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Knowledge translation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240451/hpe-as-a-field-implications-for-the-production-of-compelling-knowledge
#1
Anneke van Enk, Glenn Regehr
ISSUE: Research in education, including health professions education, has long struggled with the competing concerns of academic and practice-based stakeholders. Inspired partially by the work of Stokes and other theorists in science and technology studies, we propose that discussions about compelling research in health professions education might be usefully advanced by considering what it would mean if the community framed itself as a knowledge-producing field instead of aligning itself with either disciplinary or practical interests...
December 14, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239840/therapeutic-monoclonal-antibody-n-glycosylation-structure-function-and-therapeutic-potential
#2
REVIEW
Florian Cymer, Hermann Beck, Adelheid Rohde, Dietmar Reusch
Therapeutic antibodies (IgG-type) contain several post-translational modifications (PTMs) whereby introducing a large heterogeneity, both structural and functional, into this class of therapeutics. Of these modifications, glycosylation in the fragment crystallizable (Fc) region is the most heterogeneous PTM, which can affect the stability of the molecule and interactions with Fc-receptors in vivo. Hence, the glycoform distribution can affect the mode of action and have implications for bioactivity, safety and efficacy of the drug...
November 24, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239754/characterization-of-rhodococcus-sp-a5wh-isolated-from-a-high-altitude-andean-lake-to-unravel-the-survival-strategy-under-lithium-stress
#3
Carolina Belfiore, María V Curia, María E Farías
Lithium (Li) is widely distributed in nature and has several industrial applications. The largest reserves of Li (over 85%) are in the so-called "triangle of lithium" that includes the Salar de Atacama in Chile, Salar de Uyuni in Bolivia and Salar del Hombre Muerto in Argentina. Recently, the use of microorganisms in metal recovery such as copper has increased; however, there is little information about the recovery of lithium. The strain Rhodococcus sp. A5wh used in this work was previously isolated from Laguna Azul...
November 24, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238357/structural-and-functional-diversity-of-plant-virus-3-cap-independent-translation-enhancers-3-cites
#4
REVIEW
Verónica Truniger, Manuel Miras, Miguel A Aranda
Most of the positive-strand RNA plant viruses lack the 5'-cap and/or the poly(A)-tail that act synergistically to stimulate canonical translation of cellular mRNAs. However, they have RNA elements in the 5'- or 3'-untranslated regions of their RNAs that are required for their cap-independent translation. Cap-independent translation enhancers (CITEs) have been identified in the genomic 3'-end of viruses belonging to the family Tombusviridae and the genus Luteovirus. Seven classes of 3'-CITEs have been described to date based on their different RNA structures...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238276/computer-aided-drug-discovery-in-plant-pathology
#5
REVIEW
Gnanendra Shanmugam, Junhyun Jeon
Control of plant diseases is largely dependent on use of agrochemicals. However, there are widening gaps between our knowledge on plant diseases gained from genetic/mechanistic studies and rapid translation of the knowledge into target-oriented development of effective agrochemicals. Here we propose that the time is ripe for computer-aided drug discovery/design (CADD) in molecular plant pathology. CADD has played a pivotal role in development of medically important molecules over the last three decades. Now, explosive increase in information on genome sequences and three dimensional structures of biological molecules, in combination with advances in computational and informational technologies, opens up exciting possibilities for application of CADD in discovery and development of agrochemicals...
December 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237463/the-researchers-role-in-knowledge-translation-a-realist-evaluation-of-the-development-and-implementation-of-diagnostic-pathways-for-cancer-in-two-united-kingdom-localities
#6
Jon Banks, Lesley Wye, Nicola Hall, James Rooney, Fiona M Walter, Willie Hamilton, Ardiana Gjini, Greg Rubin
BACKGROUND: In examining an initiative to develop and implement new cancer diagnostic pathways in two English localities, this paper evaluates 'what works' and examines the role of researchers in facilitating knowledge translation amongst teams of local clinicians and policy-makers. METHODS: Using realist evaluation with a mixed methods case study approach, we conducted documentary analysis of meeting minutes and pathway iterations to map pathway development. We interviewed 14 participants to identify the contexts, mechanisms and outcomes (CMOs) that led to successful pathway development and implementation...
December 13, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237281/reactive-oxygen-species-photosynthesis-and-environment-in-the-regulation-of-stomata
#7
Sanna Ehonen, Dmitry Yarmolinsky, Hannes Kollist, Jaakko Kangasjärvi
SIGNIFICANCE: Stomata can sense the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and water availability and adjust their aperture in order to maintain optimal conditions to photosynthesis under changing environmental conditions. Stomatal movements are regulated by complex network of signaling cascades where reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role as signaling component. Recent Advances: Recent research has uncovered several signaling components involved in CO2 and ABA-triggered stomatal guard cell signaling...
