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Pertussis vaccine antigen stability

Shilratna Walke, Gopal Srivastava, Chinmayee Bar Routaray, Dilip Dhavale, Kalpana Pai, Jignesh Doshi, Rakesh Kumar, Pooja Doshi
The paper explained the microencapsulation of three different antigenic materials viz. Diphtheria toxoid (DT), whole cell pertussis antigens (PT and FHA) and tetanus toxoid (TT) by coacervation method using water soluble chitosan as a polymer crosslinked by vanillin/TPP co-crosslinkers for the development of oral trivalent DwPT vaccine. Instrumental characterization of chitosan microspheres suggested specific interaction with vanillin/TPP, higher thermal stability, amorphous nature, spherical morphology with size less than 2μm along with positive charge density offering mucoadhesive properties...
February 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Irina Gates, Marina DuVall, Hong Ju, M Lucia Tondella, Lucia Pawloski
Bordetella pertussis infection has been increasing in the US, with reported cases reaching over 50,000 in 2012, a number last observed in the 1950s. Concurrently, B. pertussis lacking the pertactin protein, one of the immunogens included in the acellular vaccine formulations, has rapidly emerged since 2010, and has become the predominant circulating phenotype. Monitoring the production of the remaining acellular vaccine immunogens, such as pertussis toxin (Pt), is a critical next step. To date, methods for screening Pt have been either through genomic sequencing means or by conventional ELISAs...
2017: PloS One
R Silvestri, F Marchetti
BACKGROUND: Antigens contained in vaccines are inherently unstable biologically; such a characteristic is conferred by their three-dimensional structure. Preserving the ability of the vaccines to protect against disease is necessary to ensure the supervision and monitoring of all steps of the cold chain. DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine (Infanrix hexaTM, GSK Vaccines, Belgium) is designed to prevent disease due to diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (DTP), hepatitis B virus (HBV), poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib); it was first licensed for use in Europe in 2000 and is currently licensed in at least 95 countries...
September 2015: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
Xianzhe Wang, Mary C Gray, Erik L Hewlett, Jennifer A Maynard
The adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) is a multifunctional virulence factor secreted by Bordetella species. Upon interaction of its C-terminal hemolysin moiety with the cell surface receptor αMβ2 integrin, the N-terminal cyclase domain translocates into the host cell cytosol where it rapidly generates supraphysiological cAMP concentrations, which inhibit host cell anti-bacterial activities. Although ACT has been shown to induce protective immunity in mice, it is not included in any current acellular pertussis vaccines due to protein stability issues and a poor understanding of its role as a protective antigen...
February 6, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Masako Tanaka, Naoko Inomata, Midori Matsuura, Shuichi Ishida, Aki Suzuki, Mizue Sohara, Michiko Aihara
We report here a 20-year old woman who referred to our clinic for identify the responsible antigen of anaphylaxis. Five days before the reaction, she had a cold and had taken a gel capsule cold medicine, Stona IB Gel®. On the day of the reaction, she took a dose of Stona IB Gel® after eating yogurt. Five minutes after oral administration, she developed a heat sensation and pruritus on her neck, with flushing, abdominal pains, breathing difficulties, and syncope. The specific IgE antibodies measured by ImmunoCAP® were all negative except for gelatin...
November 2014: Arerugī, [Allergy]
Haruko Shirato, Yuichi Someya, Masaki Ochiai, Yoshinobu Horiuchi, Motohide Takahashi, Naokazu Takeda, Kengo Wakabayashi, Yasumitsu Ouchi, Yoshihiro Ota, Yoshio Tano, Shinobu Abe, Shudo Yamazaki, Takaji Wakita
As one aspect of its campaign to eradicate poliomyelitis, the World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged development of the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) derived from the Sabin strains (sIPV) as an option for an affordable polio vaccine, especially in low-income countries. The Japan Poliomyelitis Research Institute (JPRI) inactivated three serotypes of the Sabin strains and made sIPV preparations, including serotypes 1, 2 and 3 D-antigens in the ratio of 3:100:100. The National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan, assessed the immunogenic stability of these sIPV preparations in a rat potency test, according to an evaluation method recommended by the WHO...
September 8, 2014: Vaccine
Nadège Moreno, Michel Chevalier, Frédéric Ronzon, Catherine Manin, Monique Dupuy, Tino Krell, Jean-Paul Rieu
An inactivated form of pertussis toxin (PTX) is the primary component of currently available acellular vaccines against Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. The PTX analyzed here is purified at industrial scale and is subsequently inactivated using glutaraldehyde. The influence of this treatment on antibody recognition is of crucial importance and is analyzed in this study. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiments using PTX and its inactivated form (toxoid) with 10 different monoclonal antibodies were conducted...
