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3d model kidney

Kimberly A Homan, David B Kolesky, Mark A Skylar-Scott, Jessica Herrmann, Humphrey Obuobi, Annie Moisan, Jennifer A Lewis
Three-dimensional models of kidney tissue that recapitulate human responses are needed for drug screening, disease modeling, and, ultimately, kidney organ engineering. Here, we report a bioprinting method for creating 3D human renal proximal tubules in vitro that are fully embedded within an extracellular matrix and housed in perfusable tissue chips, allowing them to be maintained for greater than two months. Their convoluted tubular architecture is circumscribed by proximal tubule epithelial cells and actively perfused through the open lumen...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Hang Feng, Xiangyi Fang, Dageng Huang, Chengcheng Yu, Songchuan Zhao, Dingjun Hao
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Cervical disc arthroplasty has been gradually adopted as an alternative for the treatment of cervical degenerative disease. However, there is a large discrepancy between footprints of currently available cervical disc prostheses and anatomic dimensions of cervical endplates. PURPOSE: To accurately and comprehensively quantify the three-dimensional (3D) anatomic morphology of the cervical vertebral endplate and provide a theoretical basis for designing appropriate disc prostheses...
October 3, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Yasser A Noureldin, Sero Andonian
OBJECTIVES: Percutaneous renal access (PCA) is a challenging step during percutaneous nephrolithotomy. The aim of this study is to review the literature for different types of simulators described for PCA. METHODS: Databases of Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, OvidSP, and Google Scholar were systematically searched until May 2016. The studies were analyzed regarding the type of simulator (nonbiologic, biologic, live animal, and virtual reality [VR]), type of validity (face, content, construct, and predictive), cost-effectiveness, and whether these simulators have been used for training and/or assessment of PCA...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Endourology
T Smektala, A Goląb, M Królikowski, M Slojewski
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this brief report was to present and evaluate workflow of preparation of lowcost individual silicone replicas of kidneys for laparoscopic training and surgical simulation of difficult nephron sparing surgeries. METHODS: The work flow consists of four steps: 1.Image segmentation; 2.Casting mould designing; 3.Manufacturing of casting mould; 4.Silicone replica casting. To evaluate the cost and time required to execute the presented method, authors prepared 5 silicone models for 5 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic kidney tumorectomy due to renal cell cancer...
September 2016: Archivos Españoles de Urología
Jia-Feng Chang, Jih-Chen Yeh, Ya-Lin Chiu, Jian-Chiun Liou, Jing-Ru Hsiung, Tao-Hsin Tung
BACKGROUND: No large epidemiological study has been conducted to investigate the interaction and joint effects of periodontal pocket depth and hyperglycemia on progression of chronic kidney disease in patients with periodontal diseases. METHODS: Periodontal pocket depth was utilized for the grading severity of periodontal disease in 2,831 patients from Jan 2002 to June 2013. Progression of chronic kidney disease was defined as progression of color intensity in glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria grid of updated KDIGO guidelines...
September 8, 2016: American Journal of Medicine
Adam Golab, Marcin Slojewski, Miroslaw Brykczynski, Magdalena Lukowiak, Marek Boehlke, Daniel Matias, Tomasz Smektala
Three-dimensional (3D) printing involves preparing 3D objects from a digital model. These models can be used to plan and practice surgery. We used 3D printing to plan for a rare complicated surgery involving the removal of a renal tumor and neoplastic mass, which reached the heart atrium. A printed kidney model was an essential element of communication for physicians with different specializations.
2016: Heart Surgery Forum
Saskia von Stillfried, Jonas C Apitzsch, Josef Ehling, Tobias Penzkofer, Andreas H Mahnken, Ruth Knüchel, Jürgen Floege, Peter Boor
Renal microvascular rarefaction characterizes chronic kidney disease (CKD). In murine models of CKD, micro-CT imaging reflected capillary rarefaction using quantification of renal relative blood volume (rBV). In addition, micro-CT imaging revealed morphological alterations of the intrarenal vasculature including reduced vascular branching and lumen diameter. Here, we retrospectively quantified rBV in contrast-enhanced CT angiography in patients and found that, compared to non-CKD patients, those with CKD and renal fibrosis had significantly reduced rBV in the renal cortex...