December 14, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237040/conceptual-and-computational-framework-for-logical-modelling-of-biological-networks-deregulated-in-diseases
#8
Arnau Montagud, Pauline Traynard, Loredana Martignetti, Eric Bonnet, Emmanuel Barillot, Andrei Zinovyev, Laurence Calzone
Mathematical models can serve as a tool to formalize biological knowledge from diverse sources, to investigate biological questions in a formal way, to test experimental hypotheses, to predict the effect of perturbations and to identify underlying mechanisms. We present a pipeline of computational tools that performs a series of analyses to explore a logical model's properties. A logical model of initiation of the metastatic process in cancer is used as a transversal example. We start by analysing the structure of the interaction network constructed from the literature or existing databases...
December 8, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236778/interaction-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-proteins-with-sumo-conjugating-enzyme-reveals-the-sumoylation-of-nucleocapsid-protein
#9
Cong Wang, Nanfang Zeng, Siyu Liu, Qi Miao, Lei Zhou, Xinna Ge, Jun Han, Xin Guo, Hanchun Yang
SUMOylation is a reversible post-translational modification that regulates the function of target protein. In this study, we first predicted by software that the multiple proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) could be sumoylated. Next, we confirmed that Nsp1β, Nsp4, Nsp9, Nsp10 and nucleocapsid (N) protein of PRRSV could interact with the sole SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme Ubc9, and Ubc9 could be co-localized with Nsp1β, Nsp4, Nsp9 and Nsp10 in the cytoplasm, while with N protein in both the cytoplasm and nucleus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236321/murine-models-of-osteosarcoma-a-piece-of-the-translational-puzzle
#10
Mannu K Walia, Wilson Castillo-Tandazo, Anthony J Mutsaers, T John Martin, Carl R Walkley
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common cancer of bone in children and young adults. Despite extensive research efforts, there has been no significant improvement in patient outcome for many years. An improved understanding of the biology of this cancer and how genes frequently mutated contribute to OS may help improve outcomes for patients. Whilst our knowledge of the mutational burden of OS is approaching saturation, our understanding of how these mutations contribute to OS initiation and maintenance is less clear...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235170/scaling-up-integrated-early-childhood-development-programs-lessons-from-four-countries
#11
R Pérez-Escamilla, V Cavallera, M Tomlinson, T Dua
BACKGROUND: There is still limited knowledge regarding the translation of early child development (ECD) knowledge into effective policies and large-scale programmes. A variety of frameworks that outline the key steps in scaling up exist, but we argue that taking a complex adaptive systems (CAS) approach assists in understanding the complex, dynamic processes that result in programmes being taken to scale. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to examine the process of scaling up four major country-level ECD programmes through the application of a CAS framework...
January 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234936/a-generic-whole-body-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model-for-therapeutic-proteins-in-pk-sim
#12
Christoph Niederalt, Lars Kuepfer, Juri Solodenko, Thomas Eissing, Hans-Ulrich Siegmund, Michael Block, Stefan Willmann, Jörg Lippert
Proteins are an increasingly important class of drugs used as therapeutic as well as diagnostic agents. A generic physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed in order to represent at whole body level the fundamental mechanisms driving the distribution and clearance of large molecules like therapeutic proteins. The model was built as an extension of the PK-Sim model for small molecules incorporating (i) the two-pore formalism for drug extravasation from blood plasma to interstitial space, (ii) lymph flow, (iii) endosomal clearance and (iv) protection from endosomal clearance by neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) mediated recycling as especially relevant for antibodies...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233632/rationale-and-design-of-the-worldwide-prospective-multicenter-registry-on-radiation-dose-estimates-of-cardiac-ct-angiography-in-daily-practice-in-2017-protection-vi
#13
Thomas J Stocker, Simon Deseive, Marcus Chen, Jonathon Leipsic, Martin Hadamitzky, Ronen Rubinshtein, Erik L Grove, Xiang-Ming Fang, John Lesser, Pál Maurovich-Horvat, Hugo Marques, Daniele Andreini, Ramzi Tabbalat, Joon-Won Kang, Joachim Eckert, Patricia Dickson, Signe H Forsdahl, Jess Lambrechtsen, Roberto C Cury, Jörg Hausleiter
BACKGROUND: Cardiac computed tomography angiography (cardiac CTA) is an increasingly used versatile imaging method to evaluate coronary and cardiac morphology. Owing to improvements in technology, image quality has continuously improved over the last 10-20 years. At the same time, numerous non-randomized and randomized studies have been performed to reduce the associated radiation exposure. Currently, it is unclear if the advances in technology and knowledge about radiation reduction translated into reduced levels of cardiac CTA radiation dose in daily clinical practice as well as a wide utilization of dose-saving strategies...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231620/-briefs-of-japanese-acupuncture-moxibustion-works-of-chinese-translation-version-in-modern-times
#14
Kechen Liu, Shujian Zhang
The authors collected 25 Japanese acupuncture-moxibustion works of Chinese translation version in modern times (1912-1960) and investigated them from 3 aspects, named the study on the mechanisms of acupuncture and moxibustion, the explanation of basic theory and clinical treatment with acupuncture and moxibustion. Generally speaking, Japanese acupuncture-moxibustion works of Chinese translation version explained the mechanisms of acupuncture and moxibustion in terms of the theory of western medicine rather than traditional one...
