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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917810/nano-hemoglobin-film-based-sextet-state-biomemory-device-by-cross-linked-photosensitive-hapten-monomer
#1
Remziye Güzel, Arzu Ersöz, Recep Ziyadanoğulları, Rıdvan Say
In this study, a biomemory device, consisting of hemoglobin (Hb) cross-linked by MACys-Ru(bipyr)2-MACys) photosensitive monomer cross-linkers, which have memory effect through both Ru(3+/2+) in hapten monomer and Fe(3+/2+) in redox active center of Hb through multi-charge transfer mechanism, has been improved. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) has been used to determine the redox property of the Hb cross-linked MACys-Ru(bipyr)2-MACys) hapten. Three memory functions, writing, reading and erasing of the fabricated biomemory device, have been accomplished by chronoamperometry (CA) and open-circuit potential amperometry (OCPA)...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916524/new-methods-to-analyze-b-cell-immune-responses-to-thymus-dependent-antigen-sheep-red-blood-cells
#2
Ellen J McAllister, John R Apgar, Charlotte R Leung, Robert C Rickert, Julia Jellusova
B cells contribute critically to an effective immune response by producing Ag-specific Abs. During the immune response to so-called "thymus-dependent Ags," activated B cells seek T cell help and form germinal centers. In contrast, thymus-independent Ags generally do not induce germinal center formation. In the germinal center, B cells undergo somatic hypermutation, affinity-based clonal expansion, and differentiation to produce plasma cells and memory B cells. Valuable insight into these processes has been gained by using model hapten-carrier complexes or SRBCs...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900382/immunization-enhances-the-natural-antibody-repertoire
#3
Dylan Beinart, Daniel Ren, Cinthia Pi, Susan Poulton, Zoie E Holzknecht, Chelsea Swanson, William Parker
The role of immunization in the production of antibodies directed against immunogens is widely appreciated in laboratory animals and in humans. However, the role of immunization in the development of "natural antibodies" has not been investigated. Natural antibodies are those antibodies present without known history of infection or immunization, and react to a wide range of targets, including "cryptic" self-antigens that are exposed upon cell death. In this study, the ability of immunization to elicit the production of natural antibodies in laboratory rats was evaluated...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899776/the-effect-of-temperature-on-the-mucosal-igm-antibody-response-to-dnp-klh-in-channel-catfish-ictalurus-punctatus
#4
Miles D Lange, Carl D Webster
Bath immersion remains a practical route for immunizing against disease in channel catfish; however research efforts in this area have revealed variable results when activating mucosal Ab responses with different antigens. This is likely due to a number of factors including the individual species, age of the fish, preparation of the immunogens, and differences in the overall dosage and the duration of exposure to vaccines. The current study sought to evaluate the effect of water temperature on the in vivo mucosal adaptive immune response in channel catfish to a protein-hapten antigen, DNP-KLH...
September 9, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892001/synthesis-and-immunological-evaluation-of-virus-like-particle-milbemycin-a%C3%A2-a%C3%A2-conjugates
#5
Andris Zeltins, Māris Turks, Dace Skrastina, Jevgeņija Lugiņina, Ieva Kalnciema, Ina Balke, Ērika Bizdēna, Vitalijs Skrivelis
Milbemycins are macrolide antibiotics with a broad spectrum of nematocidal, insecticidal, and acaricidal activity. To obtain milbemycin A₃/A₄ derivatives suitable for chemical conjugation to protein carriers (milbemycin haptens), succinate linker and a novel 17-atom-long linker containing a terminal carboxylic acid group were attached to the milbemycin core in a protecting group-free synthesis. The obtained milbemycin A₃/A₄ derivatives were coupled to Potato virus Y-like nanoparticles by the activated ester method...
