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Samuel Chetachukwu Adegoke, Chakree Thongraung, Chutha Takahashi Yupanqui
The effect of short-chain inulin on the rheological and sensory properties of reduced fat set coconut milk yoghurt was studied with whole fat coconut milk yoghurt as reference. The concentration of short-chain inulin was varied at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% w/v respectively. All the yoghurt samples displayed higher elastic modulus G' than viscous modulus G". However, 15% inulin yoghurt had the highest value for G' & G". The 15 and 20% inulin yoghurts displayed high yield stress (1036.7 ± 2.39 & 368...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Texture Studies
B Abrahams, N Sitas, K J Esler
Moving towards more integrative approaches within the invasion sciences has been recognized as a means of improving linkages between science, policy, and practice. Yet despite the recognition that biological invasions pose complex social-ecological challenges, the invasion literature poorly covers social-ecological or distinctly integrative research. Various initiatives and investments have been made towards building research capacity and conducting more integrative research aimed at improving the management of biological invasions...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Naomi J Petela, Thomas G Gligoris, Jean Metson, Byung-Gil Lee, Menelaos Voulgaris, Bin Hu, Sotaro Kikuchi, Christophe Chapard, Wentao Chen, Eeson Rajendra, Madhusudhan Srinivisan, Hongtao Yu, Jan Löwe, Kim A Nasmyth
Cohesin organizes DNA into chromatids, regulates enhancer-promoter interactions, and confers sister chromatid cohesion. Its association with chromosomes is regulated by hook-shaped HEAT repeat proteins that bind Scc1, namely Scc3, Pds5, and Scc2. Unlike Pds5, Scc2 is not a stable cohesin constituent but, as shown here, transiently replaces Pds5. Scc1 mutations that compromise its interaction with Scc2 adversely affect cohesin's ATPase activity and loading. Moreover, Scc2 mutations that alter how the ATPase responds to DNA abolish loading despite cohesin's initial association with loading sites...
June 21, 2018: Molecular Cell
Miroslav P Ivanov, Rene Ladurner, Ina Poser, Rebecca Beveridge, Evelyn Rampler, Otto Hudecz, Maria Novatchkova, Jean-Karim Hériché, Gordana Wutz, Petra van der Lelij, Emanuel Kreidl, James Ra Hutchins, Heinz Axelsson-Ekker, Jan Ellenberg, Anthony A Hyman, Karl Mechtler, Jan-Michael Peters
Chromosome segregation depends on sister chromatid cohesion which is established by cohesin during DNA replication. Cohesive cohesin complexes become acetylated to prevent their precocious release by WAPL before cells have reached mitosis. To obtain insight into how DNA replication, cohesion establishment and cohesin acetylation are coordinated, we analysed the interaction partners of 55 human proteins implicated in these processes by mass spectrometry. This proteomic screen revealed that on chromatin the cohesin acetyltransferase ESCO2 associates with the MCM2-7 subcomplex of the replicative Cdc45-MCM-GINS helicase...
June 21, 2018: EMBO Journal
Eloise Crush, Louise Arseneault, Terrie E Moffitt, Andrea Danese, Avshalom Caspi, Sara R Jaffee, Timothy Matthews, Helen L Fisher
Experiencing multiple types of victimization (poly-victimization) during adolescence is associated with the onset of psychotic experiences (such as hearing voices, having visions, or being extremely paranoid). However, many poly-victimized adolescents will not develop such subclinical phenomena and the factors that protect them are unknown. This study investigated whether individual, family, or community-level characteristics were associated with an absence of psychotic experiences amongst poly-victimized adolescents...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Vivianne Oliveira Pedrosa, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes França, Cecilia Pedroso Turssi, Flávia Lucisano Botelho do Amaral, Lucas Novaes Teixeira, Elizabeth Ferreira Martinez, Roberta Tarkany Basting
OBJECTIVE: Investigate the long-term effect of dentin pretreatment with 0.05 or 0.1% caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on (1) bond strength of resin composite to dentin by a three-step etch-and-rinse (Adper Scotchbond Multipurpose/ ASB) or a two-step self-etch adhesive system (Clearfil SE Bond/ CSE), (2) their fracture mode, (3) the micromorphological features of the hybrid layer formed; and (4) the level of MMP-2 in dentin (after application, using a correlative immunoexpression/quantification approach)...
