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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321224/specific-igg-antibodies-react-to-mimotopes-of-bk-polyomavirus-a-small-dna-tumor-virus-in-healthy-adult-sera
#1
Silvia Pietrobon, Ilaria Bononi, Elisa Mazzoni, Francesca Lotito, Marco Manfrini, Andrea Puozzo, Federica Destro, Giovanni Guerra, Pier Francesco Nocini, Fernanda Martini, Mauro G Tognon
BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) was isolated in 1971 from the urine of a kidney transplant patient. Soon after its identification, BKPyV was characterized as a kidney-tropic virus, which is responsible of a significant fraction of the rejection of transplant kidney in the host. Moreover, in experimental conditions, BKPyV is able to transform different types of animal and human cells and to induce tumors of different histotypes in experimental animals. BKPyV DNA sequences have been detected in healthy individuals and cancer patients using polymerase chain reaction/Shouthern blot hybridization methods...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306565/can-podocytes-be-regenerated-in-adults
#2
Stuart J Shankland, Benjamin S Freedman, Jeffrey W Pippin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Podocytes are critical components of the nephron filtration barrier and are depleted in many kidney injuries and disease states. Terminally differentiated adult podocytes are highly specialized, postmitotic cells, raising the question of whether the body has any ability to regenerate lost podocytes. This timely question has recently been illuminated by a series of innovative studies. Here, we review recent progress on this topic of significant interest and debate. RECENT FINDINGS: The innovation of genetic labeling techniques enables fate tracing of individual podocytes, providing the strongest evidence yet that podocytes can be replaced by nearby progenitor cells...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295607/incremental-hemodialysis-the-university-of-california-irvine-experience
#3
Mehrdad Ghahremani-Ghajar, Vanessa Rojas-Bautista, Wei-Ling Lau, Madeleine Pahl, Miguel Hernandez, Anna Jin, Uttam Reddy, Jason Chou, Yoshitsugu Obi, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Connie M Rhee
Incremental hemodialysis has been examined as a viable hemodialysis regimen for selected end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Preservation of residual kidney function (RKF) has been the driving impetus for this approach given its benefits upon the survival and quality of life of dialysis patients. While clinical practice guidelines recommend an incremental start of dialysis in peritoneal dialysis patients with substantial RKF, there remains little guidance with respect to incremental hemodialysis as an initial renal replacement therapy regimen...
March 14, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257332/parathyroid-hormone-stimulates-adipose-tissue-browning-a-pathway-to-muscle-wasting
#4
Sandhya S Thomas, William E Mitch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Studying organ-to-organ communications (i.e. crosstalk) uncovers mechanisms regulating metabolism in several tissues. What is missing is identification of mediators of different catabolic conditions contributing to losses of adipose and muscle tissues. Identifying mediators involved in organ-to-organ crosstalk could lead to innovative therapeutic strategies because several disorders such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), cancer cachexia, and other catabolic conditions share signals of worsening metabolism and increased risk of mortality...
March 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242362/intravenous-administration-of-mitochondria-for-treating-experimental-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Xianxun Shi, Ming Zhao, Chen Fu, Ailing Fu
Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with a large number of human diseases, including neurological and muscular degeneration, cardiovascular disorders, obesity, diabetes, aging and rare mitochondrial diseases. Replacement of dysfunctional mitochondria with functional exogenous mitochondria is proposed as a general principle to treat these diseases. Here we found that mitochondria isolated from human hepatoma cell could naturally enter human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line, and when the mitochondria were intravenously injected into mice, all of the mice were survived and no obvious abnormality appeared...
February 24, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236795/therapeutic-monitoring-of-pediatric-transplant-patients-with-conversion-to-generic-tacrolimus
#6
Natalia Riva, Paulo Cáceres Guido, Nieves Licciardone, Oscar Imventarza, Marta Monteverde, Raquel Staciuk, Alberto Charroqui, Paula Schaiquevich
OBJECTIVE: Therapeutic monitoring during interchange of tacrolimus commercial formulations is essential to ensure similar exposure in transplant patients. However, there are limited data in the pediatric transplant population. This study aims to evaluate exposure, safety and efficacy in maintenance pediatric transplant patients under generic tacrolimus substitution. METHOD: Pediatric patients who underwent interchange of tacrolimus formulations were detected by the Service of Pharmacy and included in this study...
