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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220762/drug-detection-in-breath-non-invasive-assessment-of-illicit-or-pharmaceutical-drugs
#1
Phillip Trefz, Svend Kamysek, Patricia Fuchs, Pritam Sukul, Jochen Schubert, Wolfram Miekisch
Breath analysis not only holds great potential for the development of new non-invasive diagnostic methods, but also for the identification and follow up of drug levels in breath. This is of interest for both, forensic and medical science. On the one hand, the detection of drugs of abuse in exhaled breath - similar to the well-known breath alcohol tests - would be highly desirable as an alternative to blood or urine analysis in situations such as police controls for drugged driving. The noninvasive detection of drugs and their metabolites is thus of great interest in forensic science, especially since marijuana is becoming legalized in certain parts of the U...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220387/cadmium-concentration-in-human-autopsy-tissues
#2
Teresa Lech, Józefa K Sadlik
The concentration of cadmium in human tissues obtained on the basis of autopsies of non-poisoned Polish people (n = 150), aged from 1 to 80 years, examined between 1990 and 2010, is presented. The following values were found in wet digested samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) (mean ± SD, median, and range, μg/g of wet weight): brain 0.020 ± 0.031, 0.084, 0-0.120 (n = 41); stomach 0.148 ± 0.195, 0.084, 0-1.25 (n = 89); small intestine 0.227 ± 0.231, 0.130, 0-0.830 (n = 39); liver 1...
February 20, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220303/estimation-of-stature-from-femur-length-measured-using-computed-tomography-after-the-analysis-of-three-dimensional-characteristics-of-femur-bone-in-korean-cadavers
#3
Sookyoung Lee, Ho-Hyeon Gong, Jin-Young Hyun, Hyung-Nam Koo, Han-Young Lee, Nak-Eun Chung, Young-Shik Choi, Kyung-Moo Yang, Byung Ha Choi
Estimation of stature is a basic and important forensic procedure in identifying decomposed or skeletonized bodies. Due to advances in radiologic equipment, forensic science frequently uses computed tomography (CT) and software to apply these findings to investigations. Technical developments have increased the accuracy of the measurement of various bones. However, there are still some inaccuracies, such as defining correct landmarks in three-dimensional (3D) images. Femur length is frequently used for calculation of stature, but because it is a 3D structure, the digital image may not always correlate with the femur length measured with an osteometric board...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220302/sex-estimation-using-computed-tomography-of-the-mandible
#4
Tanya Sella Tunis, Rachel Sarig, Haim Cohen, Bahaa Medlej, Nathan Peled, Hila May
Sex estimation of skeletal parts is of great value even in the DNA era. When computed tomography (CT) facilities were introduced to forensic institutes, new possibilities for sex estimation emerged. The aim of this study was to develop a CT-based method for sex estimation using the mandible. Twenty-five CT-based measurements of the mandible were developed and carried out on 3D reconstructions (volume rendering) and cross sections of the lower jaw of 438 adult individuals (214 males and 224 females). Intraobserver and interobserver variances of the measurements were examined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217303/three-years-evaluation-of-retained-foreign-bodies-after-surgery-in-iran
#5
Mohammad Zarenezhad, Saeed Gholamzadeh, Arya Hedjazi, Kamran Soltani, Jaber Gharehdaghi, Masoud Ghadipasha, Seyyed Mohammad Vahid Hosseini, Ahmad Zare
BACKGROUND: Medical errors such as retained foreign bodies (RFB) during surgery are not well studied. To define risk factors associated with this type of error, we performed retrospective study. METHODS: We reviewed medical records for unintentional foreign object remaining in the body during surgery such as gender, age, surgery ward, and incident reports referred to several forensic medicine administrations as well as adverse effects of retained foreign bodies and methods for detection of them over a 3-years period from January 2008 through May 2011...
