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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812396/the-influence-of-lower-limb-prostheses-technology-on-paracanoeing-time-trial-performance
#1
Shelley Ellis, Andrew Callaway, Bryce Dyer
Within the Paracanoeing discipline, it is important to ensure that appropriate control is achieved by a paddler with a disability. However, this Paralympic Games discipline has seen very little attention to date. The aims of this study were to understand the kinematic impact to a paracanoeist when not utilizing the use of a prosthetic lower-limb. A kayaker with a uni-lateral transfemoral amputation completed several 200 m maximal efforts both with and without their prosthesis. When the prosthetic limb was removed, there were significant differences found in stroke rate, stroke speed, stroke length and overall power output...
August 16, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812215/proteomic-alterations-associated-with-biomechanical-dysfunction-are-early-processes-in-the-emilin1-deficient-mouse-model-of-aortic-valve-disease
#2
P M Angel, D A Narmoneva, M K Sewell-Loftin, C Munjal, L Dupuis, B J Landis, A Jegga, C B Kern, W D Merryman, H S Baldwin, G M Bressan, Robert B Hinton
Aortic valve (AV) disease involves stiffening of the AV cusp with progression characterized by inflammation, fibrosis, and calcification. Here, we examine the relationship between biomechanical valve function and proteomic changes before and after the development of AV pathology in the Emilin1-/- mouse model of latent AV disease. Biomechanical studies were performed to quantify tissue stiffness at the macro (micropipette) and micro (atomic force microscopy (AFM)) levels. Micropipette studies showed that the Emilin1-/- AV annulus and cusp regions demonstrated increased stiffness only after the onset of AV disease...
August 15, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812206/differences-in-femoral-neck-structure-between-elderly-caucasian-and-chinese-populations-a-cross-sectional-study-of-perth-beijing-cohorts
#3
L Wang, B C C Khoo, X G Cheng, K Brown, J R Lewis, Y B Su, Z Guo, K Li, R L Prince
Structural skeletal differences of the femoral neck of older Beijing-Chinese and Perth-Caucasian women were compared; adjusting for frame size-related differences, Beijing-Chinese have lower periosteal width; however, indices of internal bone distribution suggest that Beijing-Chinese may exhibit increased resistance to fracture that may relate to the reduced hip fracture incidence. INTRODUCTION: Ethnic differences in skeletal structure may relate to differences in hip fracture risk in Chinese and Caucasian populations...
August 15, 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812039/three-dimensional-biomechanical-analysis-of-rearfoot-and-forefoot-running
#4
Sebastian Knorz, Felix Kluge, Kolja Gelse, Stefan Schulz-Drost, Thilo Hotfiel, Matthias Lochmann, Björn Eskofier, Sebastian Krinner
BACKGROUND: In the running community, a forefoot strike (FFS) pattern is increasingly preferred compared with a rearfoot strike (RFS) pattern. However, it has not been fully understood which strike pattern may better reduce adverse joint forces within the different joints of the lower extremity. PURPOSE: To analyze the 3-dimensional (3D) stress pattern in the ankle, knee, and hip joint in runners with either a FFS or RFS pattern. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study...
July 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812035/bioabsorbable-versus-metal-screw-in-the-fixation-of-tibial-tubercle-transfer-a-cadaveric-biomechanical-study
#5
Janne T Nurmi, Ari Itälä, Raine Sihvonen, Petri Sillanpää, Pekka Kannus, Harri Sievänen, Teppo L N Järvinen
BACKGROUND: In tibial tubercle transfer (TTT) procedures, the osteotomized and transferred tibial tubercle is usually fixed into the host bone using metal screws. PURPOSE: To compare the strength of fixation provided by a single bioabsorbable screw versus a metal screw for TTT. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: Twenty-two pairs of human cadaveric tibiae were used to compare the fixation strength of a single 4...
July 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811992/analysis-of-the-literature-on-cervical-spine-fractures-in-ankylosing-spinal-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Sebastian Hartmann, Anja Tschugg, Christoph Wipplinger, Claudius Thomé
STUDY DESIGN: Narrative literature review. OBJECTIVE: The numbers of low-energy cervical fractures seen in patients suffering from ankylosing spondylitis (also known as Bechterew disease) or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (also known as Forestier disease) have greatly increased over recent decades. These fractures tend to be particularly overlooked, leading to delayed diagnosis and secondary neurological deterioration. The aim of the present evaluation was to summarize current knowledge on cervical fractures in patients with ankylosing spinal disorders (ASDs)...
August 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811983/a-novel-spinal-implant-for-fusionless-scoliosis-correction-a-biomechanical-analysis-of-the-motion-preserving-properties-of-a-posterior-periapical-concave-distraction-device
#7
Roderick M Holewijn, Marinus de Kleuver, Albert J van der Veen, Kaj S Emanuel, Arno Bisschop, Agnita Stadhouder, Barend J van Royen, Idsart Kingma
STUDY DESIGN: Biomechanical study. OBJECTIVE: Recently, a posterior concave periapical distraction device for fusionless scoliosis correction was introduced. The goal of this study was to quantify the effect of the periapical distraction device on spinal range of motion (ROM) in comparison with traditional rigid pedicle screw-rod instrumentation. METHODS: Using a spinal motion simulator, 6 human spines were loaded with 4 N m and 6 porcine spines with 2 N m to induce flexion-extension (FE), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR)...
