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Yali Zhou, Pingshi Wang, Lin Wang, Zhifeng Fu
A novel label-free protocol was developed for measuring the affinity between ractopamine and its monoclonal antibody (McAb) based on microdialysis (MD) on-line sampling integrated with flow injection chemiluminescent detection. In this study, unbound ractopamine was sampled by MD probe from homogeneous immunoreaction equilibrious systems, and then real-time quantified using flow injection chemiluminescent detection. The quantified concentrations of unbound ractopamine in the immunoreaction equilibrious systems were treated with Scatchard analysis and Klotz analysis to obtain the affinity constant...
April 25, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Veeranarayanan Surya Aathmanathan, Nattarsingam Jothi, Vijay Kumar Prajapati, Muthukalingan Krishnan
Infectious diseases are the major cause of high mortality among infants and geriatric patients. Vaccines are the only weapon in our arsenal to defend us ourselves against innumerable infectious diseases. Though myriad of vaccines are available, still countless people die due to microbial infections. Subunit vaccine is an effective strategy of vaccine development, combining a highly immunogenic carrier protein with highly antigenic but non-immunogenic antigen (haptens). In this study we have made an attempt to utilize the immunoinformatic tool for carrier protein development...
May 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marilene Chaves Silvestre, Maria Notomi Sato, Vitor Manoel Silva Dos Reis
Skin's innate immunity is the initial activator of immune response mechanisms, influencing the development of adaptive immunity. Some contact allergens are detected by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and inflammasome NLR3. Keratinocytes participate in innate immunity and, in addition to functioning as an anatomical barrier, secrete cytokines, such as TNF, IL-1β, and IL-18, contributing to the development of Allergic Contact Dermatitis. Dendritic cells recognize and process antigenic peptides into T cells. Neutrophils cause pro-inflammatory reactions, mast cells induce migration/maturation of skin DCs, the natural killer cells have natural cytotoxic capacity, the γδ T cells favor contact with hapten during the sensitization phase, and the innate lymphoid cells act in the early stages by secreting cytokines, as well as act in inflammation and tissue homeostasis...
March 2018: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
Hideyuki Mizumachi, Megumi Sakuma, Mayu Ikezumi, Kazutoshi Saito, Midori Takeyoshi, Noriyasu Imai, Hiroko Okutomi, Asami Umetsu, Hiroko Motohashi, Mika Watanabe, Masaaki Miyazawa
The epidermal sensitization assay (EpiSensA) is an in vitro skin sensitization test method based on gene expression of four markers related to the induction of skin sensitization; the assay uses commercially available reconstructed human epidermis. EpiSensA has exhibited an accuracy of 90% for 72 chemicals, including lipophilic chemicals and pre-/pro-haptens, when compared with the results of the murine local lymph node assay. In this work, a ring study was performed by one lead and two naive laboratories to evaluate the transferability, as well as within- and between-laboratory reproducibilities, of EpiSensA...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
A Bauer, S Schubert, J Geier, V Mahler
BACKGROUND: The food sector is one of the high-risk areas for occupational irritative and allergic contact eczema. OBJECTIVES: The present work provides an overview of the main allergens as well as sensitization frequencies and risk in various food industry occupations. METHODS: The literature on type IV sensitization in the food sector is summarized. RESULTS: The relative risk of developing a work-related eczema in food processing is increased by more than 3 times...
May 2, 2018: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
Ayako Takamori, Aya Nambu, Keiko Sato, Sachiko Yamaguchi, Kenshiro Matsuda, Takafumi Numata, Takeru Sugawara, Takamichi Yoshizaki, Ken Arae, Hideaki Morita, Kenji Matsumoto, Katsuko Sudo, Ko Okumura, Jiro Kitaura, Hiroshi Matsuda, Susumu Nakae
IL-31, which is a member of the IL-6 family of cytokines, is produced mainly by activated CD4+ T cells, in particular activated Th2 cells, suggesting a contribution to development of type-2 immune responses. IL-31 was reported to be increased in specimens from patients with atopic dermatitis, and IL-31-transgenic mice develop atopic dermatitis-like skin inflammation, which is involved in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. However, the role of IL-31 in development of contact dermatitis/contact hypersensitivity (CHS), which is mediated by hapten-specific T cells, including Th2 cells, is not fully understood...
April 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Oscar B Torres, Alexander J Duval, Agnieszka Sulima, Joshua F G Antoline, Arthur E Jacobson, Kenner C Rice, Carl R Alving, Gary R Matyas
We describe for the first time a method that utilizes microscale thermophoresis (MST) technology to determine polyclonal antibody affinities to small molecules. Using a novel type of heterologous MST, we have accurately measured a solution-based binding affinity of serum antibodies to heroin which was previously impossible with other currently available methods. Moreover, this mismatch approach (i.e., using a cross-reactive hapten tracer) has never been reported in the literature. When compared with equilibrium dialysis combined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (ED-UPLC/MS/MS), this novel MST method yields similar binding affinity values for polyclonal antibodies to the major heroin metabolites 6-AM and morphine...