June 11, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Alexander G Truesdell, Behnam Tehrani, Ramesh Singh, Shashank Desai, Patricia Saulino, Scott Barnett, Stephen Lavanier, Charles Murphy
The incidence of cardiogenic shock is rising, patient complexity is increasing and patient survival has plateaued. Mirroring organisational innovations of elite military units, our multidisciplinary medical specialists at the INOVA Heart and Vascular Institute aim to combine the adaptability, agility and cohesion of small teams across our large healthcare system. We advocate for widespread adoption of our 'combat' methodology focused on: increased disease awareness, early multidisciplinary shock team activation, group decision-making, rapid initiation of mechanical circulatory support (as appropriate), haemodynamic-guided management, strict protocol adherence, complete data capture and regular after action reviews, with a goal of ending preventable death from cardiogenic shock...
May 2018: Interventional cardiology
Fangqing Xie, Andreas Peukert, Thorsten Bender, Christian Obermair, Florian Wertz, Philipp Schmieder, Thomas Schimmel
The single-atom transistor represents a quantum electronic device at room temperature, allowing the switching of an electric current by the controlled and reversible relocation of one single atom within a metallic quantum point contact. So far, the device operates by applying a small voltage to a control electrode or "gate" within the aqueous electrolyte. Here, the operation of the atomic device in the quasi-solid state is demonstrated. Gelation of pyrogenic silica transforms the electrolyte into the quasi-solid state, exhibiting the cohesive properties of a solid and the diffusive properties of a liquid, preventing the leakage problem and avoiding the handling of a liquid system...
June 21, 2018: Advanced Materials
Cristina Acedo-Carmona, Antoni Gomila
We studied 2 groups of workers from Oaxaca (Mexico) with different levels of income and education to investigate the role that the affective-based psychological mechanism of personal trust, as evolutionarily acquired, plays on group cooperation. We measured trust levels through some questionnaires and cooperative behaviour through an iterated prisoner's dilemma under different conditions and analysed trust networks of group members. While these groups did not differ in trust levels or cooperation among trustees, they did differ in terms of cooperation with other group members...
June 21, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
Sambit Kumar Mishra, Robert L Jernigan
Dynamic communities in proteins comprise the cohesive structural units that individually exhibit rigid body motions. These can correspond to structural domains, but are usually smaller parts that move with respect to one another in a protein's internal motions, key to its functional dynamics. Previous studies emphasized their importance to understand the nature of ligand-induced allosteric regulation. These studies reported that mutations to key community residues can hinder transmission of allosteric signals among the communities...
2018: PloS One
Christine Stephens, Ágnes Szabó, Joanne Allen, Fiona Alpass
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the relationships of older people's standard of living and perceived quality of housing and neighborhoods, with different physical, mental, and social well-being trajectories over time. METHOD: Longitudinal data from 2,483 New Zealanders (55-70 years of age in 2006) surveyed biennially for 10 years were analyzed using latent profile growth analysis and MANOVA. RESULTS: Five health trajectories were revealed: robust health, average good health, declining physical health, limitations in mental health and social well-being, or vulnerable health...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Aging and Health
Elisabeth Schlögl, Mariya Y Radeva, Franziska Vielmuth, Camilla Schinner, Jens Waschke, Volker Spindler
Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a potentially lethal autoimmune disease characterized by blister formation of the skin and mucous membranes and is caused by autoantibodies against desmoglein (Dsg) 1 and Dsg3. Dsg1 and Dsg3 are linked to keratin filaments in desmosomes, adhering junctions abundant in tissues exposed to high levels of mechanical stress. The binding of the autoantibodies leads to internalization of Dsg3 and a collapse of the keratin cytoskeleton-yet, the relevance and interdependence of these changes for loss of cell-cell adhesion and blistering is poorly understood...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jacqui Kirk, Claudia A F Wascher
In group living animals, affiliative social interactions maintain cohesion between individuals. Involvement in these interactions is likely to differ between individuals, depending on their sex, age and life history stages. Here we investigated different social network measures to describe greeting interactions within two prides of captive-origin African lions (Panthera leo). We aimed to determine if the introduction of cubs to these prides altered the strength of greetings networks among female lions. We also tested if the strength of greeting interactions changed between the age classes as younger lions matured...
June 16, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Vasso Makrantoni, Adele L Marston
Cohesin is a ring-shaped protein complex that organises the genome, enabling its condensation, expression, repair and transmission. Cohesin is best known for its role in chromosome segregation, where it provides the cohesion that is established between the two newly duplicated sister chromatids during S phase. This cohesion enables the proper attachment of sister chromatids to microtubules of the spindle by resisting their opposing pulling forces. Once all chromosomes are correctly attached, cohesin is abruptly destroyed, triggering the equal segregation of sister chromatids to opposite poles in anaphase...
