karina Spandl, Nadja Zaborsky, Kemal Catakovic, Stephanie Blaimer, Daniel Hebenstreit, Richard Greil, Roland Geisberger
Cancer is a genetic disease caused by mutations and chromosomal abnormalities which contribute to uncontrolled cell growth. In addition, cancer cells can rapidly respond to conventional and targeted therapies by accumulating novel and often specific genetic lesions leading to acquired drug resistance and relapsing disease. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), however, diverse chromosomal aberrations often occur. In many cases, improper repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) is a major source for genomic abnormalities...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220609/evaluation-of-structured-assessment-and-mediating-factors-of-suicide-focused-group-therapy-for-veterans-recently-discharged-from-inpatient-psychiatry
#5
Lora L Johnson, Stephen S O'Connor, Barbara Kaminer, Peter M Gutierrez, Erin Carney, Brittany Groh, David A Jobes
OBJECTIVES: The current study investigated the impact of adding the Suicide Status Form (SSF) to a suicide-focused group therapy for veterans recently discharged from an inpatient psychiatry setting. METHODS: A sample of 141 veterans was enrolled and randomized into a Usual Assessment Group Therapy or SSF-Assessment Group Therapy. Participants completed interviews at baseline, 1, and 3 months. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed between groups regarding group attendance (IRR = 1...
December 8, 2017: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217833/calr-mutational-status-identifies-different-disease-subtypes-of-essential-thrombocythemia-showing-distinct-expression-profiles
#6
Roberta Zini, Paola Guglielmelli, Daniela Pietra, Elisa Rumi, Chiara Rossi, Sebastiano Rontauroli, Elena Genovese, Tiziana Fanelli, Laura Calabresi, Elisa Bianchi, Simona Salati, Mario Cazzola, Enrico Tagliafico, Alessandro M Vannucchi, Rossella Manfredini
Polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) are Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) characterized by erythrocytosis and thrombocytosis, respectively. Approximately 95% of PV and 50-70% of ET patients harbor the V617F mutation in the exon 14 of JAK2 gene, while about 20-30% of ET patients carry CALRins5 or CALRdel52 mutations. These ET CALR-mutated subjects show higher platelet count and lower thrombotic risk compared to JAK2-mutated patients. Here, we showed that CALR-mutated and JAK2V617F-positive CD34+ cells display different gene and miRNA expression profiles...
December 8, 2017: Blood Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217727/advancing-the-science-of-health-research-capacity-strengthening-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-a-scoping-review-of-the-published-literature-2000-2016
#7
Laura Dean, Stefanie Gregorius, Imelda Bates, Justin Pulford
OBJECTIVES: Substantial development assistance and research funding are invested in health research capacity strengthening (HRCS) interventions in low-income and middle-income countries, yet the effectiveness, impact and value for money of these investments are not well understood. A major constraint to evidence-informed HRCS intervention has been the disparate nature of the research effort to date. This review aims to map and critically analyse the existing HRCS effort to better understand the level, type, cohesion and conceptual sophistication of the current evidence base...
December 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217469/dem-based-computational-model-to-predict-moisture-induced-cohesion-in-pharmaceutical-powders
#8
Raj Mukherjee, Chen Mao, Sayantan Chattoraj, Bodhisattwa Chaudhuri
Pharmaceutical powder flow can alter significantly based on the exposed humidity conditions, and lack of computational models to predict the same may undermine process development, optimization, and scale-up performances. A Discrete Element Model (DEM) is proposed to predict the effects of humidity on pharmaceutical powder flow by altering the cohesive forces based on granular bond numbers in simple hopper geometries. Experiments analogous to the simulations are further performed for three commonly used pharmaceutical excipients at 20%, 40% and 60% RH...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216594/indicators-to-support-healthy-urban-gardening-in-urban-management
#9
Dieneke Schram-Bijkerk, Piet Otte, Liesbet Dirven, Anton M Breure
Urban gardening is part of a trend towards more parks and green areas in cities, consumption of organic, locally grown products, and a closer relationship with one's own living environment. Our literature review shows that urban gardens provide opportunities for physical activity and allow people to consume homegrown fruit and vegetables. Urban gardens may also reduce stress levels of gardeners and improve social cohesion. In this way, they can help to prevent health problems. Good quality of urban soil and the functioning of soil ecosystems are indispensable prerequisites for these...