April 19, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Ayaka Kitamura, Ryohei Takata, Shin Aizawa, Hajime Watanabe, Tadashi Wada
Drug development involves pharmacometric experiments in animals. Such experiments should limit animal pain and stress. Conventional murine models of atopic dermatitis (AD) used in drug development are generated by weekly painting of hapten on dorsal skin for 5 weeks. The present study aimed to develop a protocol that involves less animal distress. The experiments focused on serum total IgE levels, which are a marker of AD. The conventional protocol induced ever rising IgE levels. Experiments with extended intervals between sensitizations showed that IgE peaked ~5 days after the second sensitization, after which it returned to the control level within 12-19 days...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chun-Bing Chen, Riichiro Abe, Ren-You Pan, Chuang-Wei Wang, Shuen-Iu Hung, Yi-Giien Tsai, Wen-Hung Chung
Drug hypersensitivity may manifest ranging from milder skin reactions (e.g., maculopapular exanthema and urticaria) to severe systemic reactions, such as anaphylaxis, drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS)/drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS), or Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS)/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Current pharmacogenomic studies have made important strides in the prevention of some drug hypersensitivity through the identification of relevant genetic variants, particularly for genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and human leukocyte antigens (HLAs)...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Nicolas Hegerle, Janhabi Bose, Girish Ramachandran, James E Galen, Myron M Levine, Raphael Simon, Sharon M Tennant
AIMS: O-polysaccharide (OPS) molecules are protective antigens for several bacterial pathogens, and have broad utility as components of glycoconjugate vaccines. Variability in the OPS chain length is one obstacle towards further development of these vaaccines. Introduction of sizing steps during purification of OPS molecules of sub-optimal or of mixed lengths introduces additional costs and complexity while decreasing the final yield. The overall goal of this study was to demonstrate the utility of engineering Gram-negative bacteria to produce homogenous O-polysaccharide populations that can be used as the basis of carbohydrate vaccines by over-expressing O-polysaccharide chain length regulators of the Wzx/Wzy-dependent pathway...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Lina Hagvall, Ida B Niklasson, Kristina Luthman, Ann-Therese Karlberg
BACKGROUND: Cinnamyl alcohol is considered to be a prohapten and prehapten with cinnamal as the main metabolite. However, many individuals who are allergic to cinnamyl alcohol do not react to cinnamal. Sensitizing epoxides of cinnamyl alcohol and cinnamal have been identified as metabolites and autoxidation products of cinnamyl alcohol. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical relevance of contact allergy to epoxycinnamyl alcohol and epoxycinnamal. METHODS: Irritative effects of the epoxides were investigated in 12 dermatitis patients...
March 30, 2018: Contact Dermatitis
Alexandr E Urusov, Miliausha K Gubaidullina, Alina V Petrakova, Anatoly V Zherdev, Boris B Dzantiev
A new kind of competitive immunochromatographic assay is presented. It is based on the use of a test strip loaded with (a) labeled specific antibodies, (b) a hapten-protein conjugate at the control zone, and (c) antibodies interacting with the specific antibodies in the analytical zone. In the case where a sample does not contain the target antigen (hapten), all labeled antibodies remain in the control zone because of the selected ratio of reactants. The analytical zone remains colorless because the labeled antibodies do not reach it...
December 6, 2017: Mikrochimica Acta
Zhaopeng Wang, Xuezhi Yu, Licai Ma, Hebing Liu, Shuangyang Ding, Zhanhui Wang, Xiya Zhang, Jianzhong Shen, Kai Wen
In this work, high affinity polyclonal antibodies for ribavirin from new haptens were prepared and were used to analyze ribavirin residues in chicken muscle, eggs and duck muscle. The new haptens were synthesized with different spacers and the best antibody was obtained with an IC50 value as low as 0.61 ng/mL in indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cross-reactivities with another 5 antiviral drugs including amantadine, rimantadine, moroxydine, zanamivir, and oseltamivir were less than 0...
