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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738663/statistical-approach-for-atr-ftir-screening-of-semen-in-sexual-evidence
#1
Inês Gregório, Félix Zapata, Mercedes Torre, Carmen García-Ruiz
Genetic identification has revolutionized the Forensic Sciences, especially in sexual aggression cases. For the successful extraction of the genetic information of a criminal, a crucial step is the prior detection of bodily fluids on evidence. In this article, a method for non-destructive screening of semen samples is reported. Using chemometric tools, bodily fluids can be detected and differentiated without damaging the sample, by correlating the infrared spectra of sexual evidence with previously recorded spectra from undamaged stains of individual bodily fluids...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738640/new-insights-in-forensic-chemistry-nir-chemometrics-analysis-of-toners-for-questioned-documents-examination
#2
Stefano Materazzi, Roberta Risoluti, Sara Pinci, Francesco Saverio Romolo
Near-Infrared spectroscopy (NIRs) coupled to chemometrics was investigated for the first time as a new tool for the analysis of black toners to evaluate its application in forensic cases. Ten black toners from four manufacturers were included in this study and the acquired spectra were compared in order to differentiate toners. Multivariate statistical analysis based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was considered to develop a model of comparison of toners in questioned documents. Results demonstrated the capabilities of the approach NIR/Chemometrics to correctly identify toners when printed on different papers and to be not affected by the printing process...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738632/raman-hyperspectral-imaging-in-conjunction-with-independent-component-analysis-as-a-forensic-tool-for-explosive-analysis-the-case-of-an-atm-explosion
#3
Mariana Ramos Almeida, Lucio Paulo Lima Logrado, Jorge Jardim Zacca, Deleon Nascimento Correa, Ronei Jesus Poppi
In this work, Raman hyperspectral imaging, in conjunction with independent component analysis, was employed as an analytical methodology to detect an ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO) explosive in banknotes after an ATM explosion experiment. The proposed methodology allows for the identification of the ANFO explosive without sample preparation or destroying the sample, at quantities as small as 70μgcm(-2). The explosive was identified following ICA data decomposition by the characteristic nitrate band at 1044cm(-1)...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738591/procedures-for-precise-measurements-of-135-cs-137-cs-atom-ratios-in-environmental-samples-at-extreme-dynamic-ranges-and-ultra-trace-levels-by-thermal-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#4
James A Dunne, David A Richards, Hsin-Wei Chen
Determination of (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratios has the potential to be a powerful tool for nuclear forensics and monitoring environmental processes. We present optimized chemical separation techniques and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) protocols to obtain precise (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratios for a range of environmental sample types. We use a combination of double AMP-PAN separation and Sr-spec resin column purification to yield excellent separation from the alkali metals (Rb separation factor > 600), which normally suppress ionization of Cs...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738558/elemental-source-attribution-signatures-for-calcium-ammonium-nitrate-can-fertilizers-used-in-homemade-explosives
#5
Carlos G Fraga, Alexander V Mitroshkov, Nikhil S Mirjankar, Brian P Dockendorff, Angie M Melville
Calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) is a widely available fertilizer composed of ammonium nitrate (AN) mixed with some form of calcium carbonate such as limestone or dolomite. CAN is also frequently used to make homemade explosives. The potential of using elemental profiling and chemometrics to match both pristine and reprocessed CAN fertilizers to their factories of origin for use in future forensic investigations was examined. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine the concentrations of 64 elements in 125 samples from 11 CAN stocks from 6 different CAN factories...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738509/ambient-sediment-quality-conditions-in-minnesota-lakes-usa-effects-of-watershed-parameters-and-aquatic-health-implications
#6
Judy L Crane
Surficial sediments were collected from 50 randomly selected Minnesota lakes, plus four a priori reference lakes, in 2007. The lakes encompassed broad geographic coverage of the state and included a variety of major land uses in the surrounding watersheds. Sediment samples were analyzed for a suite of metals, metalloids, persistent organic pollutants, total organic carbon, and particle size fractions. In addition, a small fish survey was conducted to assess PBDEs in both whole fish and fish tissues. Sediment quality in this set of lakes ranged from good (43%) to moderate (57%) based on an integrative measure of multiple contaminants...
July 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737525/death-by-snow-a-fatal-forensic-case-of-cocaine-leakage-in-a-drug-mule-on-postmortem-computed-and-magnetic-resonance-tomography-compared-with-autopsy
#7
Patricia Mildred Flach, Dominic Gascho, René Fader, Rosita Martinez, Michael J Thali, Lars C Ebert
This forensic case presents unique postmortem imaging of a "drug mule" with fatal intoxication due to cocaine leakage on postmortem computed and magnetic resonance (MR) tomography compared with autopsy.Imaging by postmortem computed and MR tomography was performed before autopsy, histology, and toxicology were commissioned. Forensic imaging revealed 91 hyperdense, uniformly shaped body packs with signs of leakage, which was confirmed by autopsy. Postmortem MR imaging displayed the rarely described hypointense appearance of the body packs in T1- and T2-weighted sequences...
