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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043909/british-journal-of-biomedical-science-in-2017-what-have-we-learned
#1
Andrew Blann
In 2017 the British Journal of Biomedical Science published 35 articles in the various disciplines that comprise biomedical science. These were 6 reviews, 22 original articles, 6 'In Brief' short reports and one guideline. Of these, the majority were in clinical chemistry (one review, six data papers), microbiology (one review, four data papers), cellular pathology (four data papers) and virology (one review, two data papers). There were two data papers in transfusion science, whilst haematology, cytopathology and immunology were each represented by one review and one data paper...
October 18, 2017: British Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035003/hepatitis-b-core-related-antigen-hbcrag-an-emerging-marker-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#2
REVIEW
L-Y Mak, D K-H Wong, K-S Cheung, W-K Seto, C-L Lai, M-F Yuen
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) cannot be completely eradicated due to the presence of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the nuclei of infected hepatocytes. While quantification of intrahepatic cccDNA requires liver biopsies, serological markers can be non-invasive alternatives to reflect intrahepatic viral replicative activity. Recently, hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) has been advocated as a novel serum marker for disease monitoring and prognostication of CHB...
October 16, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030536/classic-spotlight-2008-and-2009-articles-of-significant-interest-selected-from-the-journal-of-virology-archives-by-the-editors
#3
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026650/accurate-quantification-of-within-and-between-host-hbv-evolutionary-rates-requires-explicit-transmission-chain-modelling
#4
Bram Vrancken, Marc A Suchard, Philippe Lemey
Analyses of virus evolution in known transmission chains have the potential to elucidate the impact of transmission dynamics on the viral evolutionary rate and its difference within and between hosts. Lin et al. (2015, Journal of Virology, 89/7: 3512-22) recently investigated the evolutionary history of hepatitis B virus in a transmission chain and postulated that the 'colonization-adaptation-transmission' model can explain the differential impact of transmission on synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates...
July 2017: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978708/suppression-of-microrna-424-levels-by-human-papillomavirus-proteins-is-necessary-for-differentiation-dependent-genome-amplification
#5
Shiyuan Hong, Shouqiang Cheng, William Songock, Jason Bodily, Laimonis A Laimins
High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) link their life cycle to epithelial differentiation and require activation of DNA damage pathways for efficient replication. HPVs modulate the expression of cellular transcription factors as well as cellular miRNAs to control these activities. One miRNA that has been reported to be repressed in HPV positive cancers of the cervix as well as oropharynx is miR-424. Our studies show that miR-424 levels are suppressed in cell lines that stably maintain HPV 31 or 16 episomes as well as cervical cancer lines that contain integrated genomes such as SiHa...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963304/protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-implementation-trial-of-point-of-care-viral-load-testing-and-task-shifting-the-simplifying-hiv-treatment-and-monitoring-stream-study
#6
Jienchi Dorward, Nigel Garrett, Justice Quame-Amaglo, Natasha Samsunder, Hope Ngobese, Noluthando Ngomane, Pravikrishnen Moodley, Koleka Mlisana, Torin Schaafsma, Deborah Donnell, Ruanne Barnabas, Kogieleum Naidoo, Salim Abdool Karim, Connie Celum, Paul K Drain
INTRODUCTION: Achieving the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS 90-90-90 targets requires models of HIV care that expand antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage without overburdening health systems. Point-of-care (POC) viral load (VL) testing has the potential to efficiently monitor ART treatment, while enrolled nurses may be able to provide safe and cost-effective chronic care for stable patients with HIV. This study aims to demonstrate whether POC VL testing combined with task shifting to enrolled nurses is non-inferior and cost-effective compared with laboratory-based VL monitoring and standard HIV care...
September 27, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956780/classic-spotlight-2006-and-2007-articles-of-significant-interest-selected-from-the-journal-of-virology-archives-by-the-editors
#7
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922704/direct-acting-antivirals-for-chronic-hepatitis-c
#8
REVIEW
Janus C Jakobsen, Emil Eik Nielsen, Joshua Feinberg, Kiran Kumar Katakam, Kristina Fobian, Goran Hauser, Goran Poropat, Snezana Djurisic, Karl Heinz Weiss, Milica Bjelakovic, Goran Bjelakovic, Sarah Louise Klingenberg, Jian Ping Liu, Dimitrinka Nikolova, Ronald L Koretz, Christian Gluud
BACKGROUND: Millions of people worldwide suffer from hepatitis C, which can lead to severe liver disease, liver cancer, and death. Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), e.g. sofosbuvir, are relatively new and expensive interventions for chronic hepatitis C, and preliminary results suggest that DAAs may eradicate hepatitis C virus (HCV) from the blood (sustained virological response). Sustained virological response (SVR) is used by investigators and regulatory agencies as a surrogate outcome for morbidity and mortality, based solely on observational evidence...
