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Coping mechanisms

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217602/health-worker-posting-and-transfer-at-primary-level-in-tamil-nadu-governance-of-a-complex-health-system-function
#1
Surekha Garimella, Kabir Sheikh
BACKGROUND: Posting and transfer (PT) of health personnel - placing the right health workers in the right place at the right time - is a core function of any large-scale health service. In the context of government health services, this may be seen as a simple process of bureaucratic governance and implementation of the rule of law. However the literature from India and comparable low and middle-income country health systems suggests that in reality PT is a contested domain, driven by varied expressions of private and public interest throughout the chain of implementation...
July 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217499/factors-associated-with-high-stress-levels-in-adults-with-diabetes-mellitus-attending-a-tertiary-diabetes-care-center-chennai-tamil-nadu-india
#2
Muthappan Sendhilkumar, Jaya Prasad Tripathy, Anthony D Harries, Amol R Dongre, Mohan Deepa, Ashok Vidyulatha, Subramanian Poongothai, Ulaganathan Venkatesan, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Viswanathan Mohan
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine perceived stress levels among adults aged >20 years with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in a tertiary care diabetes center, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, assess their association with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and assess the possible risk factors for stress and coping strategies. METHODS: A mixed-methods (triangulation design) study with quantitative methodology (survey) and qualitative methodology (interviews) was carried out...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215981/vacuolar-control-of-subcellular-cation-distribution-is-a-key-parameter-in-the-adaptation-of-debaryomyces-hansenii-to-high-salt-concentrations
#3
R Herrera, A Salazar, L Ramos-Moreno, C Ruiz-Roldan, J Ramos
Debaryomyces hansenii is a halotolerant and Na(+)-includer yeast that can be isolated from different food and low-water activity products. It has also been defined as a marine-occurring yeast but key aspects for this salt tolerant behavior are far from being understood. Here, we searched for clues helping to elucidate the basis of this ability. Our results on growth, Rb(+) transport, total K(+) and Na(+) content and vacuolar fragmentation are compatible with a yeast species adapted to cope with salt stress...
February 12, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214356/comparative-analysis-of-the-transcriptional-responses-to-low-and-high-temperature-in-three-rice-planthopper-species
#4
Hai-Jian Huang, Jian Xue, Ji-Chong Zhuo, Ruo-Lin Cheng, Hai-Jun Xu, Chuan-Xi Zhang
The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH), white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera, WBPH), and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus, SBPH) are important rice pests in Asia. These three species differ in thermal tolerance and exhibit quite different migration and overwintering strategies. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we sequenced and compared the transcriptome of the three species under different temperature treatments. We found that metabolism-, exoskeleton-, and chemosensory-related genes were modulated...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213540/characterization-of-the-physical-and-functional-interplay-between-mazf1-bif-and-its-noncognate-antitoxins-from-bifidobacterium-longum
#5
Yanxia Wei, Yang Li, Fan Yang, Qiong Wu, Dianbin Liu, Xiangyang Li, Hui Hua, Xiaomei Liu, Yugang Wang, Kuiyang Zheng, Renxian Tang
Bifidobacterium longum strain JDM301, a widely used commercial strain in China, encodes at least two MazEF-like modules and one RelBE-like toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems in its chromosome, designated as MazE1F1(Bif), MazE2F2(Bif) and RelBE(Bif), respectively. Bacterial TA systems play an important role in several stress responses, but the relationship between these TA systems is largely unknown. In this study, the interaction between MazF1(Bif) and MazE2(Bif) or RelB(Bif) was assessed in B. longum strain JDM301...
February 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212195/suicide-in-guyana-nurses-perspectives
#6
Maureen Anthony, Carla Groh, Jean Gash
Guyana, an English-speaking country on the north coast of South America, has the highest suicide rate in the world. Nurses are an integral part of the healthcare team working with patients experiencing psychological distress and are uniquely qualified to add to the discourse on factors contributing to the high suicide rate in Guyana. The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes and experiences of nurses and nurse assistants in Guyana related to suicide. Nine registered nurses and nurse assistants who worked at a private hospital in Georgetown, Guyana, were recruited to participate in a focus group...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210270/face-to-face-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-the-effects-on-gastrointestinal-and-psychiatric-symptoms
#7
Hanna Edebol-Carlman, Brjánn Ljótsson, Steven J Linton, Katja Boersma, Martien Schrooten, Dirk Repsilber, Robert J Brummer
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a gastrointestinal disorder linked to disturbances in the gut-brain axis. Visceral hypersensitivity and pain are hallmarks of IBS and linked to the physiological and psychological burden and to the nonadaptive coping with stress. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for IBS has proven effective in reducing gastrointestinal and psychiatric symptoms in IBS by means of coping with stress. The present pilot study evaluated for the first time whether CBT for IBS affected visceral sensitivity and pain...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208741/mechanisms-of-post-replication-dna-repair
#8
REVIEW
Yanzhe Gao, Elizabeth Mutter-Rottmayer, Anastasia Zlatanou, Cyrus Vaziri, Yang Yang
Accurate DNA replication is crucial for cell survival and the maintenance of genome stability. Cells have developed mechanisms to cope with the frequent genotoxic injuries that arise from both endogenous and environmental sources. Lesions encountered during DNA replication are often tolerated by post-replication repair mechanisms that prevent replication fork collapse and avert the formation of DNA double strand breaks. There are two predominant post-replication repair pathways, trans-lesion synthesis (TLS) and template switching (TS)...
