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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800289/viral-master-circuits-from-discovery-to-new-therapy-targets
#1
Anand Pai, Leor S Weinberger
Current antivirals effectively target diverse viruses at various stages of their life cycles. Nevertheless, curative therapy has remained elusive for important pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and herpesviruses, in large part due to viral latency and the evolution of resistance to existing therapies. Here, we review the discovery of viral master circuits: virus-encoded autoregulatory gene networks that autonomously control viral expression programs (i.e., between active, latent, and abortive fates)...
August 11, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798099/classic-spotlight-2000-and-2001-articles-of-significant-interest-selected-from-the-journal-of-virology-archives-by-the-editors
#2
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774315/global-research-trends-in-west-nile-virus-from-1943-to-2016-a-bibliometric-analysis
#3
Samah W Al-Jabi
BACKGROUND: West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging infectious disease which is most commonly transmitted to humans through mosquito, and is considered a major public-health problem worldwide. The aim of the current study is to bibliometrically analyze the quantity and quality of publications indexed in Scopus from different countries to reveal the characteristics of global research output regarding WNV. METHODS: This study is a bibliometric analysis based on the Scopus database...
August 3, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759330/giant-viruses-of-amoebae-a-journey-through-innovative-research-and-paradigm-changes
#4
Philippe Colson, Bernard La Scola, Didier Raoult
Giant viruses of amoebae were discovered serendipitously in 2003; they are visible via optical microscope, making them bona fide microbes. Their lifestyle, structure, and genomes break the mold of classical viruses. Giant viruses of amoebae are complex microorganisms. Their genomes harbor between 444 and 2,544 genes, including many that are unique to viruses, and encode translation components; their virions contain >100 proteins as well as mRNAs. Mimiviruses have a specific mobilome, including virophages, provirophages, and transpovirons, and can resist virophages through a system known as MIMIVIRE (mimivirus virophage resistance element)...
July 31, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751452/classic-spotlight-1998-and-1999-articles-of-significant-interest-selected-from-the-journal-of-virology-archives-by-the-editors
#5
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749735/the-discovery-mechanisms-and-evolutionary-impact-of-anti-crisprs
#6
Adair L Borges, Alan R Davidson, Joseph Bondy-Denomy
Bacteria and archaea use CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems to defend themselves from infection by bacteriophages (phages). These RNA-guided nucleases are powerful weapons in the fight against foreign DNA, such as phages and plasmids, as well as a revolutionary gene editing tool. Phages are not passive bystanders in their interactions with CRISPR-Cas systems, however; recent discoveries have described phage genes that inhibit CRISPRCas function. More than 20 protein families, previously of unknown function, have been ascribed anti-CRISPR function...
July 27, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746819/humanized-mouse-models-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#7
Matthew D Marsden, Jerome A Zack
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. No effective vaccine is available to prevent HIV transmission, and although antiretroviral therapy can prevent disease progression, it does not cure HIV infection. Substantial effort is therefore currently directed toward basic research on HIV pathogenesis and persistence and developing methods to stop the spread of the HIV epidemic and cure those individuals already infected with HIV. Humanized mice are versatile tools for the study ofHIVand its interaction with the human immune system...
July 26, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715976/astrovirus-biology-and-pathogenesis
#8
Valerie Cortez, Victoria A Meliopoulos, Erik A Karlsson, Virginia Hargest, Cydney Johnson, Stacey Schultz-Cherry
Astroviruses are nonenveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that cause gastrointestinal illness. Although a leading cause of pediatric diarrhea, human astroviruses are among the least characterized enteric RNA viruses. However, by using in vitro methods and animal models to characterize virus-host interactions, researchers have discovered several important properties of astroviruses, including the ability of astrovirus capsid to act as an enterotoxin, disrupting the gut epithelial barrier. Improved animal models are needed to study this phenomenon, along with the pathogenesis of astroviruses, particularly in those strains that can cause extraintestinal disease...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715975/viruses-with-circular-single-stranded-dna-genomes-are-everywhere
#9
L M Shulman, I Davidson
Circular single-stranded DNA viruses infect archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotic organisms. The relatively recent emergence of single-stranded DNA viruses, such as chicken anemia virus (CAV) and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), as serious pathogens of eukaryotes is due more to growing awareness than to the appearance of new pathogens or alteration of existing pathogens. In the case of the ubiquitous human circular single-stranded DNA virus family Anelloviridae, there is still no convincing direct causal relation to any specific disease...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715974/electron-cryomicroscopy-of-viruses-at-near-atomic-resolutions
#10
Jason T Kaelber, Corey F Hryc, Wah Chiu
Recently, dozens of virus structures have been solved to resolutions between 2.5 and 5.0 Å by means of electron cryomicroscopy. With these structures we are now firmly within the "atomic age" of electron cryomicroscopy, as these studies can reveal atomic details of protein and nucleic acid topology and interactions between specific residues. This improvement in resolution has been the result of direct electron detectors and image processing advances. Although enforcing symmetry facilitates reaching near-atomic resolution with fewer particle images, it unfortunately obscures some biologically interesting components of a virus...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715973/the-molecular-basis-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-latency
#11
Uri Mbonye, Jonathan Karn