September 11, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866277/evaluation-of-antibody-response-to-an-adjuvanted-hapten-protein-vaccine-as-a-potential-inhibitor-of-sexual-maturation-for-farmed-atlantic-salmon
#6
Darcy S O Mora, Mo D Salman, Christopher A Myrick, Jack C Rhyan, Lowell A Miller, Ellen Marie Sætre, Douglas C Eckery
An experimental contraceptive vaccine was evaluated in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). A peptide derived from the beta subunit of luteinizing hormone (LH) was conjugated to two different carrier proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), and formulated with one of four immunostimulants in a water-in-oil emulsion. Specific antibody responses to the peptide and each carrier protein were evaluated. While the antibody response to KLH was stronger than the response to BSA, both carrier proteins stimulated comparable antibody responses to the LH peptide...
August 30, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863960/memory-responses-of-natural-killer-cells
#7
REVIEW
Clair D Geary, Joseph C Sun
Natural killer (NK) cells have traditionally been classified as a cellular component of the innate immune system, given their ability to rapidly produce effector cytokines and kill infected or transformed cells without prior exposure. More recently, NK cells have been shown to possess features of adaptive immunity such as clonal expansion, longevity, and robust recall responses. NK cell memory can be broadly divided into two categories: antigen-specific and antigen-independent. In the first case, exposure to certain viral or hapten stimuli endows NK cells with antigen-specific immunological memory, similar to T and B cells...
August 29, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844139/ultrasensitive-immunochromatographic-strip-for-fast-screening-of-27-sulfonamides-in-honey-and-pork-liver-samples-based-on-a-monoclonal-antibody
#8
Yanni Chen, Lingling Guo, Liqiang Liu, Shanshan Song, Hua Kuang, Chuanlai Xu
Group-specific monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) with selectivity for 27 sulfonamides were developed based on new combinations of immunogen and coating antigen. The Mab was able to recognize 27 sulfonamides with 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) values ranging from 0.15 to 15.38 μg/L. In particular, the IC50 values for five sulfonamides (sulfamethazine, sulfaquinoxaline, sulfamonomethoxine, sulfadimethoxine, and sulfamethoxazole) were 0.51, 0.15, 0.56, 0.54, and 2.14 μg/L, respectively. On the basis of the Mab, an immunochromatographic lateral flow strip test was established for rapid screening of sulfonamides in honey samples...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817087/the-preparation-and-identification-of-a-monoclonal-antibody-against-domoic-acid-and-establishment-of-detection-by-indirect-competitive-elisa
#9
Abdullah F U H Saeed, Sumei Ling, Jun Yuan, Shihua Wang
Domoic acid (DA) is a potent toxin, marine biotoxin, and primarily produced by Pseudo-nitzschia. The DA hapten was coupled with bovine serum albumin (BSA), and ovalbumin (OVA) as carrier proteins. DA-BSA conjugate was used as immunogen and DA-OVA as coating antigen. Cell fusion between spleen cells and sp2/0 myeloma cells developed 1C3 hybridoma clone producing 1C3 monoclonal antibody (mAb). Hybridoma was injected into the mice to produce ascites, and further purified by caprylic acid/ammonium sulfate method...
