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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087328/identification-of-drug-and-drug-metabolite-immune-responses-originating-from-both-na%C3%A3-ve-and-memory-t-cells
#1
Andrew Gibson, Lee Faulkner, Sally Wood, B Kevin Park, Dean J Naisbitt
Both naïve and memory T-cells from drug-naive donors can be stimulated by parent drug and drug haptens. Thus, drug-derived antigens can stimulate naïve T-cells alongside pre-existing memory T-cells through proposed heterologous immunity with an as yet undetermined peptide antigen.
January 10, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078413/establishment-of-a-sandwich-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-for-specific-detection-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-bt-cry1ab-toxin-utilizing-a-monoclonal-antibody-produced-with-a-novel-hapten-designed-with-molecular-model
#2
Sa Dong, Xiao Zhang, Yuan Liu, Cunzheng Zhang, Yajing Xie, Jianfeng Zhong, Chongxin Xu, Xianjin Liu
Cry1Ab toxin is commonly expressed in genetically modified crops in order to control chewing pests. At present, the detection method with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on monoclonal antibody cannot specifically detect Cry1Ab toxin for Cry1Ab's amino acid sequence and spatial structure are highly similar to Cry1Ac toxin. In this study, based on molecular design, a novel hapten polypeptide was synthesized and conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Then, through animal immunization with this antigen, a monoclonal antibody named 2C12, showing high affinity to Cry1Ab and having no cross reaction with Cry1Ac, was produced...
January 11, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063053/oxazolone-induced-intestinal-inflammation-in-adult-zebrafish
#3
Sylvia Brugman, Edward E S Nieuwenhuis
Zebrafish are an excellent model for the study of intestinal immunity. The availability of several transgenic reporter fish for different innate and adaptive immune cells and the high homology in terms of gut function and morphology enables in depth analysis of the process of intestinal inflammation. Here, we describe a method to induce intestinal inflammation by intra-rectal injection of the hapten oxazolone in adult zebrafish.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063036/visualization-of-the-t-cell-response-in-contact-hypersensitivity
#4
Gyohei Egawa, Kenji Kabashima
Contact hypersensitivity (CHS) is the most basic murine model for type IV hypersensitivity. This dermatitis model is mediated by hapten-sensitized, skin-infiltrating T cells. Recent intravital imaging studies have demonstrated the dynamic migratory property of skin-infiltrating T cells and the orchestrated interaction of T cells with dermal dendritic cells. Multiphoton microscopy enables the direct, three-dimensional, and minimally invasive imaging of in vivo skin samples with high spatiotemporal resolution...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063034/hapten-specific-t-cell-mediated-skin-inflammation-flow-cytometry-analysis-of-mouse-skin-inflammatory-infiltrate
#5
Nicolas Bouladoux, Clotilde Hennequin, Camille Malosse, Bernard Malissen, Yasmine Belkaid, Sandrine Henri
Hapten-specific T cell-mediated skin inflammation also known as contact hypersensitivity (CHS) is characterized by a strong influx of CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells within the skin upon reexposure of sensitized individuals to the same hapten. As many other leukocytes are also recruited during this elicitation phase, we attempted to revisit the skin infiltrate and characterize the inflammatory pattern. Recent improvement in the isolation in conventional as well as inflammatory dendritic cell and macrophage subsets from tissues and in the use of appropriate surface markers unraveling their heterogeneity should allow to determinate their specific functions in the CHS model...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060409/immunization-of-mice
#6
Tomás Maira-Litrán
The selection of an appropriate immunization strategy depends largely on the properties of an antigen, including its nature, purity, solubility, and availability. This unit describes the critical steps in the production of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against soluble molecules (such as proteins, peptides, polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, or hapten-conjugate vaccines), complex antigens (such as whole pathogens or outer membrane vesicles), and antigens embedded in or eluted from gel matrix following electrophoresis...
January 5, 2017: Current Protocols in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055297/a-strategy-to-identify-linker-based-modules-for-the-allosteric-regulation-of-antibody-antigen-binding-affinities-of-different-scfvs
#7
Sarah-Jane Kellmann, Stefan Dübel, Holger Thie
Antibody single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) are used in a variety of applications, such as for research, diagnosis and therapy. Essential for these applications is the extraordinary specificity, selectivity and affinity of antibody paratopes, which can also be employed for efficient protein purification. However, this use is hampered by the high affinity for the protein to be purified because harsh elution conditions, which may impair folding, integrity or viability of the eluted biomaterials, are typically required...
January 5, 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043850/allergies-in-orthopaedic-and-trauma-surgery
#8
REVIEW
C H Lohmann, R Hameister, G Singh
Hypersensitivity reactions to implants in orthopaedic and trauma surgery are a rare but devastating complication. They are considered as a delayed-type of hypersensitivity reaction (type IV), characterized by an antigen activation of sensitized T-lymphocytes releasing various cytokines and may result in osteoclast activation and bone resorption. Potential haptens are originated from metal alloys or bone-cement. A meta-analysis has confirmed a higher probability of developing a metal hypersensitivity postoperatively and noted a greater risk of failed replacements compared to stable implants...