December 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215794/immigrant-nurses-perceptions-on-cultural-differences-based-job-concerns-a-phenomenological-study-in-shanghai-china
#10
Hai-Ping Yu, You-Qing Peng, Yun-Ying Hung, Lin Zhou
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore the experiences of immigrant nurses working in Shanghai, China. BACKGROUND: With the development of China, population growth has been accelerating. Simultaneously, the number of immigrant nurses in Shanghai has been increasing dramatically. Meanwhile, their turnover rate is abnormally high, primarily because of job concerns stemming from cultural differences. An understanding of immigrant nurses' job concerns caused by cultural differences can be used to help them to work more efficiently and cohesively...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213159/nexus-between-demographic-change-and-elderly-care-need-in-the-gulf-cooperation-council-gcc-countries-some-policy-implications
#11
Hafiz T A Khan, Shereen Hussein, John Deane
Population ageing is a phenomenon affecting the whole world. The countries that make up the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) are no exception but transitions in population ageing are still in the early stages of the process. With current demographic dividends experienced by the GCC and the rest of the Middle-East, the pace of population ageing will be faster than that experienced by many European countries. The purpose of this paper is to explore the population ageing experience of different GCC countries while situating this within a context of social policies that still at the very early stages of acknowledging such change...
2017: Ageing International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212730/hierarchical-social-networks-shape-gut-microbial-composition-in-wild-verreaux-s-sifaka
#12
Amanda C Perofsky, Rebecca J Lewis, Laura A Abondano, Anthony Di Fiore, Lauren Ancel Meyers
In wild primates, social behaviour influences exposure to environmentally acquired and directly transmitted microorganisms. Prior studies indicate that gut microbiota reflect pairwise social interactions among chimpanzee and baboon hosts. Here, we demonstrate that higher-order social network structure-beyond just pairwise interactions-drives gut bacterial composition in wild lemurs, which live in smaller and more cohesive groups than previously studied anthropoid species. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and social network analysis of grooming contacts, we estimate the relative impacts of hierarchical (i...
December 6, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211077/self-cleaning-by-harnessing-wrinkles-in-two-dimensional-layered-crystals
#13
Jia-Sheng Sun, Jin-Wu Jiang, Harold S Park, Sulin Zhang
Two-dimensional (2D) layered crystals are prone to bending and folding owing to their ultra-low bending stiffness. Folds are traditionally viewed as defects that degrade the material performance. Here, we demonstrate that folds and cohesive forces in 2D layered crystals like graphene and MoS2 can be exploited to collect and clean up interlayer impurities, wherein multiple separated impurities agglomerate into a single, large cluster. We combine classical molecular dynamics simulations and an analytical model to elucidate the competing roles of membrane bending and impurity-membrane cohesive energies in the self-cleaning process...
December 6, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210479/origin-of-fracture-resistance-to-large-volume-change-in-cu-substituted-co3-o4-electrodes
#14
Heguang Liu, Qianqian Li, Zhenpeng Yao, Lei Li, Yuan Li, Chris Wolverton, Mark C Hersam, Jinsong Wu, Vinayak P Dravid
The electrode materials conducive to conversion reactions undergo large volume change in cycles which restrict their further development. It has been demonstrated that incorporation of a third element into metal oxides can improve the cycling stability while the mechanism remains unknown. Here, an in situ and ex situ electron microscopy investigation of structural evolutions of Cu-substituted Co3 O4 supplemented by first-principles calculations is reported to reveal the mechanism. An interconnected framework of ultrathin metallic copper formed provides a high conductivity backbone and cohesive support to accommodate the volume change and has a cube-on-cube orientation relationship with Li2 O...