November 2011: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
Yan Ma, Min Qin, Hui-Qiong Hu, Guang Ji, Ling Feng, Na Gao, Jie Gu, Bing-Feng Xie, Ji-Hong He, Ming-Bo Sun
OBJECTIVE: In order to search the preparation process and optimazing dosage ratio of adsorbed diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and sabin inactivated poliovirus combined vaccine (DTaP-sIPV), the neutralizing antibody titers of IPV induced by different concentration of DTaP-sIPV were investigated on rats. METHODS: Two batches of DTaP-sLPV were produced using different concentration of sIPV and the quality control was carried. Together with sabin-IPV and DTaP-wIPV ( boostrix-polio, GSK, Belgium) as control group, the DTaP-sIPV were administrated on three-dose schedule at 0, 1, 2 month on rats...
June 2011: Chinese Journal of Experimental and Clinical Virology
Cornelis M van Tilburg, Marc B Bierings, Guy A M Berbers, Tom F W Wolfs, Rob Pieters, Andries C Bloem, Elisabeth A M Sanders
BACKGROUND: The consequences of current intensive chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) for immune defense are a matter of concern. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of reduced compared with intensive (conventional) ALL chemotherapy on serum immunoglobulin levels and specific antibody concentrations against vaccine-preventable diseases. PROCEDURE: Patients treated according to Dutch Childhood Oncology Group ALL 10 protocol were stratified by minimal residual disease to receive reduced (standard risk; SR) or intensive (medium risk; MR) intensification/maintenance treatment...
May 2012: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
LaToya Jones Braun, Anil Tyagi, Shalimar Perkins, John Carpenter, David Sylvester, Mark Guy, Debra Kristensen, Dexiang Chen
Vaccines containing aluminum salt adjuvants are prone to inactivation following exposure to freeze-thaw stress. Many are also prone to inactivation by heat. Thus, for maximum potency, these vaccines must be maintained at temperatures between 2 degrees C and 8 degrees C which requires the use of the cold chain. Nevertheless, the cold chain is not infallible. Vaccines are subject to freezing during both transport and storage, and frozen vaccines are discarded (under the best circumstances) or inadvertently administered despite potentially reduced potency...
January 1, 2009: Vaccine
Marcel Thalen, Arno van der Ark, Jan van den Ijssel, Ineke van Straaten, Dennis Jansen, Coen Beuvery, Dirk Martens, Johannes Tramper
Although Europe, Canada and the US have switched from cellular to acellular pertussis vaccines, most developing countries will continue to use the more cost effective cellular vaccine. Consistency of production however is the typical problem inherent to cellular vaccines. Optimising the production process of cellular pertussis bulk suspensions using product potency as a measure is not possible, since the mandatory animal test to measure potency has little discriminatory power. To circumvent this problem, this study focussed on measuring process parameters related to consistency and potency instead, even though the extent of those relationships could not be quantified...
January 30, 2008: Vaccine
Peter B McIntyre, Fiona M Turnbull, Anne-Marie Egan, Margaret A Burgess, Joanne M Wolter, Lode M Schuerman
There is increasing interest in prevention of pertussis in adults by vaccination, but little is known about the duration of the antibody response to pertussis, diphtheria or tetanus in reduced antigen content vaccines formulated for adult use. Follow-up of a clinical trial including 550 adults comparing responses to reduced antigen content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) vaccine, or a licensed Td vaccine, provided the opportunity to evaluate this. Blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 12, 24 and 36 months following vaccination; of the original cohort of 550, 387 subjects (dTpa group N=310, Td+pa group N=77) were tested at month 36...
December 2, 2004: Vaccine
Erica R Packard, Roger Parton, John G Coote, Norman K Fry
To determine the value of gene markers for surveillance and to assess the genetic stability of potential acellular pertussis vaccine components, the sequence variation in ten virulence-related genes of Bordetella pertussis was investigated in strains isolated in the UK between 1920 and 2002. These genes encode: pertactin (prnA); pertussis toxin subunits S1 (ptxA) and S3 (ptxC); tracheal colonization factor (tcfA); bordetella autotransporter protein C (bapC); bordetella resistance to killing protein (brkA); fimbrial antigen 2 (fim2); outer-membrane protein Q (ompQ); virulence-activated gene 8 (vag8) and adenylate cyclase toxin (cyaA)...