August 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811166/biomechanical-implications-of-cortical-elastic-properties-of-the-macaque-mandible
#8
Paul C Dechow, Olga Panagiotopoulou, Poorva Gharpure
Knowledge of the variation in the elastic properties of mandibular cortical bone is essential for modeling bone function. Our aim was to characterize the elastic properties of rhesus macaque mandibular cortical bone and compare these to the elastic properties from mandibles of dentate humans and baboons. Thirty cylindrical samples were harvested from each of six adult female rhesus monkey mandibles. Assuming orthotropy, axes of maximum stiffness in the plane of the cortical plate were derived from ultrasound velocity measurements...
June 17, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811043/treatment-of-the-fixation-surface-improves-glenoid-prosthesis-longevity-in-vitro
#9
Sarah Junaid, Sanjay Sanghavi, Carolyn Anglin, Anthony Bull, Roger Emery, Andrew A Amis, Ulrich Hansen
Many commercial cemented glenoid components claim superior fixation designs and increased survivability. However, both research and clinical studies have shown conflicting results and it is unclear whether these design variations do improve loosening rates. Part of the difficulty in investigating fixation failure is the inability to directly observe the fixation interface, a problem addressed in this study by using a novel experimental set-up. Cyclic loading-displacement tests were carried out on 60 custom-made glenoid prostheses implanted into a bone substitute...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811007/acceleration-of-skin-wound-healing-by-low-dose-indirect-ionizing-radiation-in-male-rats
#10
Nasrollah Jabbari, Gholam Hossein Farjah, Behnam Ghadimi, Hajar Zanjani, Behnam Heshmatian
A recent hypothesis has revealed that low-dose irradiation (LDI) with ionizing radiation might have a promoting effect on fracture healing. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of direct (electron beam) and indirect (gamma-ray) low-dose ionizing irradiations on the wound healing process in male rats. In 72 male rats, a full-thickness wound was incised. The animals were randomly assigned to three groups, each with 24 rats. The first two groups were named IG-I and IG-II and respectively exposed to electron and gamma-radiations (75 cGy) immediately after the surgical procedure...
August 2017: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810990/gait-and-functional-outcomes-for-young-active-males-with-traumatic-unilateral-transfemoral-limb-loss
#11
Caitlin E Mahon, Alison L Pruziner, Brad D Hendershot, Erik J Wolf, Benjamin J Darter, K Bo Foreman, Joseph B Webster
OBJECTIVE: Altered body structures that occur with the loss of a lower limb can impact mobility and quality of life. Specifically, biomechanical changes that result from wearing a prosthesis have been associated with an increased risk of falls or joint degeneration, as well as increased energy demands. While previous studies describing these outcomes are typically limited by number of outcome measures and/or small, diverse patient groups, recent military conflicts present a unique opportunity to collect outcomes from a relatively homogenous, active patient population with limb loss...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810645/influence-of-the-shape-of-the-micro-finite-element-model-on-the-mechanical-properties-calculated-from-micro-finite-element-analysis
#12
Xin-Xin Wen, Hai-Long Yu, Ya-Bo Yan, Chun-Lin Zong, Hai-Jiao Ding, Xiang-Yu Ma, Tian-Sheng Wang, Wei Lei
Assessing the biomechanical properties of trabecular bone is of major biological and clinical significance for the research of bone diseases, fractures and their treatments. Micro-finite element (µFE) models are becoming increasingly popular for investigating the biomechanical properties of trabecular bone. The shapes of µFE models typically include cube and cylinder. Whether there are differences between cubic and cylindrical µFE models has not yet been studied. In the present study, cubic and cylindrical µFE models of human vertebral trabecular bone were constructed...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810594/tissue-engineered-sling-with-adipose-derived-stem-cells-under-static-mechanical-strain
#13
Ying Wang, Wei Wang, Xilong Wang, Yangyun Wang, Jihong Wang, Qiang Fu, Guowei Shi
The implantation of a suburethral sling is an important treatment for stress urinary incontinence (SUI). However, the slings used current have a number of inherent limitations, such as tissue rejection and infection. The present study investigated the potential of engineering sling tissue in vitro using adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). The ADSCs were obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats and were characterized in vitro. The ADSCs were seeded on polyglycolic acid (PGA) fibers that formed a scaffold with a shape mimicking a sling complex...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810551/alterations-in-biomechanical-properties-and-microstructure-of-colon-wall-in-early-stage-experimental-colitis
#14
Xiaohui Gong, Xiaojuan Xu, Sisi Lin, Yu Cheng, Jianhua Tong, Yongyu Li
The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of early-stage dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mouse colitis on the biomechanical properties and microstructure of colon walls. In the present study, colitis was induced in 8-week-old mice by the oral administration of DSS, and then 10 control and 10 experimental colitis samples were harvested. Uniaxial tensile tests were performed to measure the ultimate tensile strength and ultimate stretches of colon tissues. In addition, histological investigations were performed to characterize changes in the microstructure of the colon wall following treatment...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810210/biomechanical-and-histologic-evaluation-of-two-application-forms-of-surgical-glue-for-mesh-fixation-to-the-abdominal-wall
#15
Á Ortillés, G Pascual, E Peña, M Rodríguez, B Pérez-Köhler, C Mesa-Ciller, B Calvo, J M Bellón
The use of an adhesive for mesh fixation in hernia repair reduces chronic pain and minimizes tissue damage in the patient. This study was designed to assess the adhesive properties of a medium-chain (n-butyl) cyanoacrylate glue applied as drops or as a spray in a biomechanical and histologic study. Both forms of glue application were compared to the use of simple-loose or continuous-running polypropylene sutures for mesh fixation. Eighteen adult New Zealand White rabbits were used. For mechanical tests in an ex vivo and in vivo study, patches of polypropylene mesh were fixed to an excised fragment of healthy abdominal tissue or used to repair a partial abdominal wall defect in the rabbit respectively...