August 17, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813678/therapeutic-antibodies-to-ganglioside-gd2-evolved-from-highly-selective-germline-antibodies
#10
Eric Sterner, Megan L Peach, Marc C Nicklaus, Jeffrey C Gildersleeve
Antibodies play a crucial role in host defense and are indispensable research tools, diagnostics, and therapeutics. Antibody generation involves binding of genomically encoded germline antibodies followed by somatic hypermutation and in vivo selection to obtain antibodies with high affinity and selectivity. Understanding this process is critical for developing monoclonal antibodies, designing effective vaccines, and understanding autoantibody formation. Prior studies have found that antibodies to haptens, peptides, and proteins evolve from polyspecific germline antibodies...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807557/the-role-of-toll-like-receptor-3-in-chronic-contact-hypersensitivity-induced-by-repeated-elicitation
#11
Risa Yasuike, Risa Tamagawa-Mineoka, Mayumi Ueta, Naomi Nakamura, Shigeru Kinoshita, Norito Katoh
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 signaling is involved in non-infectious immune and inflammatory reactions as well as in viral infections. The skin of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) is often infected with virus and bacteria, leading to the aggravation of atopic symptoms. These findings suggest TLR3 signaling may be involved in the pathogenesis of AD, but the exact role of TLR3 in AD remains to be defined. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of TLR3 in chronic contact hypersensitivity reactions induced by repeated elicitation, resembling the features of AD...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794018/redefining-memory-building-the-case-for-adaptive-nk-cells
#12
Silke Paust, Catherine A Blish, R Keith Reeves
Classically, natural killer (NK) cells have been defined by nonspecific innate killing of virus-infected and tumor cells. However, burgeoning evidence suggests that the functional repertoire of NK cells is far more diverse than has been previously appreciated, thus raising the possibility that there could be unexpected functional specialization and even adaptive capabilities among NK cell subpopulations. Some of the first evidence that NK cells respond in an antigen-specific fashion came from experiments revealing that subpopulations of murine NK cells could respond to a specific MCMV protein, and that in the absence of T and B cells, murine NK cells also mediated adaptive immune responses to a secondary challenge with specific haptens...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791745/a-novel-pathway-of-protein-haptenation-by-%C3%A3-lactams
#13
M Consuelo Jiménez, Raúl Pérez-Ruiz, Emilio Lence, Inmaculada Andreu, Concepción González-Bello, Miguel A Miranda, Daniel Limones-Herrero
The covalent binding of β-lactams to proteins upon photochemical activation has been demonstrated using an integrated approach that combines photochemical, proteomic and computational studies, selecting human serum albumin (HSA) as target protein and ezetimibe (1) as probe. The results have revealed a novel protein haptenation pathway by this family of drugs that is alternative to the known nucleophilic ring opening of β-lactams by the free amino group of lysine residues. Thus, photochemical ring splitting of the β-lactam ring following a formal retro-Staudinger reaction gives a highly reactive ketene intermediate that is trapped by the neighboring lysine residues, leading to an amide adduct...
August 9, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762515/elr-chemokine-mediated-neutrophil-recruitment-is-involved-in-2-4-6-trinitrochlorobenzene-induced-contact-hypersensitivity
#14
Hiroyasu Sakai, Saori Yabe, Ken Sato, Yuki Kai, Fumiaki Sato, Tetsuro Yumoto, Yuka Inoue, Minoru Narita, Kenjiro Matsumoto, Shinichi Kato, Yoshihiko Chiba
Contact dermatitis is a form of delayed-type hypersensitivity characterized by localized thickening, papules, redness and vesicles of the skin. A model of contact dermatitis involving repeated challenge of a hapten is adapted to assess dermatitis as characterized by skin thickening. Recently, it was reported that neutrophils have crucial roles in contact hypersensitivity. We thus examined the involvement of CXC chemokines bearing the glutamic acid-leucine-arginine (ELR) motif ("ELR(+) chemokines") and neutrophils in the ear swelling induced by 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB) challenges in the present study...