February 8, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206840/the-impact-of-a-brief-embedded-mindfulness-based-program-for-veterinary-students
#9
Helen M Correia, Anita D Smith, Susan Murray, Lynlea S Polak, Bronwyn Williams, Martin A Cake
Veterinary medical students, like other university students, are likely to experience elevated levels of stress, anxiety, and depression over the course of their studies. Mindfulness-based interventions have previously been effective for university students in reducing stress, depression, and anxiety. In this study, a mindfulness-based intervention was embedded in a core (compulsory) unit of a veterinary science course, in part with the aim of improving student well-being. Preliminary results suggest that, despite the mindfulness intervention, overall symptoms of stress, depression, and anxiety among participants (n=64) increased between the start and end of the semester...
2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203277/semantics-based-plausible-reasoning-to-extend-the-knowledge-coverage-of-medical-knowledge-bases-for-improved-clinical-decision-support
#10
Hossein Mohammadhassanzadeh, William Van Woensel, Samina Raza Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza Abidi
BACKGROUND: Capturing complete medical knowledge is challenging-often due to incomplete patient Electronic Health Records (EHR), but also because of valuable, tacit medical knowledge hidden away in physicians' experiences. To extend the coverage of incomplete medical knowledge-based systems beyond their deductive closure, and thus enhance their decision-support capabilities, we argue that innovative, multi-strategy reasoning approaches should be applied. In particular, plausible reasoning mechanisms apply patterns from human thought processes, such as generalization, similarity and interpolation, based on attributional, hierarchical, and relational knowledge...
2017: BioData Mining
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199920/family-burden-child-disability-and-the-adjustment-of-mothers-caring-for-children-with-epilepsy-role-of-social-support-and-coping
#11
Jeffrey M Carlson, Paul A Miller
PURPOSE: This study was designed to contribute to the existing research on the coping behaviors, social support, and mental health outcomes in parents of children with epilepsy in the United States. METHODS: Participants included 152, predominantly Caucasian (89.5%), married (78.9%) women (95.4%). Via a web-based interface, mothers completed questionnaires assessing the impact of their child's disability on their family (i.e., severity of their child's disability, family burden, and personal stress), social resources (i...
February 12, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199893/decreased-cingulate-cortex-activation-during-cognitive-control-processing-in-bipolar-disorder
#12
Staci A Gruber, M Kathryn Dahlgren, Kelly A Sagar, Atilla Gonenc, Lesley Norris, Bruce M Cohen, Dost Ongur, Kathryn E Lewandowski
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are well-documented in patients with bipolar disorder (BPD) and may impact the efficacy of psychotherapy. Cognitive control, a form of executive functioning, is often used therapeutically to shift patients' thoughts and behaviors from automatic, maladaptive responses to adaptive coping strategies. This study examined cognitive control processing in patients with BPD using the Multi-Source Interference Task (MSIT). METHOD: Twenty-nine patients diagnosed with BPD and 21 healthy control (HC) subjects completed the MSIT with concurrent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199191/trans-synaptic-homeostasis-at-the-myasthenic-neuromuscular-junction
#13
Jaap J Plomp
Properly sustained impulse transmission at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is crucial for successful muscle contraction. To guarantee this, NMJs not only possess a considerable safety factor in transmission but also have the ability to adjust the presynaptic acetylcholine release level to cope with any changes in the postsynaptic neurotransmitter sensitivity. This review will provide overview on the discovery and characterization of this synaptic homeostatic mechanism, especially in the condition of the neuromuscular disorder myasthenia gravis (MG) where the postsynaptic transmitter sensitivity at the NMJ becomes severely reduced due to autoimmune attack of acetylcholine receptors...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193624/transcriptional-mechanisms-of-resistance-to-anti-pd-1-therapy
#14
Maria Libera Ascierto, Alvin Makohon-Moore, Evan J Lipson, Janis M Taube, Tracee L McMiller, Alan E Berger, Jinshui Fan, Genevieve Kaunitz, Tricia Cottrell, Zachary Kohutek, Alexander Favorov, Vladimir Makarov, Nadeem Riaz, Timothy A Chan, Leslie Cope, Ralph H Hruban, Drew M Pardoll, Barry S Taylor, David B Solit, Christine A Iacobuzio-Donahue, Suzanne L Topalian
PURPOSE: To explore factors associated with response and resistance to anti-PD-1 therapy, we analyzed multiple disease sites at autopsy in a patient with widely metastatic melanoma who had a heterogeneous response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six melanoma specimens (four pre-mortem, 22 post-mortem) were subjected to whole-exome sequencing. Candidate immunologic markers and gene expression were assessed in ten cutaneous metastases showing response or progression during therapy...
