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Stephen Barnes, H Paul Benton, Krista Casazza, Sara J Cooper, Xiangqin Cui, Xiuxia Du, Jeffrey Engler, Janusz H Kabarowski, Shuzhao Li, Wimal Pathmasiri, Jeevan K Prasain, Matthew B Renfrow, Hemant K Tiwari
Metabolomics, a systems biology discipline representing analysis of known and unknown pathways of metabolism, has grown tremendously over the past 20 years. Because of its comprehensive nature, metabolomics requires careful consideration of the question(s) being asked, the scale needed to answer the question(s), collection and storage of the sample specimens, methods for extraction of the metabolites from biological matrices, the analytical method(s) to be employed and the quality control of the analyses, how collected data are correlated, the statistical methods to determine metabolites undergoing significant change, putative identification of metabolites and the use of stable isotopes to aid in verifying metabolite identity and establishing pathway connections and fluxes...
August 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Amilcar L Morales, Luz Liriano-Ward, Amber Tierney, Michelle Sang, Alexander Lalos, Mohamed Hassan, Vinay Nair, Thomas Schiano, Rohit Satoskar, Coleman Smith
Patients with end stage renal diseases on hemodialysis have a high prevalence of hepatitis C infection (HCV). In most patients treatment for HCV is delayed until post renal transplant. We assessed the effectiveness and tolerance of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) in 32 post-kidney transplant patients infected with HCV. The group was composed predominantly of treatment naïve (75%) African American (68.75%) males (75%) infected with genotype 1a (62.5%). Most patients received a deceased donor kidney graft (78...
February 26, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
I Ahlbeck Bergendahl, P B Holliland, S Hansson, O Karlöf
Using the widespread Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis as a model organism, feeding ranges were investigated using stable-isotope ratios (δ(15) N and δ(13) C) and body condition. Differences were found between closely located sampling sites in a littoral area without obvious migration barriers, indicating that individual fish had small feeding ranges. Body condition differences between sampled stations were consistent over 4 years. Such sedentary behaviour is important to consider in, e.g. fisheries management and environmental monitoring, as local catch regulations may be meaningful or geographic stability in sampling locations may reduce noise in data...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
M G Ward, P A Thwaites, L Beswick, J Hogg, G Rosella, D Van Langenberg, J Reynolds, P R Gibson, M P Sparrow
BACKGROUND: Whether therapeutic drug monitoring for adalimumab needs to be performed at the trough concentration has not been defined. AIM: To determine intra-patient adalimumab drug-level variation and to identify modulating patient and disease factors. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, adult patients with Crohn's disease established on maintenance adalimumab had drug levels measured repeatedly according to pre-defined schedules (visit 1: day 4-6, visit 2: day 7-9, trough: day 13-14) across two consecutive fortnightly cycles...
February 27, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
C-Q Chen, X Wang, J Zhang, S-M Zhu
Anesthetic management of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a challenge to the anesthesiologist, due to poor left systolic function, ventricular enlargement, risk of malignant arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Therefore, preoperative assessment and appropriate anesthetic management are important in patients with DCM. This review describes the preoperative evaluation and anesthesia considerations of patients with DCM undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Patient pathophysiology and clinical status, such as ventricular function, degree of myocardial fibrosis, resting heart rate and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein can affect survival rates...
February 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Yu A Romanov, E E Balashova, N E Volgina, N V Kabaeva, T N Dugina, G T Sukhikh
We studied the expression of different classes of surface molecules (CD13, CD29, CD40, CD44, CD54, CD71, CD73, CD80, CD86, CD90, CD105, CD106, CD146, HLA-I, and HLA-DR) in mesenchymal stromal cells from human umbilical cord and bone marrow during co-culturing with nucleated umbilical cord blood cells. Expression of the majority of surface markers in both types of mesenchymal stromal cells was stable and did not depend on the presence of the blood cells. Significant differences were found only for cell adhesion molecules CD54 (ICAM-1) and CD106 (VCAM-1) responsible for direct cell-cell contacts with leukocytes and only for bone marrow derived cells...