March 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216772/perceived-coercion-in-persons-with-mental-disorder-in-india-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
B N Raveesh, S Pathare, P Lepping, E O Noorthoorn, G S Gowda, J G F Bunders-Aelen
BACKGROUND: Little is known about how patients in India perceive coercion in psychiatric care. AIMS: To assess perceived coercion in persons with mental disorder admitted involuntarily and correlate with sociodemographic factors and illness variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We administered the short MacArthur Admission Experience Interview Questionnaire to all consecutive involuntary psychiatric patients admitted in 2014 in Mysore, India. Multivariate linear regression was used...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216771/filicide-in-the-united-states
#7
Phillip J Resnick
In the United States the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education determines the curriculum required for fellows in forensic psychiatry to become board certified as a subspecialist. Areas that must be covered during the one year fellowship include criminal issues, such as insanity; civil issues, such as tort law and Workers' Compensation; legal regulation of psychiatry, such as confidentiality and involuntary hospitalization; and correctional psychiatry issues, such as dual agency and prisoner's rights...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216768/competence-to-stand-trial-an-overview
#8
REVIEW
Steven K Hoge
The legal concept of competence to stand trial has ancient roots. The history of this legal construct in Anglo-Saxon law will be reviewed. A competent defendant is a requirement of the criminal justice system because it reflects interests related to the dignity of the process, the accuracy of adjudication, and respect for the autonomy of defendants. In the United States, legal decisions have established the contours of the requirements related to competent participation in adjudication. Forensic psychiatrists have operationalized the requirements for assessment purposes...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216767/mental-health-and-the-law-an-overview-and-need-to-develop-and-strengthen-the-discipline-of-forensic-psychiatry-in-india
#9
REVIEW
Pratima Murthy, B C Malathesh, C Naveen Kumar, Suresh Bada Math
Human rights and mental health care of vulnerable population need supportive legislations and policies. Both "hard" and "soft" laws relevant to mental health care have been devised internationally and locally. Amendments in laws and the formulation of new laws are often required and have been seen to occur in the area of mental health care in India. So far, reform in mental health care has largely been reactive, but newer legislations and policies carry the hope of proactive reform. The lack of trained human resources is one of the biggest problems in effective mental health care delivery in India...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216766/forensic-psychiatry-in-india-past-present-and-future
#10
REVIEW
S Nambi, Siva Ilango, Lakshmi Prabha
Forensic psychiatry is a subspecialty of psychiatry, in which scientific and clinical expertise is applied to legal issues in legal contexts embracing civil, criminal, correctional, or legislative matters. Forensic psychiatry is still in an infant stage in India and other developing countries. Law is the sanctioning discipline, and Psychiatry is the therapeutic discipline. Due to various reasons, Forensic Psychiatry is reared as Cinderella in our country; "which is much neglected, ignored, misinterpreted, and misunderstood...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216763/forensic-psychiatry-deserves-attention
#11
EDITORIAL
T S Sathyanarayana Rao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215933/gender-determination-from-diagnostic-factors-on-anteroposterior-pelvic-radiographs
#12
Azadeh Memarian, Kamran Aghakhani, Shahrokh Mehrpisheh, Foroozan Fares
BACKGROUND: Gender determination from skeletal remains is one of the primary factors in forensic medicine. This study aimed to identify the gender of patients referred to the radiology ward of the Rasoul Akram Hospital of Tehran using anteroposterior pelvic radiography. METHODS: A total of 200 patients (100 male and 100 female) referred to the radiology ward of the Rasoul Akram Hospital for anteroposterior pelvic radiography during 2013-2014 were included in this study...
February 16, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215913/a-rare-case-of-digital-myiasis
#13
Carlos Durão, André Barros, Pedro Campos
Cutaneous myiasis is the infestation of the skin or mucous membranes by larvae of the order Diptera. Wound myiasis affect the skin with a previous lesion, and it may consume both dead and living tissue. Finger infestation is rarely a cause of death, but it may provoke considerable morbidity. Prompt wound exploration and careful total larvae removal is essential to achieve healing. In the reported case, the patient was presented in an advanced stage of the infestation, with a large area of finger necrosis and amputation, associated with cellulitis extending from the finger's base to the hand...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215550/evaluation-of-unenhanced-post-mortem-computed-tomography-to-detect-chest-injuries-in-violent-death
#14
I Sifaoui, C Nedelcu, G Beltran, V Dupont, J Lebigot, A Gaudin, C Ridereau Zins, C Rouge Maillard, C Aubé
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the performances of unenhanced post-mortem computed tomography (CT) to detect thoracic injuries in violent death. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospectively, we conducted a review of unenhanced CT scans of 67 victims of violent deaths with thoracic injuries and compared CT findings with the results of clinical autopsy. Our gold standard was a comparison of CT scans with autopsy discussed in a monthly forensic radiology multidisciplinary team meeting (MDTM)...
