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Lev A Dykman, Sergey A Staroverov, Alexander S Fomin, Vitaly A Khanadeev, Boris N Khlebtsov, Vladimir A Bogatyrev
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are advantageous as an adjuvant in the design of effective vaccines and in the preparation of high-affinity antibodies to haptens and complete antigens. Another method of activating immunocompetent cells with colloidal gold is to conjugate GNPs with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs). We examined how the size and shape of GNPs and various combinations of GNPs and CpG ODNs 1826 affect the immune response. When animals were injected with a model antigen (BSA) coupled to gold nanospheres (diameters, 15 and 50nm), nanorods, nanoshells, and nanostars, the titers of the resultant antibodies differed substantially...
November 14, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
Mohammed Amali, Rosalind Jenkins, Xioali Meng, Lee Faulkner, Paul Whitaker, Daniel Peckham, B Kevin Park, Dean John Naisbitt
The risk of developing hypersensitivity to alternative antibiotics is a concern for penicillin hypersensitive patients and healthcare pro-viders. Herein we use piperacillin hypersensitivity as a model to explore the reactivity of drug-specific IgG against alternative β-lactam protein adducts. Mass spectrometry was used to show the drugs (amoxicillin, flucloxacillin, benzyl penicillin, aztreonam and pipera-cillin) bind to similar lysine residues on the protein carrier bovine serum albumin. However, the hapten-specific IgG antibodies found in piperacillin hypersensitive patient plasma did not bind to other β-lactam protein conjugates...
November 17, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Mary J Sabulski, Sean E Pidgeon, Marcos M Pires
Agents with novel mechanisms of action are needed to complement traditional antibiotics. Towards these goals, we have exploited the surface-homing properties of vancomycin to tag the surface of Gram-positive pathogens with immune cell attractants in two unique modes. First, vancomycin was conjugated to the small molecule hapten 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) to promote bacterial opsonization. Second, we built on these results by improving the tagging specificity and mechanism of incorporation by coupling it to a sortase A substrate peptide...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Science
Alicia R Mathers, Cara D Carey, Meaghan E Killeen, Sonia R Salvatore, Laura K Ferris, Bruce A Freeman, Francisco J Schopfer, Louis D Falo
Endogenous electrophilic fatty acids mediate anti-inflammatory responses by modulating metabolic and inflammatory signal transduction and gene expression. Nitro-fatty acids and other electrophilic fatty acids may thus be useful for the prevention and treatment of immune-mediated diseases, including inflammatory skin disorders. In this regard, subcutaneous (SC) injections of nitro oleic acid (OA-NO2), an exemplary nitro-fatty acid, inhibit skin inflammation in a model of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Given the nitration of unsaturated fatty acids during metabolic and inflammatory processes and the growing use of fatty acids in topical formulations, we sought to further study the effect of nitro-fatty acids on cutaneous inflammation...
November 10, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Philipp R Esser, Stefan F Martin
Contact sensitization is the initial process involved in the development of an allergic reaction to xenobiotic environmental substances. Here, we briefly describe the differences between irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. Then, we highlight the essential steps involved in the development of an ACD reaction, i.e., the protein binding of haptens, genetic factors influencing the penetration of sensitizers into the skin, the different mechanisms driving the initial development of an inflammatory cytokine micromilieu enabling the full maturation of dendritic cells, the role of pre- and pro-haptens, antigen presentation and T cell activation via MHC and CD1 molecules, dendritic cell (DC) migration, and potential LC contribution as well as the different T cell subsets involved in ACD...
November 11, 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Ahmed F Mohamed, Mohammed F El-Yamany, Fatma A El-Batrawy, Mohamed T Abdel-Aziz
JNJ7777120, a histamine H4 receptor antagonist, was shown to be effective in different experimental settings of allergic inflammation, including contact hypersensitivity. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are thought to function as a link between innate and adaptive immune responses to various haptens. Here, we studied the suppression of TLR signaling as a possible mechanism by which JNJ7777120 exerts its anti-inflammatory effects against the chemical hapten, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). The potential anti-oxidant effect of JNJ7777120 in this model was also examined...
November 10, 2017: Inflammation
Fanny Arnoux, Charlotte Mariot, Elisa Peen, Nathalie C Lambert, Nathalie Balandraud, Jean Roudier, Isabelle Auger
Autoantibodies to citrullinated proteins (ACPAs) are present in two-thirds of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). ACPAs are produced in the absence of identified T cell responses for each citrullinated protein. Peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4), which binds proteins and citrullinates them, is the target of autoantibodies in early RA. This suggests a model for the emergence of ACPAs in the absence of detectable T cells specific for citrullinated antigens: ACPAs could arise because PADs are recognized by T cells, which help the production of autoantibodies to proteins bound by PADs, according to a "hapten/carrier" model...