December 30, 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041661/constant-light-exposure-impairs-immune-tolerance-development-in-mice
#9
Hiromi Mizutani, Risa Tamagawa-Mineoka, Yoichi Minami, Kazuhiro Yagita, Norito Katoh
BACKGROUND: An intrinsic daily physiological rhythm called circadian rhythm has been indicated to affect the immune system and its related diseases. Immune tolerance development is closely associated with the onset of immunological disorders. However, the effect of circadian rhythm in the mechanisms of immune tolerance development has not yet been fully understood. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of circadian rhythm disruption on the development of immune tolerance by the perturbation of light environment, using a mouse model of neonatally induced cutaneous tolerance...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027081/altered-expression-of-toll-like-receptors-in-human-oral-epithelium-in-oral-lichenoid-reactions
#10
Abdelhakim Salem, Rabeia Mustafa, Dyah Listyarifah, Ahmed Al-Samadi, Goncalo Barreto, Dan Nordström, Kari K Eklund
Oral lichenoid reactions (OLRs) are chronic inflammatory lesions induced by contact with allergens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are members of pattern-recognition receptor superfamily. Once activated, TLRs induce production of cytokines and chemokines, thus leading to inflammatory reaction in host tissue. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential role of TLRs in the initiation and perpetuation of OLRs, in which TLRs induce innate immune responses mounted against allergens. TLRs, 1 through 10, were mapped in tissue samples obtained from healthy donors and OLR patients using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunostaining, and image analyses...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980109/folate-hapten-mediated-immunotherapy-synergizes-with-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-receptor-inhibitors-in-treating-murine-models-of-cancer
#11
N Achini Bandara, Cody D Bates, Yingjuan Lu, Emily K Hoylman, Philip S Low
The over-expression of folate receptors (FR) on many human cancers has led to the development of folate-linked drugs for the imaging and therapy of FR-expressing cancers. In a recent phase 1 clinical trial of late stage renal cell carcinoma patients, folate was exploited to deliver an immunogenic hapten, fluorescein, to FR+ tumor cells in an effort to render the cancer cells more immunogenic. Although >50% of the patients showed prolonged stable disease, all patients eventually progressed, suggesting that the folate-hapten immunotherapy was insufficient by itself to treat the cancer...
December 15, 2016: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979090/a-study-on-biomimetic-immunoassay-capillary-electrophoresis-method-based-on-molecularly-imprinted-polymer-for-determination-of-trace-trichlorfon-residue-in-vegetables
#12
Jie Li, Juxiu Lu, Xuguang Qiao, Zhixiang Xu
Pesticide residue in vegetables is a serious problem that has adverse effects on human health. In our study, we designed and synthesized a molecularly imprinted polymer that can selectively recognize trichlorfon. Using the polymer material as biomimetic antibody, we developed a biomimetic immunoassay-capillary electrophoresis method with improved sensitivity for the detection of trichlorfon. We evaluated the competitive reactions between HRP labeled trichlorfon hapten and free trichlorfon with the biomimetic antibody...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965148/an-in-vitro-skin-sensitization-assay-termed-episensa-for-broad-sets-of-chemicals-including-lipophilic-chemicals-and-pre-pro-haptens
#13
Kazutoshi Saito, Osamu Takenouchi, Yuko Nukada, Masaaki Miyazawa, Hitoshi Sakaguchi
To evaluate chemicals (e.g. lipophilic chemicals, pre/pro-haptens) that are difficult to correctly evaluate using in vitro skin sensitization tests (e.g. DPRA, KeratinoSens or h-CLAT), we developed a novel in vitro test termed "Epidermal Sensitization Assay: EpiSensA" that uses reconstructed human epidermis. This assay is based on the induction of multiple marker genes (ATF3, IL-8, DNAJB4 and GCLM) related to two keratinocyte responses (inflammatory or cytoprotective) in the induction of skin sensitization...
December 10, 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965016/cross-reactivity-of-monoclonal-antibodies-against-cd4-1-and-cd8%C3%AE-of-ginbuna-crucian-carp-with-lymphocytes-of-zebrafish-and-other-cyprinid-species
#14
Ryuichiro Miyazawa, Yuta Matsuura, Yasuhiro Shibasaki, Shintaro Imamura, Teruyuki Nakanishi
We have monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against CD4-1 (6D1) and CD8α (2C3) in ginbuna crucian carp Carassius auratus langsdorfii. In our previous studies we showed that 2C3 mAb positive cells are the primary cell type showing specific cytotoxicity against allogeneic targets, suggesting that CD8α(+) lymphocytes in ginbuna are equivalent to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in mammals. We further demonstrated the helper T cell function of 6D1 mAb positive cells by studying mixed leukocyte culture (MLC) and hapten/carrier effects...