July 22, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735218/strength-of-linguistic-text-evidence-a-fused-forensic-text-comparison-system
#8
Shunichi Ishihara
Compared to other forensic comparative sciences, studies of the efficacy of the likelihood ratio (LR) framework in forensic authorship analysis are lagging. An experiment is described concerning the estimation of strength of linguistic text evidence within that framework. The LRs were estimated by trialling three different procedures: one is based on the multivariate kernel density (MVKD) formula, with each group of messages being modelled as a vector of authorship attribution features; the other two involve N-grams based on word tokens and characters, respectively...
July 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734663/mtdna-sequence-diversity-of-hazara-ethnic-group-from-pakistan
#9
Allah Rakha, Fatima, Min-Sheng Peng, Atif Adan, Rui Bi, Memona Yasmin, Yong-Gang Yao
The present study was undertaken to investigate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences of Hazaras from Pakistan, so as to generate mtDNA reference database for forensic casework in Pakistan and to analyze phylogenetic relationship of this particular ethnic group with geographically proximal populations. Complete mtDNA control region (nt 16024-576) sequences were generated through Sanger Sequencing for 319 Hazara individuals from Quetta, Baluchistan. The population sample set showed a total of 189 distinct haplotypes, belonging mainly to West Eurasian (51...
July 10, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734269/crime-scene-reconstruction-sex-prediction-from-blood-stained-foot-sole-impressions
#10
Nabanita Basu, Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay
It is often difficult to predict the sex of an individual based on bloody incomplete footprints. However, such prints/impressions are particularly common in a crime scene. Again variability in the texture, color of the target surface has an impact on the bloodstained impression formed. The study of bare foot, footprint, footwear (i.e. shoe, canvas etc.) within the legal context is referred to as forensic podiatry. Based on the fact that it is possible to predict the sex of an individual from footprint impressions, an automated model has been proposed in this paper for analyzing the sex of an individual from his/her broken/incomplete footprint impressions based on morphological features alone...
June 26, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734268/dna-barcoding-allows-identification-of-european-fanniidae-diptera-of-forensic-interest
#11
Andrzej Grzywacz, Dominika Wyborska, Marcin Piwczyński
In forensic entomology practice, species identification is a prerequisite for any further analysis of collected material. Although morphology-based taxonomy may be hindered by a range of factors, these are not obstacles for a molecular identification approach, so-called DNA barcoding. The Fanniidae are a dipteran family that is attracted to and breeds in decomposing animal carrion and dead human bodies. However, morphological identification of fanniids, both at adult and immature stages, is considered to be difficult, particularly for non-experts...
June 29, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734198/length-of-stay-for-25-791-california-patients-found-incompetent-to-stand-trial
#12
Matthew Renner, Carol Newark, Bradley J Bartos, Richard McCleary, Nicholas Scurich
Referrals and admissions to state psychiatric hospitals of criminal defendants found Incompetent to Stand Trial (IST) are on the rise in the state of California and other parts of the country. Studies of treatment outcomes of this population have primarily focused on factors that determine competency and/or restorability. However, as IST patients place an increasing resource burden on state psychiatric hospital systems, other outcomes such as length of stay (LOS) are becoming increasingly important for practitioners and policy makers to understand...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732316/a-user-friendly-technical-set-up-for-infrared-photography-of-forensic-findings
#13
Thomas Rost, Nicole Kalberer, Eva Scheurer
Infrared photography is interesting for a use in forensic science and forensic medicine since it reveals findings that normally are almost invisible to the human eye. Originally, infrared photography has been made possible by the placement of an infrared light transmission filter screwed in front of the camera objective lens. However, this set-up is associated with many drawbacks such as the loss of the autofocus function, the need of an external infrared source, and long exposure times which make the use of a tripod necessary...
July 10, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731649/opinions-of-members-of-the-national-civil-family-proceedings-and-criminal-courts-in-withholding-or-withdrawing-of-life-support-situations-in-pediatrics
#14
Jorge O Selandari, María S Ciruzzi, Adriel J Roitman, Fernanda Ledesma, Célica Menéndez, Hernán O García
INTRODUCTION: The possibility of sustaining life functions makes it difficult to distinguish between a dying patient and a patient with chances of survival, raising a dilemma for everyone around them. On the one side, continuing with life support techniques that would only extend an irreversible process and result in physical and psychological damage and harm their dignity. On the other side, withholding or withdrawing life support without an adequate reflection and diagnostic-therapeutic effort which may lead to the death of a potentially recoverable child...