March 26, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Candy S Hwang, Lauren C Smith, Yoshihiro Natori, Beverly Ellis, Bin Zhou, Kim D Janda
The sharp increase in overdose deaths involving illicit opioid use has been declared a national crisis in the United States. This growing number of overdose deaths can in part be attributed to the increased frequency of fentanyl contamination in the United States heroin supply. To combat this growing trend, we designed a vaccine containing a mixture of heroin and fentanyl hapten-conjugates as a proof-of-concept immunotherapy targeting a combination of these drugs. Rodents immunized with the admixture vaccine showed drug retention in serum and reduced distribution in the brain after administration of an intravenous bolus of heroin coadministered with fentanyl (10% w/w)...
March 23, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
De-Xin Kong, Fang Lv, Ben Hu, Li-Min Cao
Detection of triphenylmethane dyes (TDs), especially the widely used malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV), plays an important role in safety control of aquatic products. There are two chromatic forms of TDs: oxidized or reduced. Usually, only one form can be detected by reported ELISA antibodies. In this article, molecular shape superimposing and quantum mechanics calculation were employed to elucidate the differences between MG, CV, and their reduced chromatic forms (leucomalachite green, LMG and leucocrystal violet, LCV)...
March 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Inna A Galvidis, Zhanhui Wang, Rinat I Nuriev, Maksim A Burkin
The recognition spectrum of immunoassays developed on the basis of class-specific antibodies can include the several nearest analytes but rarely all of the desired representatives of the group. The situation may be sufficiently improved using a hybrid assay combining two antibodies with specificities that complement each other. Two monoclonal antibodies (mAb) with broad but different specificities towards sulfonamides were examined for their binding to a panel of hapten conjugates. MAb - hapten pairs without mutual cross-reactions were identified, and classical direct antigen-coated and mAb-coated ELISAs were developed as formats with referent specificities...
March 13, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
David A Rafei-Shamsabadi, Saskia van de Poel, Britta Dorn, Stefanie Kunz, Stefan F Martin, Christoph S N Klose, Sebastian J Arnold, Yakup Tanriver, Karolina Ebert, Andreas Diefenbach, Timotheus Y F Halim, Andrew N J McKenzie, Thilo Jakob
Allergic contact dermatitis and its animal model, contact hypersensitivity (CHS), are T cell-mediated inflammatory skin diseases that require activation of the innate immune system. Here we investigate the role of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) during the elicitation phase of TNCB-induced CHS using EomesGfp/+ x Rorc(γt)-CreTg x Rosa26RYfp/+ reporter mice. Ear swelling responses, cutaneous ILC numbers and cytokine production were determined at different time points. Functional analyses were performed in a CD90...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Hajime Suto, Aya Nambu, Hideaki Morita, Sachiko Yamaguchi, Takafumi Numata, Takamichi Yoshizaki, Eri Shimura, Ken Arae, Yousuke Asada, Kenichiro Motomura, Mari Kaneko, Takaya Abe, Akira Matsuda, Yoichiro Iwakura, Ko Okumura, Hirohisa Saito, Kenji Matsumoto, Katsuko Sudo, Susumu Nakae
BACKGROUND: In addition to thymic stromal lymphopoietin and IL-33, IL-25 is known to induce TH 2 cytokine production by various cell types, including TH 2 cells, TH 9 cells, invariant natural killer T cells, and group 2 innate lymphoid cells, involved in TH 2-type immune responses. Because both TH 2-type and TH 17-type cells/cytokines are crucial for contact hypersensitivity (CHS), IL-25 can contribute to this by enhancing TH 2-type immune responses. However, the precise role of IL-25 in the pathogenesis of fluorescein isothiocyanate-induced CHS is poorly understood...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Zhibin Liang, Qing X Li
The π-cation interaction that differs from the cation-π interaction is a valuable concept in molecular design of pharmaceuticals and pesticides. In this Perspective we present an up-to-date review (from 1995 to 2017) on bioactive molecules involving π-cation interactions with the recognition site, and categorize into systems of inhibitor-enzyme, ligand-receptor, ligand-transporter, and hapten-antibody. The concept of π-cation interactions offers use of π systems in a small molecule to enhance the binding affinity, specificity, selectivity, lipophilicity, bioavailability, and metabolic stability, which are physiochemical features desired for drugs and pesticides...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Marie J Ducrotoy, Pilar M Muñoz, Raquel Conde-Álvarez, José M Blasco, Ignacio Moriyón
Brucellosis is a worldwide extended zoonosis with a heavy economic and public health impact. Cattle, sheep and goats are infected by smooth Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis, and represent a common source of the human disease. Brucellosis diagnosis in these animals is largely based on detection of a specific immunoresponse. We review here the immunological tests used for the diagnosis of cattle brucellosis. First, we discuss how the diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) and specificity (DSp), balance should be adjusted for brucellosis diagnosis, and the difficulties that brucellosis tests specifically present for the estimation of DSe/DSp in frequentistic (gold standard) and Bayesian analyses...
March 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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