March 1, 2017: Farmacia Hospitalaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229281/cell-therapeutic-approaches-to-immunosuppression-after-clinical-kidney-transplantation
#7
REVIEW
Christian Morath, Anita Schmitt, Florian Kälble, Martin Zeier, Michael Schmitt, Flavius Sandra-Petrescu, Gerhard Opelz, Peter Terness, Matthias Schaier, Christian Kleist
Refinement of immunosuppressive strategies has led to further improvement of kidney graft survival in recent years. Currently, the main limitations to long-term graft survival are life-threatening side effects of immunosuppression and chronic allograft injury, emphasizing the need for innovative immunosuppressive regimens that resolve this therapeutic dilemma. Several cell therapeutic approaches to immunosuppression and donor-specific unresponsiveness have been tested in early phase I and phase II clinical trials in kidney transplantation...
February 23, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223856/uncertainties-around-incretin-based-therapies-a-literature-review
#8
REVIEW
Bader Al Tulaihi, Samia Alhabib
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic debilitating and non-communicable disease. It has several long-term outcomes that are associated with various end organ damage, mainly the heart, blood vessels, eyes, nerves, and kidneys. There are different modalities of treatment of diabetes. The recent incretin-based therapies provided an innovative class of drugs including GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors. This review aims to summarize the available evidence of their effectiveness. Method: This is a narrative review...
January 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222395/technetium-99m-radiolabeled-paclitaxel-as-an-imaging-probe-for-breast-cancer-in-vivo
#9
Liziane O F Monteiro, Renata S Fernandes, Luciano C Castro, Valbert N Cardoso, Mônica C Oliveira, Danyelle M Townsend, Alice Ferretti, Domenico Rubello, Elaine A Leite, André L B de Barros
The high incidence and mortality of breast cancer supports efforts to develop innovative imaging probes to effectively diagnose, evaluate the extent of the tumor, and predict the efficacy of tumor treatments while concurrently and selectively delivering anticancer agents to the cancer tissue. In the present study we described the preparation of technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-labeled paclitaxel (PTX) and evaluated its feasibility as a radiotracer for breast tumors (4T1) in BALB/c mice. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) was used to determine the radiochemical purity and in vitro stability of (99m)Tc-PTX...
February 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218266/crystal-nephropathies-mechanisms-of-crystal-induced-kidney-injury
#10
REVIEW
Shrikant R Mulay, Hans-Joachim Anders
Crystals can trigger a wide range of kidney injuries that can lead to acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, renal colic or nephrocalcinosis, depending on the localization and dynamics of crystal deposition. Studies of the biology of crystal handling by the kidney have shown that the formation of different crystals and other microparticles and the associated mechanisms of renal damage share molecular mechanisms, such as stimulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome or direct cytotoxicity through activation of the necroptosis signalling pathway...
February 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215947/food-insecurity-ckd-and-subsequent-esrd-in-us-adults
#11
Tanushree Banerjee, Deidra C Crews, Donald E Wesson, Sai Dharmarajan, Rajiv Saran, Nilka Ríos Burrows, Sharon Saydah, Neil R Powe
BACKGROUND: Poor access to food among low-income adults has been recognized as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD), but there are no data for the impact of food insecurity on progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We hypothesized that food insecurity would be independently associated with risk for ESRD among persons with and without earlier stages of CKD. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 2,320 adults (aged ≥ 20 years) with CKD and 10,448 adults with no CKD enrolled in NHANES III (1988-1994) with household income ≤ 400% of the federal poverty level linked to the Medicare ESRD Registry for a median follow-up of 12 years...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144977/changing-landscape-for-peritoneal-dialysis-optimizing-utilization
#12
Martin J Schreiber
The future growth of peritoneal dialysis (PD) will be directly linked to the shift in US healthcare to a value-based payment model due to PD's lower yearly cost, early survival advantage over in-center hemodialysis, and improved quality of life for patients treating their kidney disease in the home. Under this model, nephrology practices will need an increased focus on managing the transition from chronic kidney disease to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), providing patient education with the aim of accomplishing modality selection and access placement ahead of dialysis initiation...