September 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900042/classic-spotlight-2004-and-2005-articles-of-significant-interest-selected-from-the-journal-of-virology-archives-by-the-editors
#9
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868242/additional-attention-to-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-related-lipodystrophy
#10
REVIEW
Norihiko Kobayashi, Masako Nakahara, Masako Oka, Kumiko Saeki
The occurrence of lipodystrophy in patients taking anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) medications is a serious problem as it is irreversible even after drug withdrawal. Although it was first recognized in patients taking proteinase inhibitors, other types of anti-HIV agents can also cause lipodystrophy. In a recent publication by Jones et al entitled "Highly active antiretroviral therapy dysregulates proliferation and differentiation of human pre-adipocytes" in World Journal of Virology, it was reported that simultaneous treatment of human subcutaneous adipocytes with anti-HIV drugs with different mechanisms of action synergistically exerted anti-adipogenesis effects in vitro, warning us to take utmost care in every case receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)...
August 12, 2017: World Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851401/knowledge-sharing-in-global-health-research-the-impact-uptake-and-cost-of-open-access-to-scholarly-literature
#11
Elise Smith, Stefanie Haustein, Philippe Mongeon, Fei Shu, Valéry Ridde, Vincent Larivière
BACKGROUND: In 1982, the Annals of Virology published a paper showing how Liberia has a highly endemic potential of Ebola warning health authorities of the risk for potential outbreaks; this journal is only available by subscription. Limiting the accessibility of such knowledge may have reduced information propagation toward public health actors who were indeed surprised by and unprepared for the 2014 epidemic. Open access (OA) publication can allow for increased access to global health research (GHR)...
August 29, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839091/classic-spotlight-2002-and-2003-articles-of-significant-interest-selected-from-the-journal-of-virology-archives-by-the-editors
#12
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800289/fate-regulating-circuits-in-viruses-from-discovery-to-new-therapy-targets
#13
Anand Pai, Leor S Weinberger
Current antivirals effectively target diverse viruses at various stages of their life cycles. Nevertheless, curative therapy has remained elusive for important pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and herpesviruses, in large part due to viral latency and the evolution of resistance to existing therapies. Here, we review the discovery of viral master circuits: virus-encoded autoregulatory gene networks that autonomously control viral expression programs (i.e., between active, latent, and abortive fates)...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798099/classic-spotlight-2000-and-2001-articles-of-significant-interest-selected-from-the-journal-of-virology-archives-by-the-editors
#14
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774315/global-research-trends-in-west-nile-virus-from-1943-to-2016-a-bibliometric-analysis
#15
Samah W Al-Jabi
BACKGROUND: West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging infectious disease which is most commonly transmitted to humans through mosquito, and is considered a major public-health problem worldwide. The aim of the current study is to bibliometrically analyze the quantity and quality of publications indexed in Scopus from different countries to reveal the characteristics of global research output regarding WNV. METHODS: This study is a bibliometric analysis based on the Scopus database...
August 3, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759330/giant-viruses-of-amoebae-a-journey-through-innovative-research-and-paradigm-changes
#16
Philippe Colson, Bernard La Scola, Didier Raoult
Giant viruses of amoebae were discovered serendipitously in 2003; they are visible via optical microscopy, making them bona fide microbes. Their lifestyle, structure, and genomes break the mold of classical viruses. Giant viruses of amoebae are complex microorganisms. Their genomes harbor between 444 and 2,544 genes, including many that are unique to viruses, and encode translation components; their virions contain >100 proteins as well as mRNAs. Mimiviruses have a specific mobilome, including virophages, provirophages, and transpovirons, and can resist virophages through a system known as MIMIVIRE (mimivirus virophage resistance element)...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751452/classic-spotlight-1998-and-1999-articles-of-significant-interest-selected-from-the-journal-of-virology-archives-by-the-editors
#17
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749735/the-discovery-mechanisms-and-evolutionary-impact-of-anti-crisprs
#18
Adair L Borges, Alan R Davidson, Joseph Bondy-Denomy
Bacteria and archaea use CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems to defend themselves from infection by bacteriophages (phages). These RNA-guided nucleases are powerful weapons in the fight against foreign DNA, such as phages and plasmids, as well as a revolutionary gene editing tool. Phages are not passive bystanders in their interactions with CRISPR-Cas systems, however; recent discoveries have described phage genes that inhibit CRISPR-Cas function. More than 20 protein families, previously of unknown function, have been ascribed anti-CRISPR function...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746819/humanized-mouse-models-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#19
Matthew D Marsden, Jerome A Zack
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. No effective vaccine is available to prevent HIV transmission, and although antiretroviral therapy can prevent disease progression, it does not cure HIV infection. Substantial effort is therefore currently directed toward basic research on HIV pathogenesis and persistence and developing methods to stop the spread of the HIV epidemic and cure those individuals already infected with HIV. Humanized mice are versatile tools for the study of HIV and its interaction with the human immune system...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715976/astrovirus-biology-and-pathogenesis
#20
Valerie Cortez, Victoria A Meliopoulos, Erik A Karlsson, Virginia Hargest, Cydney Johnson, Stacey Schultz-Cherry
Astroviruses are nonenveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that cause gastrointestinal illness. Although a leading cause of pediatric diarrhea, human astroviruses are among the least characterized enteric RNA viruses. However, by using in vitro methods and animal models to characterize virus-host interactions, researchers have discovered several important properties of astroviruses, including the ability of the astrovirus capsid to act as an enterotoxin, disrupting the gut epithelial barrier...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
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