November 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jing Feng, Pu Yang, Madison R Mack, Dariia Dryn, Jialie Luo, Xuan Gong, Shenbin Liu, Landon K Oetjen, Alexander V Zholos, Zhinan Mei, Shijin Yin, Brian S Kim, Hongzhen Hu
Although both persistent itch and inflammation are commonly associated with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), it is not known if they are mediated by shared or distinct signaling pathways. Here we show that both TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels are required for generating spontaneous scratching in a mouse model of ACD induced by squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE), a small molecule hapten, through directly promoting the excitability of pruriceptors. TRPV1 but not TRPA1 channels protect the skin inflammation, as genetic ablation of TRPV1 function or pharmacological ablation of TRPV1-positive sensory nerves promotes cutaneous inflammation in the SADBE-induced ACD...
October 30, 2017: Nature Communications
Chao Zhu, Guilan Zhang, Yafei Huang, Shuming Yang, Shuyue Ren, Zhixian Gao, Ailiang Chen
A novel dual-competitive lateral flow aptasensor (LFA) benefited from aptamer and lateral flow strips was first designed by using aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) as the model target. In this LFA assay, the target AFB1 competed with AFB1-hapten at T line for binding to Cy5-labeled AFB1 aptamer and the complementary strand competed with the target AFB1 for binding to Cy5-labeled AFB1 aptamer at C line. The ratio of their fluorescent intensities at the T line and C line (ST/SC ratio) was employed in order to increase the sensitivity for target AFB1 detection...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Masanobu Nagano, Nancy Carrillo, Nobumasa Otsubo, Wataru Hakamata, Hitoshi Ban, Roberta P Fuller, Nasir K Bashiruddin, Carlos F Barbas
Vaccination is a reliable method of prophylaxis and a crucial measure for public health. However, the majority of vaccines cannot be administered orally due to their degradation in the harsh gut environment or inability to cross the GI tract. In this study, we report the first proof-of-concept study of orally producible chemically programmed antibodies via specific conjugation of adaptor ligands to endogenous antibodies, in vivo. Pre-immuniztion with 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP), or the reactive hapten, 1,3-diketone (DK), or a novel reactive hapten, vinyl sulfone (VS) in mice, followed by oral administration of adaptor ligands composed of the hapten and biotin to the pre-immunized mice resulted in successful in vivo formation of the biotin-hapten-antibody complexes within 2h...
November 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Josep V Mercader, Antonio Abad-Somovilla, Consuelo Agulló, Antonio Abad-Fuentes
Fluxapyroxad is a new-generation carboxamide fungicide, with residues increasingly being found in food samples. Immunochemical assays have gained acceptance in food quality control as rapid, cost-effective, sensitive, and selective methods for large sample throughput and in situ applications. In the present study, immunoreagents to fluxapyroxad were obtained for the first time, and competitive immunoassays were developed for the sensitive and specific determination of fluxapyroxad residues in food samples. Two carboxyl-functionalized analogues of fluxapyroxad were prepared, and antibodies with IC50 values in the low nanomolar range were generated from both haptens, though a dissimilar response was observed concerning specificity...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yuri Cho, Dohyeong Kwon, Suk-Jo Kang
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in directing immune responses. Previous studies have identified a variety of DC subsets and elucidated their context-dependent functions that parallel those of effector Th cell subsets. However, little is known about the DC subsets responsible for differentiation of Th2 cells governing allergic contact dermatitis. In this study, we sought to determine the DC subset(s) that mediate Th2 priming in hapten-sensitized mice. We induced hapten-specific Th2 differentiation by sensitizing the mice with a single application of FITC dissolved in acetone:dibutyl phthalate, and traced the immune cells responsible for inducing the Th2 differentiation process at the primary stimulation, enabling us to track Th2 priming in vivo and to delete basophils and specific DC subsets...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Shun Hu, Weili Yu, Chunyang Hu, Dong Wei, Lijuan Shen, Tao Hu, Youjin Yi
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a serious fatal pathogen that causes tuberculosis (TB). Effective vaccination is urgently needed to deal with the serious threat from TB. Mtb-secreted protein antigens are important virulence determinants of Mtb with poor immunogenicity. Adjuvants and antigen delivery systems are thus highly desired to improve the immunogenicity of protein antigens. Inulin is a biocompatible polysaccharide (PS) adjuvant that can stimulate a strong cellular and humoral immunity. Bacterial capsular PS and haptens have been conjugated with cross-reacting material 197 (CRM197) to improve their immunogenicity...