August 1, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753003/site-of-tagging-influences-the-ochratoxin-recognition-by-peptide-nfo4-a-molecular-dynamics-study
#15
Aby A Thyparambil, Tigran M Abramyan, Ingrid Bazin, Anthony Guiseppi-Elie
Molecular recognition by synthetic peptides is growing in importance in the design of biosensing elements used in the detection and monitoring of a wide variety of hapten bioanlaytes. Conferring specificity via bioimmobilization and subsequent recovery and purification of such sensing elements are aided by the use of affinity tags. However, the tag and its site of placement can potentially compromise the hapten recognition capabilities of the peptide, necessitating a detailed experimental characterization and optimization of the tagged molecular recognition entity...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748477/chromogenic-in-situ-hybridization-methods-for-microrna-biomarker-monitoring-of-drug-safety-and-efficacy
#16
Barbara R Gould, Tina Damgaard, Boye Schnack Nielsen
Disease research and treatment development have turned to the impact and utility of microRNA. The dynamic and highly specific expression of these molecular regulators can be used to predict and monitor disease progression as well as therapeutic treatment efficacy and safety, thus aiding decisions in patient care. In situ hybridization (ISH) of biopsy material has become a routine clinical pathology procedure for monitoring gene structure, expression, and sample characterization. For ribonucleic acid (RNA), determining cell source and level of expression of these biomarkers gives insight into the cellular function and physiopathology...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747341/arginase1-deficiency-in-monocytes-macrophages-upregulates-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-to-promote-cutaneous-contact-hypersensitivity
#17
Jutamas Suwanpradid, Michael Shih, Lauren Pontius, Bin Yang, Anastasiya Birukova, Emma Guttman-Yassky, David L Corcoran, Loretta G Que, Robert M Tighe, Amanda S MacLeod
The innate immune components that modulate allergic contact hypersensitivity (CHS) responses are poorly defined. Using human skin from contact dermatitis patients and a mouse model of CHS, we find that hapten allergens disrupt the Arginase1 (Arg1) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) dynamic in monocytes/macrophages (mono/MΦ), which renders those cells ineffectual in suppressing skin inflammation. Mice lacking Arg1 in MΦ develop increased CHS characterized by elevated ear thickening, mono/MΦ-dominated dermal inflammation, and increased iNOS and IL-6 expression compared with control mice...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743609/expression-of-cd73-slows-down-migration-of-skin-dendritic-cells-affecting-the-sensitization-phase-of-contact-hypersensitivity-reactions-in-mice
#18
A Neuberger, S Ring, C Silva-Vilches, J Schrader, A Enk, K Mahnke
BACKGROUND: Application of haptens to the skin induces release of immune stimulatory ATP into the extracellular space. This "danger" signal can be converted to immunosuppressive adenosine (ADO) by the action of the ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73, expressed by skin and immune cells. Thus, the expression and regulation of CD73 by skin derived cells may have crucial influence on the outcome of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) reactions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of CD73 expression during 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB) induced CHS reactions...
July 9, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739272/an-on-line-analytical-approach-for-detecting-haptens-in-shuang-huang-lian-powder-injection
#19
Hong Wang, Xiaotian Zhang, Daidong Wang, Hongyang Sun, Yuexiang Lan, Haixiu Jiang, Shizhong Chen, Zongtao Lin
Shuang-huang-lian powder injection (SHLPI) is a traditional Chinese medicine injection (TCMI) frequently used in the clinical treatment of faucitis, bronchitis, and other viral and bacterial infections of upper respiratory tract. However, its allergenic reactions, being the main adverse effects (AEs) of SHLPI, have been a serious problem of its clinical safety. This problem has not been solved due to short of methods for detecting haptens in complex TCMIs. In this study, an on-line high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector-mass spectrometry combined with bovine serum albumin-fluorescence detector (HPLC-DAD-MS-BSA-FLD) system was established for the first time, validated and applied for identification of haptens in SHLPI...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709828/augmenting-the-efficacy-of-anti-cocaine-catalytic-antibodies-through-chimeric-hapten-design-and-combinatorial-vaccination
#20
Cody J Wenthur, Xiaoqing Cai, Beverly A Ellis, Kim D Janda
Given the need for further improvements in anti-cocaine vaccination strategies, a chimeric hapten (GNET) was developed that combines chemically-stable structural features from steady-state haptens with the hydrolytic functionality present in transition-state mimetic haptens. Additionally, as a further investigation into the generation of an improved bifunctional antibody pool, sequential vaccination with steady-state and transition-state mimetic haptens was undertaken. While GNET induced the formation of catalytically-active antibodies, it did not improve overall behavioral efficacy...
August 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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