December 6, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210471/child-maltreatment-problem-behaviors-and-neighborhood-attainment
#15
Preeti Chauhan, Amie M Schuck, Cathy Spatz Widom
Using data from a prospective cohort design study of a group of children with documented histories of abuse and neglect (n = 908) and matched controls (n = 667), this paper examines whether problem behaviors (e.g., prostitution, crime, school problems, and homelessness) in young adulthood explain the link between maltreatment in childhood and living in high-risk neighborhoods in middle adulthood. Problem behaviors were assessed at mean age of 29 and neighborhood characteristics were assessed at mean age of 40...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208830/lens-decompression-technique-for-prevention-of-intraoperative-complications-during-phacoemulsification-of-intumescent-cataract
#16
Karim Mahmoud Nabil
PURPOSE: To evaluate intraoperative complications during phacoemulsification of intumescent cataract using lens decompression technique. METHODS: Participants with intumescent cataract scheduled for phacoemulsification were recruited and divided into two groups. In both groups, after the anterior capsule was stained with trypan blue, the anterior chamber was filled peripherally with a dispersive ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD) followed centrally by a higher viscosity cohesive OVD (Healon GV)...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207802/image-findings-of-solid-pseudopapillary-neoplasms-of-the-pancreas-on-multiphasic-multidetector-ct-scan-a-single-institute-experience-from-southern-india
#17
Santosh Rai, Sonali Prabhu, Sharada Rai, Murali Nirupama, Deepa Sa Adiga, Ashvini Kumar, Shrijeet Chakraborti
Introduction: Solid Pseudopapillary Neoplasms (SPN) are uncommon pancreatic tumours and are slow growing with uncertain malignant potential, showing female preponderance. Postoperative prognosis is good and metastasis is rare. Aim: To summarise the imaging and pathological features of seven cases of SPN in three years period, from January 2013 to January 2016. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study the imaging features of seven cases on triphasic multidetector Computed Tomogram (CT), a 16-slice scanner, were reviewed along with CT-guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) and histopathological examination...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207271/microbial-ecology-community-coalescence-stirs-things-up
#18
Matthias C Rillig, India Mansour
When methane-producing microbial communities are mixed experimentally, the resulting community is dominated by the community with the greatest resource-use efficiency. These results suggest a degree of community cohesion, or the maintenance of that initial community in the mix.
December 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205379/in-vivo-measurement-of-swallowing-by-monitoring-thyroid-cartilage-movement-in-healthy-subjects-using-thickened-liquid-samples-and-its-comparison-with-sensory-evaluation
#19
Takahiro Funami, Shingo Matsuyama, Akira Ikegami, Makoto Nakauma, Kazuhiro Hori, Takahiro Ono
This research aimed to investigate the relationship between in vivo measurement of swallowing and sensory evaluation using thickened liquids as model foods. Healthy subjects (8 male and average 29.6-year old) participated in both tests, in which the subjects were asked to swallow the whole amount of sample (10 ml) at one time. In vivo measurement monitored thyroid cartilage movement during swallowing using a bendable pressure sensor synchronously with suprahyoid electromyography, whereas sensory evaluation measured perceived cohesiveness and adhesiveness on a visual analogue scale...
December 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201249/socially-inclusive-development-the-foundations-for-decent-societies-in-east-and-southern-africa
#20
Pamela Abbott, Claire Wallace, Roger Sapsford
This article is concerned with how social processes and social provision are conceptualised and measured in societies in order to offer guidance on how to improve developmental progress. Significant advances have been made in developing multidimensional measures of development, but they provide little guidance to governments on how to build sustainable societies. We argue for the need to develop a theoretically informed social and policy framework that permits the foundations for building decent societies to be put in place by governments...
2017: Applied Research in Quality of Life
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