August 8, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809637/-comparison-of-short-therm-results-of-conservative-versus-operative-treatment-of-distal-ulna-fractures-associated-with-distal-radius-fracture-treated-by-plate-osteosynthesis
#16
P Meluzinová, L Kopp, P Dráč, K Edelmann, P Obruba
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The study aims to evaluate and compare the results of conservative and operative treatment of individual types of distal ulna fractures associated with distal radius fracture treated by plate osteosynthesis and to verify the conclusions of the other authors regarding the recommended therapeutic procedures in these fractures. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the period from 08/2013 to 09/2015, a total of 81 patients participated in the prospective randomised study, with the mean follow-up period of 24 months (6-36)...
2017: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809626/-structural-damage-to-the-hamstring-graft-due-to-interaction-with-fixation-material-and-its-effect-on-biomechanical-properties-of-acl-reconstruction
#17
J Kautzner, M Držík, M Handl, C Povýšil, P Kos, T Trč, V Havlas
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Hamstring grafts are commonly used for ACL reconstruction. The purpose of our study is to determine the effects of the suspension fixation compared to graft cross-pinning transfixation, and the effect(s) of structural damage during the preparation of the graft on biomechanical properties of the graft. MATERIAL AND METHODS The design of the study is a cadaveric biomechanical laboratory study. 38 fresh-frozen human hamstring specimens from 19 cadaveric donors were used. The grafts were tested for their loading properties...
2017: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809445/a-quantitative-evaluation-of-physical-and-digital-approaches-to-centre-of-mass-estimation
#18
Sophie Macaulay, John R Hutchinson, Karl T Bates
Centre of mass is a fundamental anatomical and biomechanical parameter. Knowledge of centre of mass is essential to inform studies investigating locomotion and other behaviours, through its implications for segment movements, and on whole body factors such as posture. Previous studies have estimated centre of mass position for a range of organisms, using various methodologies. However, few studies assess the accuracy of the methods that they employ, and often provide only brief details on their methodologies...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808736/the-role-of-isolated-posterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-in-knees-with-combined-posterior-cruciate-ligament-and-posterolateral-complex-injury
#19
REVIEW
Dong-Yeong Lee, Young-Jin Park, Dong-Hee Kim, Hyun-Jung Kim, Dae-Cheol Nam, Jin-Sung Park, Sun-Chul Hwang
PURPOSE: This is a meta-analysis comparing biomechanical outcomes to determine whether an isolated posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction can restore normal knee kinematics in a combined PCL/posterolateral complex (PLC) injury and whether double-bundle (DB) PCL reconstruction is superior in controlling posterior and rotational laxity compared with single-bundle (SB) PCL reconstruction in a PCL/PLC-deficient knee. METHODS: A number of electronic databases were searched for relevant articles published through August 2016 that compared biomechanical outcomes of PCL reconstruction in patients who underwent reconstruction for combined PCL/PLC deficiencies...
August 14, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807566/electrospun-collagen-based-nanofibres-a-sustainable-material-for-improved-antibiotic-utilisation-in-tissue-engineering-applications
#20
Ivan J Hall Barrientos, Eleonora Paladino, Peter Szabó, Sarah Brozio, Peter J Hall, Charles I Oseghale, Melissa K Passarelli, Susan J Moug, Richard A Black, Clive G Wilson, Romana Zelkó, Dimitrios A Lamprou
For the creation of scaffolds in tissue engineering applications, it is essential to control the physical morphology of fibres and to choose compositions which do not disturb normal physiological function. Collagen, the most abundant protein in the human body, is a well-established biopolymer used in electrospinning compositions. It shows high in-vivo stability and is able to maintain a high biomechanical strength over time. In this study, the effects of collagen type I in polylactic acid-drug electrospun scaffolds for tissue engineering applications are examined...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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