August 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730910/the-brief-peer-conflict-scale-psychometric-properties-among-a-sample-of-incarcerated-male-juvenile-offenders
#15
Pedro Pechorro, Justin D Russell, Lara Ayala-Nunes, Rui Abrunhosa Gonçalves, Cristina Nunes
Aggression can be considered a multidimensional construct that influences various forms of antisocial behavior, including juvenile delinquency and conduct problems. The aim of the present study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Brief Peer Conflict Scale-20 item version (PCS-20) among a Portuguese forensic sample (N = 192) of incarcerated male juvenile offenders ( M = 16.62 years; SD = 1.52 years; age range = 13-18 years). The PCS-20 demonstrated good psychometric properties in terms of its four-factor structure, internal consistency, convergent validity, and discriminant validity that generally justify its use among incarcerated male youth...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730502/establishment-of-11-linked-x-str-loci-within-1-1-mb-to-assist-with-kinship-testing
#16
James Chun-I Lee, Chun-Yen Lin, Li-Chin Tsai, Yu-Jen Yu, Keng-Hsien Liao, Adrian Linacre, Hsing-Mei Hsieh
This report identifies and characterizes 10 novel short tandem repeat (STR) loci on the human X chromosome, all of which are within a range of 1.1 Mb. These newly characterized loci were developed to aid in kinship assignment when the X chromosome is specifically required. The repeat DNA sequences were identified initially using data in GenBank and are located immediately upstream and downstream from the previously described locus DXS6807. Only those loci with seven or more observed alleles were used for further study resulting in the identification of 10 new loci...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730221/usefulness-of-ultrastructure-studies-for-the-estimation-of-the-postmortem-interval-a-systematic-review
#17
Sorin Hostiuc, Mugurel Constantin Rusu, Vasile Sorin Mănoiu, Alexandra Diana Vrapciu, IonuŢ Negoi, Maria Viorela Popescu
Establishing the postmortem interval (PMI) is vital in legal medicine as it allows to retrospectively estimate the hour of death, which is essential for the police as a starting point for their inquiries (especially in violent deaths). Ultrastructure studies aimed specifically to detect autolytic changes are scarcely identified in the scientific literature. Moreover, they are performed in a variety of conditions (different temperatures, species, in vitro ÷ in situ, and so on), making the results difficult to interpret for legal medicine purposes...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729688/improved-genome-recovery-and-integrated-cell-size-analyses-of-individual-uncultured-microbial-cells-and-viral-particles
#18
Ramunas Stepanauskas, Elizabeth A Fergusson, Joseph Brown, Nicole J Poulton, Ben Tupper, Jessica M Labonté, Eric D Becraft, Julia M Brown, Maria G Pachiadaki, Tadas Povilaitis, Brian P Thompson, Corianna J Mascena, Wendy K Bellows, Arvydas Lubys
Microbial single-cell genomics can be used to provide insights into the metabolic potential, interactions, and evolution of uncultured microorganisms. Here we present WGA-X, a method based on multiple displacement amplification of DNA that utilizes a thermostable mutant of the phi29 polymerase. WGA-X enhances genome recovery from individual microbial cells and viral particles while maintaining ease of use and scalability. The greatest improvements are observed when amplifying high G+C content templates, such as those belonging to the predominant bacteria in agricultural soils...
July 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729524/cardiac-arrest-following-drug-abuse-with-intravenous-tapentadol-case-report-and-literature-review
#19
Misbahuddin Khaja, George Lominadze, Konstantin Millerman
BACKGROUND Tapentadol is a centrally acting opioid analgesic, with a dual mode of action, as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and an agonist of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). Tapentadol is used for the management of musculoskeletal pain, and neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. CASE REPORT A 32-year-old woman attended hospital for evaluation of an intractable headache. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain were negative. She was found unresponsive in the bathroom on the day following hospital admission, and despite resuscitative measures, the patient died following cardiac arrest...
July 21, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729022/boldness-psychopathic-traits-predict-reduced-gaze-toward-fearful-eyes-in-men-with-a-history-of-violence
#20
Steven M Gillespie, Pia Rotshtein, Anthony R Beech, Ian J Mitchell
Research with developmental and adult samples has shown a relationship of psychopathic traits with reduced eye gaze. However, these relationships remained to be investigated among forensic samples. Here we examined the eye movements of male violent offenders during an emotion recognition task. Violent offenders performed similar to non-offending controls, and their eye movements varied with the emotion and intensity of the facial expression. In the violent offender group Boldness psychopathic traits, but not Meanness or Disinhibition, were associated with reduced dwell time and fixation counts, and slower first fixation latencies, on the eyes compared with the mouth...
July 17, 2017: Biological Psychology
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