February 1, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117608/robotic-partial-nephrectomy-expanding-utilization-advancing-innovation
#13
Christopher J D Wallis, Alaina Garbens, Sameer Chopra, Raj Satkunasivam, Inderbir Singh Gill
Robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) is gaining increasing prominence for nephron sparing surgery in the treatment of patients with localized kidney tumors. RPN offers the benefits of minimally invasive surgery with a shorter learning curve compared to its laparoscopic counterpart. While long-term data are awaited, RPN does provide short-term oncological and functional outcomes comparable to open and laparoscopic PN. Further, robotic surgery has facilitated technical innovation including the elimination of warm ischemia, provided minimally invasive alternatives to patients with complex tumors and importantly, has fuelled increased dissemination of PN surgery amongst community urologists...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107750/effect-of-clinically-approved-hdac-inhibitors-on-plasmodium-leishmania-and-schistosoma-parasite-growth
#14
Ming Jang Chua, Megan S J Arnold, Weijun Xu, Julien Lancelot, Suzanne Lamotte, Gerald F Späth, Eric Prina, Raymond J Pierce, David P Fairlie, Tina S Skinner-Adams, Katherine T Andrews
Malaria, schistosomiasis and leishmaniases are among the most prevalent tropical parasitic diseases and each requires new innovative treatments. Targeting essential parasite pathways, such as those that regulate gene expression and cell cycle progression, is a key strategy for discovering new drug leads. In this study, four clinically approved anti-cancer drugs (Vorinostat, Belinostat, Panobinostat and Romidepsin) that target histone/lysine deacetylase enzymes were examined for in vitro activity against Plasmodium knowlesi, Schistosoma mansoni, Leishmania amazonensis and L...
December 23, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089754/stem-cell-therapy-an-emerging-modality-in-glomerular-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Umang G Thakkar, Aruna V Vanikar, Hargovind L Trivedi
The kidney has been considered a highly terminally differentiated organ with low proliferative potential and thus unlikely to undergo regeneration. Glomerular disease progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), which requires dialysis or renal transplantation for better quality of life for patients with ESRD. Because of the shortage of implantable kidneys and complications such as immune rejection, septicemia and toxicity of immunosuppression, kidney transplantation remains a challenge. Therapeutic options available for glomerular disease include symptomatic treatment and strategies to delay progression...
January 12, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081211/development-and-validation-of-a-clinical-prediction-rule-for-bacteremia-among-maintenance-hemodialysis-patients-in-outpatient-settings
#16
Sho Sasaki, Takeshi Hasegawa, Hiroo Kawarazaki, Atsushi Nomura, Daisuke Uchida, Takahiro Imaizumi, Masahide Furusho, Hiroki Nishiwaki, Shingo Fukuma, Yugo Shibagaki, Shunichi Fukuhara
BACKGROUND: To our knowledge, no reliable clinical prediction rule (CPR) for identifying bacteremia in hemodialysis (HD) patients has been established. The aim of this study was to develop a CPR for bacteremia in maintenance HD patients visiting the outpatient department. METHODS: This multicenter cohort study involved consecutive maintenance HD patients who visited the outpatient clinic or emergency room of seven Japanese institutions between August 2011 and July 2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072752/a-simpler-blood-test-for-monitoring-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-disrupting-innovation
#17
Christine M Wu, Sundaram Hariharan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065734/laparoscopic-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-in-adolescents-with-severe-obesity-amos-a-prospective-5-year-swedish-nationwide-study
#18
Torsten Olbers, Andrew J Beamish, Eva Gronowitz, Carl-Erik Flodmark, Jovanna Dahlgren, Gustaf Bruze, Kerstin Ekbom, Peter Friberg, Gunnar Göthberg, Kajsa Järvholm, Jan Karlsson, Staffan Mårild, Martin Neovius, Markku Peltonen, Claude Marcus
BACKGROUND: Severe obesity in adolescence is associated with reduced life expectancy and impaired quality of life. Long-term benefits of conservative treatments in adolescents are known to be modest, whereas short-term outcomes of adolescent bariatric surgery are promising. We aimed to compare 5-year outcomes of adolescent surgical patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with those of conservatively treated adolescents and of adults undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, in the Adolescent Morbid Obesity Surgery (AMOS) study...
March 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064444/phosphate-binders-and-targets-over-decades-do-we-have-it-right-now
#19
Morgan Marcuccilli, Michel Chonchol, Anna Jovanovich
In advanced renal disease, the kidney is unable to maintain phosphate balance due to decreased urinary excretion as well as the imbalance of the bone metabolic axis. It is well established that hyperphosphatemia is associated with increased cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there are no randomized controlled trials that demonstrate a clear benefit on hard outcomes in lowering serum phosphate levels to recommended targets in the CKD or dialysis population...
January 8, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057185/urine-exosomes-an-emerging-trove-of-biomarkers
#20
J M Street, E H Koritzinsky, D M Glispie, R A Star, P S T Yuen
Exosomes are released by most cells and can be isolated from all biofluids including urine. Exosomes are small vesicles formed as part of the endosomal pathway that contain cellular material surrounded by a lipid bilayer that can be traced to the plasma membrane. Exosomes are potentially a more targeted source of material for biomarker discovery than unfractionated urine, and provide diagnostic and pathophysiological information without an invasive tissue biopsy. Cytoplasmic contents including protein, mRNA, miRNA, and lipids have all been studied within the exosomal fraction...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
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