November 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
F A Esteve-Turrillas, J V Mercader, C Agulló, A Abad-Somovilla, A Abad-Fuentes
The development of multianalyte immunoassays constitutes a main research issue in the field of bioanalytical techniques. In the present study, class-specific antibodies against the three members of the anilinopyrimidine family of fungicides (pyrimethanil, cyprodinil and mepanipyrim) were raised by using a bioconjugate of a rationally designed hapten [5-(6-methyl-2-(phenylamino)pyrimidin-4-yl)pentanoic acid]. Highly sensitive immunoassays were developed for the generic determination of these compounds, using the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
September 28, 2017: Analyst
Hui Peng, Zhigang Tian
Immunological memory is a cardinal feature of adaptive immunity. Although natural killer (NK) cells have long been considered short-lived innate lymphocytes that respond rapidly to transformed and virus-infected cells without prior sensitization, accumulating evidence has recently shown that NK cells develop long-lasting and antigen-specific memory to haptens and viruses. Additionally, cytokine stimulation alone can induce memory-like NK cells with longevity and functional competence, leading to emerging interest in harnessing NK cell memory for cancer immunotherapy...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Xiping Cui, Natalia Vasylieva, Panpan Wu, Bogdan Barnych, Jun Yang, Ding Shen, Qiyi He, Shirley J Gee, Suqing Zhao, Bruce D Hammock
Glycocholic acid (GCA) is an important metabolite of bile acids, whose urine levels are expected to be a specific diagnostic biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A high-throughput immunoassay for determination of GCA would be of significant advantage and useful for primary diagnosis, surveillance, and early detection of HCC. Single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies have several desirable characteristics and are an attractive alternative to traditional antibodies for the immunoassay. Because chicken antibodies possess single heavy and light variable functional domains, they are an ideal framework for simplified generation of recombinant antibodies for GCA detection...
October 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Nico Langer, Franziska Steinicke, Rainer Lindigkeit, Ludger Ernst, Till Beuerle
One of the main reasons for the rise in popularity of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) is their ability to remain unrecognized in conventional drug screenings. Due to their structural diversity, caused by the constant introduction of new substances to circumvent legal regulation, antibodies with a wide range of cross-reactivity are necessary for the establishment of a reliable immunological based drug test. Therefore, high-quality binding data are needed to select promising antibody candidates for further development...
September 18, 2017: Forensic Science International
Zhenjiang Liu, Bo Zhang, Jianfan Sun, Yinhui Yi, Ming Li, Daolin Du, Fang Zhu, Jiawen Luan
Salbutamol (SAL) has potential hazardous effects on health, and has been found in natural water globally. To protect consumers from risks related to SAL residues, a fast and highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of SAL in environmental water samples. SAL hapten was synthesized and conjugated to proteins to be used as the immunogen for producing polyclonal antibodies. Under optimized conditions, the ELISA showed a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 value) of 0...
February 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Iffat Hassan, Farhan Rasool, Saniya Akhtar, Afifa Kamili, Parvaiz Rather, Raihana Kanth, Yasmeen Bhat, Shagufta Rather, Syed Mubashir, Atiya Yaseen, Safia Bashir
BACKGROUND: Tulip, belonging to the genus Tulipa and family Liliaceae, is a spring-blooming perennial that grows from bulbs. Owing to manual handling, contact dermatitis can occur in professionals at any stage of the growth cycle of the tulip plant. OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical pattern of contact dermatitis resulting from tulip plant cultivation, and to assess contact allergy in workers coming into contact with this plant. METHODS: One hundred and sixty-four tulip workers were screened, and 48 patients with suspected contact dermatitis were patch tested with 39 allergens, including haptens from the Indian baseline series, a plant series, and extracts from different parts of the tulip plant...
September 21, 2017: Contact Dermatitis
Xihong Guo, Shangyuan Yang, Huan Huang, Rongli Cui, Cheng Li, Huanli Yao, Bing Liu, Lele Zhang, Binggang Xu, Jinquan Dong, Baoyun Sun
With their intriguing structures and properties, metallofullerenols have attracted considerable attention in biological and medical applications. Due to the increasing biomedical interest, effective detection methods are important to monitor and control metallofullerenols. However, the detection of metallofullerenols becomes very difficult after polyhydroxylated modification due to the lack of detectable features. Antibody-based immunoassay methods have been important tools for detection and will better meet the needs of analysis of metallofullerenols...
September 22, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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