February 27, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Martin Poryo, Sara Khosrawikatoli, Hashim Abdul-Khaliq, Sascha Meyer
Evidence-based medicine has contributed substantially to the quality of medical care in pediatric and adult cardiology. However, our impression from the bedside is that a substantial number of Cochrane reviews generate inconclusive data that are of limited clinical benefit. We performed a systematic synopsis of Cochrane reviews published between 2001 and 2015 in the field of pediatric cardiology. Main outcome parameters were the number and percentage of conclusive, partly conclusive, and inconclusive reviews as well as their recommendations and their development over three a priori defined intervals...
February 27, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
Dongming Yao, Yichu Liu, Shiqiang Yan, Yingxia Li, Chun Hu, Ning Ding
Although there are numerous claims of remote group participation leading to the synthesis of the expected glycosides with improved anomeric geometry outcome in glycosylation, there is still a lack of enough strong evidence and this has led to a long-term debate, particularly for equatorial 4-O group participation. In this work, we were able to synthesize and isolate a stable seven-membered trichlorooxazepine ring bridging intermediate with a high yield by employing a 2-azido-2-deoxy-glucopyranosyl donor, which provides strong evidence to support the putative participation of the equatorial 4-O group in glycosylation...
February 27, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Xiaofeng Zhu, Jiaguo Yu, Chuanjia Jiang, Bei Cheng
To overcome the drawbacks of powder-like catalysts in practical application, an Al2O3 molecular sieve supported Pt (Pt-Al2O3) catalyst was prepared by the impregnation method combined with dilute hydrochloric acid solution pretreatment. The role of the pretreatment solution in catalyst preparation and formaldehyde (HCHO) decomposition over Pt-Al2O3 catalysts was investigated. The acid solution with pH = 1 was optimal for Pt dispersion on the Al2O3 surface. The Pt-Al2O3 catalyst was capable of achieving complete and stable HCHO oxidation at ambient temperature...
February 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yishun Huang, Wanlin Xu, Guoyuan Liu, Leilei Tian
A rolling-circle-amplification method was developed to produce DNA hydrogels with horseradish-peroxidase-like catalytic capability. The catalytic hydrogel exhibits highly improved stability at elevated temperatures or during a long-term storage. Integrated with glucose oxidase, the complex hydrogel can be applied to the sensitive and reliable detection of glucose.
February 27, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Kohei Takijiri, Kohei Morita, Takashi Nakazono, Ken Sakai, Hironobu Ozawa
A polypyridyl ruthenium sensitizer possessing pyridyl anchors (Ru-py) forms much stronger chemical linkages to TiO2 surfaces compared to the conventional carboxylate and phosphonate ones. A highly stable dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cell for water reduction is successfully demonstrated using this technique.
February 27, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Toshiki Higashino, Akira Ueda, Junya Yoshida, Hatsumi Mori
A dihydroxy-substituted benzothienobenzothiophene, BTBT(OH)2, was synthesized, and its charge-transfer (CT) salt, β-[BTBT(OH)2]2ClO4, was successfully obtained. Thanks to the introduced hydroxy groups, a hydrogen-bonded chain structure connecting the BTBT molecules and counter anions was formed in the CT salt, which effectively increases the dimensionality of the electronic structure and consequently leads to a stable metallic state.
February 27, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Suheda Erener, Ashish Marwaha, Rusung Tan, Constadina Panagiotopoulos, Timothy J Kieffer
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that is clinically silent until the majority of β cells are destroyed. There is an unmet need for reliable and cost-effective biomarkers to predict and diagnose diabetes at an early stage. A number of stable microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported in serum and plasma and are now being investigated as biomarkers of different diseases. We measured the levels of 745 miRNAs in sera of children with recent-onset T1D and age-matched controls using locked nucleic acid-enhanced (LNA-enhanced) quantitative PCR profiling...