February 13, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193523/faah-inhibition-produces-antidepressant-like-efforts-of-mice-to-acute-stress-via-synaptic-long-term-depression
#15
Ying Wang, Xia Zhang
Recent studies have shown that inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the major degradative enzyme of the endocannabinoid N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA), produced antidepressant behavioral responses, but its underlying mechanism is not clear. Here we find that a systemic administration of the FAAH inhibitor PF3845 or an intra-CA1 application of AEA elicits an in vivo long-term depression (LTD) at excitatory glutamatergic CA3-CA1 synapses of the hippocampus. The PF3845- and/or AEA-elicited LTD are abolished by the LTD-blocking peptide Tat-GluR2...
February 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192458/transcriptome-analysis-of-hexaploid-hulless-oat-in-response-to-salinity-stress
#16
Bin Wu, Yani Hu, Pengjie Huo, Qian Zhang, Xin Chen, Zongwen Zhang
BACKGROUND: Oat is a cereal crop of global importance used for food, feed, and forage. Understanding salinity stress tolerance mechanisms in plants is an important step towards generating crop varieties that can cope with environmental stresses. To date, little is known about the salt tolerance of oat at the molecular level. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying salt tolerance in oat, we investigated the transcriptomes of control and salt-treated oat using RNA-Seq. RESULTS: Using Illumina HiSeq 4000 platform, we generated 72,291,032 and 356,891,432 reads from non-stressed control and salt-stressed oat, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189053/hypoxia-and-iron-requirements-are-the-main-drivers-in-transcriptional-adaptation-of-kluyveromyces-lactis-during-wine-aerobic-fermentation
#17
Jordi Tronchoni, Alda J Rodrigues, Jose Antonio Curiel, Pilar Morales, Ramon Gonzalez
The respiratory metabolism of yeast species alternative to Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been explored in recent years as a tool to reduce ethanol content in grape wine. The efficacy of this strategy has been previously proven for mixed cultures of non-Saccharomyces and S. cerevisiae strains. In this work, we perform a transcriptomic analysis of the Crabtree-negative yeast Kluyveromyces lactis under tightly controlled growth conditions in order to better understand physiology of non-Saccharomyces yeasts during the fermentation of grape must under aerated conditions...
January 27, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186381/psychiatric-and-psychological-aspects-in-the-ehlers-danlos-syndromes
#18
Antonio Bulbena, Carolina Baeza-Velasco, Andrea Bulbena-Cabré, Guillem Pailhez, Hugo Critchley, Pradeep Chopra, Nuria Mallorquí-Bagué, Charissa Frank, Stephen Porges
There is increasing amount of evidence pointing toward a high prevalence of psychiatric conditions among individuals with hypermobile type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (JHS/hEDS). A literature review confirms a strong association between anxiety disorders and JHSh/hEDS, and there is also limited but growing evidence that JHSh/hEDS is also associated with depression, eating, and neuro-developmental disorders as well as alcohol and tobacco misuse. The underlying mechanisms behind this association include genetic risks, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, increased exteroceptive and interoceptive mechanisms and decreased proprioception...
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182653/protecting-cells-by-protecting-their-vulnerable-lysosomes-identification-of-a-new-mechanism-for-preserving-lysosomal-functional-integrity-upon-oxidative-stress
#19
Raquel Pascua-Maestro, Sergio Diez-Hermano, Concepción Lillo, Maria D Ganfornina, Diego Sanchez
Environmental insults such as oxidative stress can damage cell membranes. Lysosomes are particularly sensitive to membrane permeabilization since their function depends on intraluminal acidic pH and requires stable membrane-dependent proton gradients. Among the catalog of oxidative stress-responsive genes is the Lipocalin Apolipoprotein D (ApoD), an extracellular lipid binding protein endowed with antioxidant capacity. Within the nervous system, cell types in the defense frontline, such as astrocytes, secrete ApoD to help neurons cope with the challenge...
February 9, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182466/development-of-a-spirituality-infused-cognitive-behavioral-intervention-for-individuals-with-serious-mental-illnesses
#20
Andrew M Subica, Ann-Marie Yamada
OBJECTIVE: Spirituality offers a vital coping resource that can bolster mental health and psychosocial well-being for individuals with serious mental illnesses (SMI). However, limited research on spirituality-infused evidence-based interventions exists to assist providers in mobilizing spirituality as a mental health resource. This article presents the cognitive-behavioral intervention Spiritual Strategies for Psychosocial Recovery (SSPR), developed to promote recovery among ethnoculturally diverse individuals with SMI by strengthening their coping mechanisms for internal and external distress through spiritual means...
February 9, 2017: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
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