February 16, 2017: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215449/tiaft2016-special-edition-of-forensic-science-international
#15
EDITORIAL
Olaf H Drummer, Dimitri Gerostamoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215407/a-simplified-vocal-profile-analysis-protocol-for-the-assessment-of-voice-quality-and-speaker-similarity
#16
Eugenia San Segundo, Jose A Mompean
OBJECTIVES: A simplified perceptual protocol for the assessment of voice quality (VQ) is attempted based on the Vocal Profile Analysis (VPA) scheme, with the aim of alleviating typical issues associated with the multidimensionality of VQ and enabling an easy quantification of speaker similarity. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-four non-pathological male speakers (12 monozygotic twin pairs) of Standard Peninsular Spanish were perceptually evaluated by two trained phoneticians using the simplified VPA (SVPA)...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214756/multifarious-applications-of-atomic-force-microscopy-in-forensic-science-investigations
#17
REVIEW
Gaurav Pandey, Maithri Tharmavaram, Deepak Rawtani, Sumit Kumar, Y Agrawal
Forensic science is a wide field comprising of several subspecialties and uses methods derived from natural sciences for finding criminals and other evidence valid in a legal court. A relatively new area; Nano-forensics brings a new era of investigation in forensic science in which instantaneous results can be produced that determine various agents such as explosive gasses, biological agents and residues in different crime scenes and terrorist activity investigations. This can be achieved by applying Nanotechnology and its associated characterization techniques in forensic sciences...
February 11, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214712/epidemiological-study-of-mortality-in-epilepsy-in-a-spanish-population
#18
María Isabel Chamorro-Muñoz, Guillermina García-Martín, Francisco Pérez-Errazquin, Manuel Romero-Acebal, Antonio García-Rodríguez, Mario Gutiérrez-Bedmar
PURPOSE: Studies concerning mortality in epilepsy have been performed primarily in Northern-Central Europe and US. The aim of this study was to provide information about mortality in people with epilepsy in Southern European countries. METHOD: We studied a Spanish prevalence and incidence cohort of 2309 patients aged ≥14 years with epilepsy who were treated in an outpatient epilepsy clinic between 2000 and 2013. The deceased were identified through Civil Registries...
February 8, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213907/optimizing-the-analysis-of-dental-enamel-microstructure-in-intact-teeth
#19
Zulieth López Arrieta, Sergio Roberto Peres Line
In most mammalian species enamel prisms are regularly arranged in layers of alternating directions forming an angle of approximately 90°. These successive layers of prisms are known as Hunter-Schreger bands (HSBs). The analysis of HSBs may provide valuable information regarding the species life history, taxon and personal identification, with evident applicability in physical anthropology and forensics. Obtaining good quality digital images of HSBs in intact specimens is not always a feasible task. The major problems are the low contrast of images; the reflection of incident light, which may create areas of intense shine in digital images; and the abrupt decrease in the degree of illumination that occurs after light crosses the vertical cracks, frequently present in enamel...
February 17, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213868/elliptical-fourier-analysis-fundamentals-applications-and-value-for-forensic-anthropology
#20
REVIEW
Jodi Caple, John Byrd, Carl N Stephan
The numerical description of skeletal morphology enables forensic anthropologists to conduct objective, reproducible, and structured tests, with the added capability of verifying morphoscopic-based analyses. One technique that permits comprehensive quantification of outline shape is elliptical Fourier analysis. This curve fitting technique allows a form's outline to be approximated via the sum of multiple sine and cosine waves, permitting the profile perimeter of an object to be described in a dense (continuous) manner at a user-defined level of precision...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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