December 11, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960170/classification-of-drug-hypersensitivity-into-allergic-p-i-and-pseudo-allergic-forms
#15
Werner J Pichler, Oliver Hausmann
Drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHR) are clinically and functionally heterogeneous. Different subclassifications based on timing of symptom appearance or type of immune mechanism have been proposed. Here, we show that the mode of action of drugs leading to immune/inflammatory cell stimulation is a further decisive factor in understanding and managing DHR. Three mechanisms can be delineated: (a) some drugs have or gain the ability to bind covalently to proteins, form new antigens, and thus elicit immune reactions to hapten-carrier complexes (allergic/immune reaction); (b) a substantial part of immune-mediated DHR is due to a typical off-target activity of drugs on immune receptors like HLA and TCR (pharmacological interaction with immune receptors, p-i reactions); such p-i reactions are linked to severe DHR; and (c) symptoms of DHR can also appear if the drug stimulates or inhibits receptors or enzymes of inflammatory cells (pseudo-allergy)...
December 14, 2016: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958709/influencing-antibody-mediated-attenuation-of-methamphetamine-cns-distribution-through-vaccine-linker-design
#16
Major Gooyit, Pedro O Miranda, Cody J Wenthur, Alex Ducime, Kim D Janda
Active vaccination examining a single hapten engendered with a series of peptidic linkers has resulted in the production of antimethamphetamine antibodies. Given the limited chemical complexity of methamphetamine, the structure of the linker species embedded within the hapten could have a substantial effect on the ultimate efficacy of the resulting vaccines. Herein, we investigate linker effects by generating a series of methamphetamine haptens that harbor a linker with varying amino acid identity, peptide length, and associated carrier protein...
December 16, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939987/clozapine-induced-agranulocytosis-evidence-for-an-immune-mediated-mechanism-from-a-patient-specific-in-vitro-approach
#17
Francesca Regen, Irmelin Herzog, Eric Hahn, Claudia Ruehl, Nathalie Le Bret, Michael Dettling, Isabella Heuser, Julian Hellmann-Regen
Use of the atypical antipsychotic clozapine (CZP) is compromised by the risk of potentially fatal agranulocytosis/granulocytopenia (CIAG). To address this, we have established a simple, personalized cell culture-based strategy to identify CIAG-susceptible patients, hypothesizing that an immunogenic and possibly haptene-based mechanism underlies CIAG pathophysiology. To detect a putative haptene-induced response to CZP in vitro exposure, a traditional lymphocyte stimulation assay was adapted and applied to patient-specific peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
December 6, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934486/preparation-of-protein-conjugates-via-homobifunctional-diselenoester-cross-linker
#18
Xu-Guang Yin, Xiao-Fei Gao, Jing-Jing Du, Xiao-Kang Zhang, Xiang-Zhao Chen, Jian Wang, Ling-Ming Xin, Ze Lei, Zheng Liu, Jun Guo
Adipic acid diselenoester was developed as an efficient cross-linker for covalent protein conjugation with a variety of small molecular haptens, including mono- and disaccharides, peptide, fluorescence dye, and nicotine. Compared to the counterparts of N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) and p-nitrophenyl (PNP) linkers, the diselenoester linker demonstrates improved balance between reactivity and stability and coupling of haptens to proteins under mild conditions with high incorporation efficiency.
November 18, 2016: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924814/mature-igm-expressing-plasma-cells-sense-antigen-and-develop-competence-for-cytokine-production-upon-antigenic-challenge
#19
Pascal Blanc, Ludovic Moro-Sibilot, Lucas Barthly, Ferdinand Jagot, Sébastien This, Simon de Bernard, Laurent Buffat, Sébastien Dussurgey, Renaud Colisson, Elias Hobeika, Thierry Fest, Morgan Taillardet, Olivier Thaunat, Antoine Sicard, Paul Mondière, Laurent Genestier, Stephen L Nutt, Thierry Defrance
Dogma holds that plasma cells, as opposed to B cells, cannot bind antigen because they have switched from expression of membrane-bound immunoglobulins (Ig) that constitute the B-cell receptor (BCR) to production of the secreted form of immunoglobulins. Here we compare the phenotypical and functional attributes of plasma cells generated by the T-cell-dependent and T-cell-independent forms of the hapten NP. We show that the nature of the secreted Ig isotype, rather than the chemical structure of the immunizing antigen, defines two functionally distinct populations of plasma cells...
December 7, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916121/development-of-an-indirect-elisa-for-the-determination-of-ethyl-carbamate-in-chinese-rice-wine
#20
Lin Luo, Hong-Tao Lei, Jin-Yi Yang, Gong-Liang Liu, Yuan-Ming Sun, Wei-Dong Bai, Hong Wang, Yu-Dong Shen, Sui Chen, Zhen-Lin Xu
The widespread occurrence of ethyl carbamate (EC, 89.09 Da), a group 2A carcinogen, in fermented foods and alcoholic beverages has raised worldwide public health concern. Immunoassay for EC is unavailable due to the simple and small structure of EC. In this work, an initial attempt to produce antibody specific for EC, by using 4-((ethoxycarbonyl)amino)butanoic acid as hapten, was made but failed. However, since EC can easily react with 9-xanthydrol to form xanthyl ethyl carbamate (XEC), two haptens based on XEC structure were designed and synthesized...
January 15, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
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