Although potent combination antiretroviral therapy can effectively block viral replication in the host, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persists due to the existence of latent but replication-competent proviruses residing primarily in a very small population of resting memory CD4(+) T cells. Viral latency is established when the expression of the autoregulatory viral trans-activating factor Tat is reduced to subthreshold levels. The absence of Tat reduces HIV transcription and protein production to levels that make the host cell invisible to the immune system and refractory to antiretroviral treatment...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715972/defensins-in-viral-infection-and-pathogenesis
#12
Mayumi K Holly, Karina Diaz, Jason G Smith
α, β, and ω defensins are effectors of the innate immune system with potent antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. Defensins have direct antiviral activity in cell culture, with varied mechanisms for individual viruses, although some common themes have emerged. In addition, defensins have potent immunomodulatory activity that can alter innate and adaptive immune responses to viral infection. In some cases, there is evidence for paradoxical escape from defensin neutralization or enhancement of viral infection...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715971/a-consensus-view-of-escrt-mediated-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-abscission
#13
J Lippincott-Schwartz, E O Freed, S B van Engelenburg
The strong dependence of retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), on host cell factors is no more apparent than when the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is purposely disengaged. The resulting potent inhibition of retrovirus release underscores the importance of understanding fundamental structure-function relationships at the ESCRT-HIV-1 interface. Recent studies utilizing advanced imaging technologies have helped clarify these relationships, overcoming hurdles to provide a range of potential models for ESCRT-mediated virus abscission...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701551/classic-spotlight-1996-and-1997-articles-of-significant-interest-selected-from-the-journal-of-virology-archives-by-the-editors
#14
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700406/the-use-of-multistate-models-to-examine-associations-of-stress-and-adherence-with-transitions-among-hiv-care-states-observed-in-a-clinical-hiv-cohort
#15
Sandra Blitz, Tony Antoniou, Ann Burchell, Sharon Walmsley, Lucia Light, Sandra Gardner, Sean Rourke, Curtis Cooper, Claire Kendall, Mona Loutfy, Anita Rachlis, Wendy Wobeser, Anita Benoit, Janet Raboud
BACKGROUND: The "cascade of care" is a framework for quantifying the trajectory of people with HIV along the continuum of HIV care. We extended this framework to recognize that individuals may transition back and forth between states of care and to identify factors associated with movement among states of care over time, with particular focus on stress, depression and adherence. METHODS: The Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study is a multisite HIV clinical cohort...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691435/clinical-and-public-health-implications-of-acute-and-early-hiv-detection-and-treatment-a-scoping-review
#16
Sarah E Rutstein, Jintanat Ananworanich, Sarah Fidler, Cheryl Johnson, Eduard J Sanders, Omar Sued, Asier Saez-Cirion, Christopher D Pilcher, Christophe Fraser, Myron S Cohen, Marco Vitoria, Meg Doherty, Joseph D Tucker
INTRODUCTION: The unchanged global HIV incidence may be related to ignoring acute HIV infection (AHI). This scoping review examines diagnostic, clinical, and public health implications of identifying and treating persons with AHI. METHODS: We searched PubMed, in addition to hand-review of key journals identifying research pertaining to AHI detection and treatment. We focused on the relative contribution of AHI to transmission and the diagnostic, clinical, and public health implications...
June 28, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654554/baseline-hepatitis-b-virus-titer-predicts-initial-postpartum-hepatic-flare-a-multicenter-prospective-study
#17
Jinfeng Liu, Jing Wang, Caijing Qi, Furong Cao, Zhen Tian, Dandan Guo, Taotao Yan, Qian Li, Shujuan Yang, JianJun Fu, Xianmei Tang, Xiaoni Kou, Na Liu, Zicheng Jiang, Yingren Zhao, Tianyan Chen
BACKGROUND AND GOALS: A series of changes in the immune system occur during pregnancy and puerperium. Currently, we aim to characterize both the natural changes in liver inflammation and its association with hepatitis B viremia during this special period. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) gravidas were recruited and followed up to 52 weeks postpartum. Virological and biochemical parameters were assessed throughout the period. RESULTS: A total of 1097 CHB mothers had finished the entire follow-up including 451 accepting telbivudine, 178 accepting tenofovir, and 468 without antiviral therapy...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652477/classic-spotlight-1994-and-1995-articles-of-significant-interest-selected-from-the-journal-of-virology-archives-by-the-editors
#18
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645240/engineered-expression-of-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-against-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#19
Maham Ahmad, Osama M Ahmed, Bruce Schnepp, Philip R Johnson
This review discusses recent progress made in developing a vaccine and novel treatments for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It highlights the shortcomings of the RV144 vaccination trial [ALVAC-HIV (vCP1521) and AIDSVAX B/E] and the current standard of care and proposes that engineered expression of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV-1 could overcome these shortcomings. Current developments in three major lines of research on HIV prevention and treatment using bNAbs are reviewed: firstly, the use of sequential immunogens to activate B cells to express bNAbs; secondly, the delivery of novel and extremely potent bNAbs through passive administration; and finally, the use of gene transfer using adeno-associated viral vectors to deliver bNAbs...
June 23, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645239/cassava-mosaic-and-brown-streak-diseases-current-perspectives-and-beyond
#20
Chrissie Rey, Hervé Vanderschuren Vanderschuren
Cassava is the fourth largest source of calories in the world but is subject to economically important yield losses due to viral diseases, including cassava brown streak disease and cassava mosaic disease. Cassava mosaic disease occurs in sub-Saharan Africa and the Asian subcontinent and is associated with nine begomovirus species, whereas cassava brown streak disease has to date been reported only in sub-Saharan Africa and is caused by two distinct ipomovirus species. We present an overview of key milestones and their significance in the understanding and characterization of these two major diseases as well as their associated viruses and whitefly vector...
June 23, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
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