May 2004: Journal of Medical Microbiology
When stored at 4 C, or heated at 22 or 35 C followed by storage at 4 C, the potency of pertussis vaccines preserved with Merthiolate was more stable than the potency of vaccines preserved with benzethonium chloride or the parabens (methyl- and propyl-p-hydroxybenzoate). Without preservative, potency was more stable than in the presence of benzethonium chloride or the parabens, but less stable than when Merthiolate was present. The histamine-sensitizing factor of the vaccines likewise decreased with the loss of potency...
July 1965: Applied Microbiology
Olson, B. H. (Division of Laboratories, Michigan Department of Health, Lansing), Grace Eldering, and Bernice Graham. Stabilization of pertussis vaccine in the presence of benzethonium chloride. J. Bacteriol. 87:543-546. 1964.-Data are presented showing that pertussis vaccine preserved with benzethonium chloride (BC; Phemerol) was inactivated during storage. BC-preserved vaccine stored at 37 C showed no measurable mouse-protective potency at 16 weeks. That stored at 0 to 4 C lost approximately 80% of its potency within 1 year...
March 1964: Journal of Bacteriology
Vitali Pool, M Miles Braun, John M Kelso, Gina Mootrey, Robert T Chen, John W Yunginger, Robert M Jacobson, Paul M Gargiullo
OBJECTIVE: Anaphylaxis after immunization, although rare, is serious and potentially life-threatening. Understanding risk factors for this reaction is therefore important. Gelatin is added to many vaccines as a heat stabilizer. Japanese researchers have demonstrated a strong association between immediate hypersensitivity reactions to measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, and Japanese encephalitis immunizations and subsequent detection of anti-gelatin immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. They suggested that previous receipt by these patients of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccines with trace amounts of gelatin was responsible for the sensitization...
December 2002: Pediatrics
Gérard Boehm, Marisa Peyre, Dorothea Sesardic, Rachel J Huskisson, Fatme Mawas, Alexandra Douglas, Dorothy Xing, Hans P Merkle, Bruno Gander, Pål Johansen
PURPOSE: With the aim of developing multivalent vaccines for single-injection, we examined the feasibility of combining antigens in biodegradable microspheres. Such vaccines are expected to improve vaccination coverage by reducing the number of vaccination sessions required to generate immunity. METHODS: Mono- and multivalent vaccines of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate, diphtheria toxoid (DT), tetanus toxoid (TT), and pertussis toxin (PT) in poly (lactic acid) and poly(lactic-coglycolic acid) microspheres were prepared by spray drying, and the influence of coencapsulated antigens and excipients on antigen loading, release, and stability was examined...
September 2002: Pharmaceutical Research
J R Vose
Evolving regulatory requirements in the United States and Europe create major challenges for manufacturers tasked with production of vaccines that contain > or =9 separate antigens capable of protecting against infectious diseases, such as diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, hepatitis B, and Haemophilus influenza b, in a single shot. This article describes 10 steps that can facilitate the process of licensing these complex vaccines. It also points out problems associated with the use of animal tests for the crucial step of potency testing for batch release caused by the inherent variability of such tests and the difficulties of interpreting their results...
December 15, 2001: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
B Bolgiano, S Fowler, K Turner, D Sesardic, D K Xing, D T Crane, M J Corbel
A combination of spectroscopic and chromatographic methods has been used to monitor the quality and integrity of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus toxoids (DTxd, PTxd and TTxd) which have been prepared from the toxins by formaldehyde treatment. Different processes for detoxifying all three toxins have yielded toxoids varying in their molecular size, including oligomers (associated monomers) and aggregates (high molecular weight complexes of non-specifically associated monomers). Changes in the intrinsic fluorescence spectra of the polypeptides have been observed in some sized fractions of DTxd and PTxd...
2000: Developments in Biologicals
M Sakaguchi, S Inouye
Most of the children who showed systemic immediate-type reactions, including anaphylactic shock, to measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccines had IgE antibodies to gelatin; thus we suspected that the allergic symptoms are caused by gelatin antigen, which is usually included in these live-virus vaccines as a stabilizer. We hypothesized that the anti-gelatin IgE is elicited by immunization with DTaP (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis) vaccines, which contained a small amount of gelatin as a spillover protein after purification of pertussis toxin...
October 2000: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
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