October 2016: Angiogenesis
Jiangfeng Liu, Weiling Wang, Ming Liu, Limin Su, Hong Zhou, Yin Xia, Jianhua Ran, Herbert Y Lin, Baoxue Yang
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a monogenetic disease that still lacks effective therapy. Repulsive guidance molecule b (RGMb), a co-receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and a ligand for neogenin, is expressed in renal tubular epithelial cells. Previous studies showed that RGMb plays negative roles in several types of tumors and prevents the immune system from over activation. The present study was designed to explore the effects of RGMb in ADPKD development. We found that expression of RGMb in kidney was less in PKD mice than wild-type mice...
December 2016: Cellular Signalling
Zhongwei Li, Toshikazu Araoka, Jun Wu, Hsin-Kai Liao, Mo Li, Marta Lazo, Bing Zhou, Yinghui Sui, Min-Zu Wu, Isao Tamura, Yun Xia, Ergin Beyret, Taiji Matsusaka, Ira Pastan, Concepcion Rodriguez Esteban, Isabel Guillen, Pedro Guillen, Josep M Campistol, Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte
Transit-amplifying nephron progenitor cells (NPCs) generate all of the nephrons of the mammalian kidney during development. Their limited numbers, poor in vitro expansion, and difficult accessibility in humans have slowed basic and translational research into renal development and diseases. Here, we show that with appropriate 3D culture conditions, it is possible to support long-term expansion of primary mouse and human fetal NPCs as well as NPCs derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Expanded NPCs maintain genomic stability, molecular homogeneity, and nephrogenic potential in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo...
October 6, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
Tobias Norajitra, Klaus Maier-Hein
3D Statistical Shape Models (3D-SSM) are widely used for medical image segmentation. However, during segmentation, they typically perform a very limited unidirectional search for suitable landmark positions in the image, relying on weak learners or use-case specific appearance models that solely take local image information into account. As a consequence, segmentation errors arise, and results in general depend on the accuracy of a previous model initialization. Furthermore, these methods become subject to a tedious and use-case dependent parameter tuning in order to obtain optimized results...
August 16, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Hasan Anıl Atalay, Volkan Ülker, İlter Alkan, Halil Lütfi Canat, Ünsal Özkuvancı, Fatih Altunrende
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of three-dimensional (3D) printed pelvicaliceal system models on residents' understanding of pelvicaliceal system anatomy before percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with unilateral complex renal stones indicating PCNL were selected. Usable data of patients were obtained from CT-scans in Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) format. Mimics software version 16.0 (Materialise, Belgium) was used for segmentation and extraction of pelvicaliceal systems (PCSs)...
October 2016: Journal of Endourology
Eric G Schmuck, Jill M Koch, John M Centanni, Timothy A Hacker, Rudolf K Braun, Marlowe Eldridge, Derek J Hei, Peiman Hematti, Amish N Raval
: : Cell tracking is a critical component of the safety and efficacy evaluation of therapeutic cell products. To date, cell-tracking modalities have been hampered by poor resolution, low sensitivity, and inability to track cells beyond the shortterm. Three-dimensional (3D) cryo-imaging coregisters fluorescent and bright-field microcopy images and allows for single-cell quantification within a 3D organ volume. We hypothesized that 3D cryo-imaging could be used to measure cell biodistribution and clearance after intravenous infusion in a rat lung injury model compared with normal rats...
July 26, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Dmitry D Postnov, Donald J Marsh, Dmitry E Postnov, Thomas H Braunstein, Niels-Henrik Holstein-Rathlou, Erik A Martens, Olga Sosnovtseva
Through regulation of the extracellular fluid volume, the kidneys provide important long-term regulation of blood pressure. At the level of the individual functional unit (the nephron), pressure and flow control involves two different mechanisms that both produce oscillations. The nephrons are arranged in a complex branching structure that delivers blood to each nephron and, at the same time, provides a basis for an interaction between adjacent nephrons. The functional consequences of this interaction are not understood, and at present it is not possible to address this question experimentally...