February 23, 2017: JCI Insight
Amit Tandon
Traumatic neuromas are uncommon and benign lesions arising from a peripheral nerve injury during surgery. Here we describe a case with histopathologic features of both a traumatic neuroma and neurofibroma in a patient without integumentary physical exam findings nor prior surgical history. A 54 year old male was admitted for surgical debridement of a foot ulcer. During pre-operative evaluation and review of imaging multiple CT scans revealed a stable, 4 mm endobronchial lesion in the left lower lobe. Given history of nicotine abuse, bronchoscopy was performed...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Ayako Tsuge, Satoshi Kaneko, Reika Wate, Mitsuaki Oki, Masato Nagashima, Shinya Asayama, Masataka Nakamura, Kengo Fujita, Akemi Saito, Norihiro Takenouchi, Hirofumi Kusaka
OBJECTIVES: To clarify whether weight change in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) or progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is caused by the disease itself or secondarily by other factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 51 patients with PD and 14 patients with PSP, especially during the early stage of their diseases. All patients were independent in terms of their activities of daily living and did not have any feeding difficulty...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
Michelle E McClements, Peter Charbel Issa, Véronique Blouin, Robert E MacLaren
OBJECTIVE: Dual vector AAV systems are being utilised to enable gene therapy for disorders in which the disease gene is too large to fit into a single capsid. Fragmented adeno-associated viral (fAAV) vectors containing single inverted terminal repeat truncated transgenes have been considered as one such gene replacement strategy. Here we aim to add to the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms employed by fAAV dual vector systems. METHODS: Oversized (>8kb) transgene constructs containing ABCA4 coding sequence were packaged as truncated fragments <5kb in size into various AAV serotypes...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Genetic Syndrome & Gene Therapy
Siavash Rezazadeh, Robert D Gregg
Although dynamic walking methods have had notable successes in control of bipedal robots in the recent years, still most of the humanoid robots rely on quasi-static Zero Moment Point controllers. This work is an attempt to design a highly stable controller for dynamic walking of a human-like model which can be used both for control of humanoid robots and prosthetic legs. The method is based on using time-based trajectories that can induce a highly stable limit cycle to the bipedal robot. The time-based nature of the controller motivates its use to entrain a model of an amputee walking, which can potentially lead to a better coordination of the interaction between the prosthesis and the human...
October 2016: Proceedings of the ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference
Deepjyoti Paul, Amitabha Bhattacharjee, Dibyojyoti Bhattacharjee, Debadatta Dhar, Anand Prakash Maurya, Atanu Chakravarty
BACKGROUND: New Delhi metallo beta-lactamase is known to compromise carbapenem therapy and leading to treatment failure. However, their response to carbapenem stress is not clearly known. Here, we have investigated the transcriptional response of blaNDM-1 and plasmid copy number alteration under carbapenem exposure. METHODS: Three blaNDM-1 harboring plasmids representing three incompatibility types (IncFIC, IncA/C and IncK) were inoculated in LB broth with and without imipenem, meropenem and ertapenem...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Raul M Mejia, Sandra Braun, Lorena Peña, Steven E Gregorich, Eliseo J Pérez-Stable
BACKGROUND: Following cessation interventions, self-reported smoking abstinence with biochemical verification is the "gold standard" for defining outcomes. Because obtaining biochemical verification is challenging in community studies, we compared self-reported cessation among smokers completing treatment to the smoking status reported by each participant's spouse or proxy. METHOD: Participants were smokers who had reported quitting 12 months after a cessation intervention...
March 2017: Journal of Smoking Cessation
Xin-Peng Pan, Guang-Zhi Zhang, Jia-Jia Zhang, Xing-Yao Yin
The conventional Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method is limited to the selected shape and size of proposal distribution and is not easy to start when the initial proposal distribution is far away from the target distribution. To overcome these drawbacks of the conventional MCMC method, two useful improvements in MCMC method, adaptive Metropolis (AM) algorithm and delayed rejection (DR) algorithm, are attempted to be combined. The AM algorithm aims at adapting the proposal distribution by using the generated estimators, and the DR algorithm aims at enhancing the efficiency of the improved MCMC method...
2017: Pet Sci
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