June 18, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Denisse Carvajal-Maldonado, Andrea K Byrum, Jessica Jackson, Sarah Wessel, Delphine Lemaçon, Laure Guitton-Sert, Annabel Quinet, Stephanie Tirman, Simona Graziano, Jean-Yves Masson, David Cortez, Susana Gonzalo, Nima Mosammaparast, Alessandro Vindigni
Pds5 is required for sister chromatid cohesion, and somewhat paradoxically, to remove cohesin from chromosomes. We found that Pds5 plays a critical role during DNA replication that is distinct from its previously known functions. Loss of Pds5 hinders replication fork progression in unperturbed human and mouse cells. Inhibition of MRE11 nuclease activity restores fork progression, suggesting that Pds5 protects forks from MRE11-activity. Loss of Pds5 also leads to double-strand breaks, which are again reduced by MRE11 inhibition...
June 18, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Milagros Ruiz, Shaun Scholes, Martin Bobak
PURPOSE: To model the dynamic age-related rate of change in depressive symptomatology in later life and to test the hypothesis that low perceived neighbourhood social cohesion is associated with steeper trajectories of depressive symptoms in older adults. METHODS: We analysed data on 11,037 participants aged 50+ from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Perceived social cohesion (PSC) of participants' neighbourhoods was assessed at baseline (2002/2003). Depressive symptoms were measured using CES-D scores (ranging from 0 to 8) on 7 occasions from baseline to 2014/2015...
June 19, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Mengyu Shen, Yuhui Yang, Wei Shen, Lujia Cen, Jeffrey S McLean, Wenyuan Shi, Shuai Le, Xuesong He
The human oral cavity is home to a large number of bacteria and bacteriophages (phages). However, the biology of oral phages as members of the human microbiome is not well understood. Recently, we isolated an Actinomyces odontolyticus subsp. Actinosynbacte r strain XH001 from human oral cavity, and genomic analysis revealed the presence of an intact prophage, named xhp1. Here we demonstrated that xhp1 is a linear plasmid-like prophage, which is a newly identified phage of A. odontolyticus Prophage xhp1 genome is 35 kb linear double-stranded DNA with 10 bp single-stranded cohesive ends at 3' of both ends...
June 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Becky Marquez, Greg Norman, James Fowler, Kim Gans, Bess Marcus
OBJECTIVE: Despite data linking the social environment to physical inactivity in Latinas, research on social network predictors of physical activity (PA) is limited. This study examined social network predictors of PA change in Latinas. METHODS: Egocentric network data were collected from 102 adult Latinas (egos) participating in a randomized controlled PA intervention trial for underactive women. Moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was measured in minutes per week using the 7-Day PA Recall Interview and accelerometers at baseline and 12 months...
2018: PloS One
Mark Stevens, Tim Rees, Remco Polman
Growing evidence suggests that social identities may have profound implications for physical activity participation. Real-world examinations of this relationship have, however, been lacking, with research predominantly examining intentions and hypothetical scenarios. To address this shortcoming and further advance understanding in this area, the present study tested relationships between group identification, participation, two exercise-specific outcomes (exercise-specific satisfaction and group cohesion), and a broad health indicator (life satisfaction) among individuals recruited from parkrun...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Xing Wang, Arun Richard Chandrasekaran, Zhiyong Shen, Yoel P Ohayon, Tong Wang, Megan E Kizer, Ruojie Sha, Chengde Mao, Hao Yan, Xiaoping Zhang, Shiping Liao, Baoquan Ding, Banani Chakraborty, Natasha Jonoska, Dong Niu, Hongzhou Gu, Jie Chao, Xiang Gao, Yuhang Li, Tanashaya Ciengshin, Nadrian C Seeman
Over the past 35 years, DNA has been used to produce various nanometer-scale constructs, nanomechanical devices, and walkers. Construction of complex DNA nanostructures relies on the creation of rigid DNA motifs. Paranemic crossover (PX) DNA is one such motif that has played many roles in DNA nanotechnology. Specifically, PX cohesion has been used to connect topologically closed molecules, to assemble a three-dimensional object, and to create two-dimensional DNA crystals. Additionally, a sequence-dependent nanodevice based on conformational change between PX and its topoisomer, JX2 , has been used in robust nanoscale assembly lines, as a key component in a DNA transducer, and to dictate polymer assembly...
June 18, 2018: Chemical Reviews
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