July 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
NamHuk Baek, Ok Won Seo, Jaehwa Lee, John Hulme, Seong Soo A An
Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultivation is a powerful technique for monitoring and understanding diverse cellular mechanisms in developmental cancer and neuronal biology, tissue engineering, and drug development. 3D systems could relate better to in vivo models than two-dimensional (2D) cultures. Several factors, such as cell type, survival rate, proliferation rate, and gene and protein expression patterns, determine whether a particular cell line can be adapted to a 3D system. The 3D system may overcome some of the limitations of 2D cultures in terms of cell-cell communication and cell networks, which are essential for understanding differentiation, structural organization, shape, and extended connections with other cells or organs...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Johannes Tran-Gia, Susanne Schlögl, Michael Lassmann
: Currently, the validation of multimodal quantitative imaging and absorbed dose measurement is impeded by the lack of suitable, commercially available anthropomorphic phantoms of variable sizes and shapes. To demonstrate the potential of 3D printing techniques for quantitative SPECT/CT imaging, a set of kidney dosimetry phantoms and their spherical counterparts was designed and manufactured with a fused deposition modeling 3D printer. Nuclide-dependent SPECT/CT calibration factors were determined to assess the accuracy of quantitative imaging for internal renal dosimetry...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Andrew P Robinson, Jill Tipping, David M Cullen, David Hamilton, Richard Brown, Alex Flynn, Christopher Oldfield, Emma Page, Emlyn Price, Andrew Smith, Richard Snee
BACKGROUND: Patient-specific absorbed dose calculations for molecular radiotherapy require accurate activity quantification. This is commonly derived from Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) imaging using a calibration factor relating detected counts to known activity in a phantom insert. METHODS: A series of phantom inserts, based on the mathematical models underlying many clinical dosimetry calculations, have been produced using 3D printing techniques...
December 2016: EJNMMI Physics
Tom T G Nieskens, Martijn J Wilmer
The renal proximal tubule epithelium is responsible for active secretion of endogenous and exogenous waste products from the body and simultaneous reabsorption of vital compounds from the glomerular filtrate. The complexity of this transport machinery makes investigation of processes such as tubular drug secretion a continuous challenge for researchers. Currently available renal cell culture models often lack sufficient physiological relevance and reliability. Introducing complex biological culture systems in a 3D microfluidic design improves the physiological relevance of in vitro renal proximal tubule epithelium models...
July 8, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Natalia Sánchez-Romero, Carolien M S Schophuizen, Ignacio Giménez, Rosalinde Masereeuw
The conventional 2-dimensional (2D) cell culture is an invaluable tool in, amongst others, cell biology and experimental pharmacology. However, cells cultured in 2D, on the top of stiff plastic plates lose their phenotypical characteristics and fail in recreating the physiological environment found in vivo. This is a fundamental requirement when the goal of the study is to get a rigorous predictive response of human drug action and safety. Recent approaches in the field of renal cell biology are focused on the generation of 3D cell culture models due to the more bona fide features that they exhibit and the fact that they are more closely related to the observed physiological conditions, and better predict in vivo drug handling...
July 6, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Robert A McKee, Rebecca A Wingert
Recent research has shown that fully developed organs can be decellularized, resulting in a complex scaffold and extracellular matrix (ECM) network capable of being populated with other cells. This work has resulted in a growing field in bioengineering focused on the isolation, characterization, and modification of organ derived acellular scaffolds and their potential to sustain and interact with new cell populations, a process termed reseeding. In this review, we cover contemporary advancements in the bioengineering of kidney scaffolds including novel work showing that reseeded donor scaffolds can be transplanted and can function in recipients using animal models...
March 2016: Materials
Bjorn Stemkens, Rob H N Tijssen, Baudouin Denis de Senneville, Jan J W Lagendijk, Cornelis A T van den Berg
Respiratory motion introduces substantial uncertainties in abdominal radiotherapy for which traditionally large margins are used. The MR-Linac will open up the opportunity to acquire high resolution MR images just prior to radiation and during treatment. However, volumetric MRI time series are not able to characterize 3D tumor and organ-at-risk motion with sufficient temporal resolution. In this study we propose a method to estimate 3D deformation vector fields (DVFs) with high spatial and temporal resolution based on fast 2D imaging and a subject-specific motion model based on respiratory correlated MRI...
July 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
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