May 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229553/human-vs-mouse-nociceptors-similarities-and-differences
#15
Charlotte Rostock, Katrin Schrenk-Siemens, Jörg Pohle, Jan Siemens
The somatosensory system allows us to detect a diverse range of physical and chemical stimuli including noxious ones, which can initiate protective reflexes to prevent tissue damage. However, the sensation of pain can -under pathological circumstances- outlive its usefulness and perpetrate ongoing suffering. Rodent model systems have been tremendously useful to help understand basic mechanisms of pain perception. Unfortunately, the translation of this knowledge into novel therapies has been challenging. We have investigated similarities and differences of human and mouse peptidergic (TRKA expressing) nociceptors using dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization of dorsal root ganglia...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228324/usp9x-controls-translation-efficiency-via-deubiquitination-of-eukaryotic-translation-initiation-factor-4a1
#16
Zengxia Li, Zhao Cheng, Chaerkady Raghothama, Zhaomeng Cui, Kaiyu Liu, Xiaojing Li, Chenxiao Jiang, Wei Jiang, Minjia Tan, Xiaohua Ni, Akhilesh Pandey, Jun O Liu, Yongjun Dang
Controlling translation initiation is an efficient way to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. However, current knowledge regarding regulatory proteins and their modes of controlling translation initiation is still limited. In this study, we employed tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry to screen for unknown proteins associated with the translation initiation machinery. Ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, X-linked (USP9X), was identified as a novel binding partner, that interacts with the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4B (eIF4B) in a mRNA-independent manner...
December 8, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227432/cpd-and-kt-models-used-and-opportunities-for-synergy
#17
Joan Sargeant, Francine Borduas, Anne Sales, Doug Klein, Brenna Lynn, Heather Stenerson
The two fields of continuing professional development (CPD) and knowledge translation (KT) within the health care sector, and their related research have developed as somewhat parallel paths with limited points of overlap or intersection. This is slowly beginning to change. The purpose of this paper is to describe and compare the dominant conceptual models informing each field with the view of increasing understanding and appreciation of the two fields, how they are similar and where they differ, and the current and potential points of intersection...
October 2017: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226600/loss-of-skills-and-onset-patterns-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders-understanding-the-neurobiological-mechanisms
#18
Audrey Thurm, Elizabeth M Powell, Jeffrey L Neul, Ann Wagner, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum
Patterns of onset in Autism Spectrum Disorder, including a pattern that includes loss of previously acquired skills, have been identified since the first reports of the disorder. However, attempts to study such "regression" have been limited to clinical studies, that until recently mostly involved retrospective reports. The current report reflects discussion that occurred at an NIMH convened meeting in 2016 with the purpose of bridging clinical autism research with basic and translational work in this area...
December 11, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225703/facilitators-and-barriers-to-healthy-eating-in-a-worksite-cafeteria-a-qualitative-study-from-nepal
#19
Archana Shrestha, Prajjwal Pyakurel, Abha Shrestha, Rabin Gautam, Nisha Manandhar, Elizabeth Rhodes, Dipesh Tamrakar, Biraj Man Karmacharya, Vasanti Malik, Josiemer Mattei, Donna Spiegelman
Objective: Worksite interventions can serve as a potential platform for translating existing knowledge of diabetes prevention and facilitate healthy food choices. The study explored perceptions about healthy eating as well as potential facilitators and barriers to healthy eating among employees in a wire manufacturing factory in Nepal. Methods and materials: We conducted a cross-sectional exploratory qualitative study in a wire manufacturing industry in eastern Nepal...
2017: Heart Asia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224665/endocrine-rhythms-of-growth-hormone-release-insights-from-animal-studies
#20
REVIEW
Frederik J Steyn, Shyuan T Ngo
Growth hormone (GH) secretory patterns emerge following birth, and changes in patterning occur throughout life. These secretory patterns are coupled to growth, reproduction and metabolism. Comparing human and animal studies, this review will highlight ultradian patterning of GH release and the mechanisms that contribute to this. Discussions will focus on the emergence in variations in the number and frequency of GH secretory events, and the amounts of GH released (peak and basal). Animal studies have contributed significantly to our understanding of the processes that regulate GH release...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
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