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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230239/common-evolutionary-trends-underlie-the-four-bar-linkage-systems-of-sunfish-and-mantis-shrimp
#1
Yinan Hu, Nathan Nelson-Maney, Philip S L Anderson
Comparative biomechanics offers an opportunity to explore the evolution of disparate biological systems that share common underlying mechanics. Four-bar linkage modelling has been applied to various biological systems such as fish jaws and crustacean appendages to explore the relationship between biomechanics and evolutionary diversification. Mechanical sensitivity states that the functional output of a mechanical system will show differential sensitivity to changes in specific morphological components. We document similar patterns of mechanical sensitivity in two disparate four-bar systems from different phyla: the opercular four-bar system in centrarchid fishes and the raptorial appendage of stomatopods...
February 23, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229956/development-of-a-thermosensitive-hama-containing-bio-ink-for-the-fabrication-of-composite-cartilage-repair-constructs
#2
Vivian Hilda Maria Mouser, Anna Abbadessa, Riccardo Levato, Wim Hennink, Tina Vermonden, Debby Gawlitta, Jos Malda
Fine-tuning of bio-ink composition and material processing parameters is crucial for the development of biomechanically relevant cartilage constructs. This study aims to design and develop cartilage constructs with tunable internal architectures and relevant mechanical properties. More specifically, the potential of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (HAMA) added to thermosensitive hydrogels composed of methacrylated poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide mono/dilactate] (pHPMA-lac)/polyethylene glycol (PEG) triblock copolymers, to optimize cartilage-like tissue formation by embedded chondrocytes, and enhance printability was explored...
February 23, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229851/-skeletal-anchorage-in-the-past-today-and-tomorrow
#3
Birte Melsen, Michel Dalstra
INTRODUCTION: Skeletal anchorage was not introduced as an alternative to conventional anchorage modalities. The first skeletal anchorage was a ligature through a hole in the infrazygomatic crest. This was replaced by surgical screws and finally the TADs, which were optimized with respect to the material and morphology, were developed. A bracket-like head allows for the use of the mini-implant as indirect anchorage, but should not be a tool for lost control resulting from badly planned biomechanics or failing compliance...
March 2017: L' Orthodontie Française
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229193/osseointegrated-prostheses-for-rehabilitation-following-amputation-the-pioneering-swedish-model
#4
Yan Li, Rickard Brånemark
The direct attachment of osseointegrated (OI) prostheses to the skeleton avoids the inherent problems of socket suspension. It also provides physiological weight bearing, improved range of motion in the proximal joint, as well as osseoperceptive sensory feedback, enabling better control of the artificial limbs by amputees. The present article briefly reviews the pioneering efforts on extremity osseointegration surgeries in Sweden and the development of the OPRA (Osseointegrated Prostheses for the Rehabilitation of Amputees) program...
February 22, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228783/-atypical-atypical-femur-fractures-and-use-of-bisphosphonates
#5
Denise M van de Laarschot, Matthijs P Somford, Agnes Jager, Edwin H Oei, P Koen Bos, M Carola Zillikens
BACKGROUND: Atypical femur fractures (AFFs) present a rare but serious condition associated with use of bisphosphonates. Underlying mechanisms and clinical risk factors remain unclear. According to the diagnostic criteria formulated by the ASBMR, a lateral localization of an AFF is required. CASE HISTORY: We present a patient who developed bilateral leg pain while using an oral bisphosphonate and aromatase inhibitor in the course of adjuvant treatment for breast cancer...
September 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228612/biomechanical-evaluation-of-three-ventral-fixation-methods-for-canine-atlantoaxial-instability-a-cadaveric-study
#6
Fumitaka Takahashi, Takaharu Hakozaki, Nobuo Kanno, Yasuji Harada, Shinya Yamaguchi, Yasushi Hara
Vol. 78, No. 12 (2016), The "received date" year in the manuscript was printed incorrectly. Error: Received 25 March 2015 ↓ Correction: Received 25 March 2016 The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science Editorial Office would like to offer our sincere apologies for this mistake.
2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228537/morphoelasticity-in-the-development-of-brown-alga-ectocarpus-siliculosus-from-cell-rounding-to-branching
#7
Fei Jia, Martine Ben Amar, Bernard Billoud, Bénédicte Charrier
A biomechanical model is proposed for the growth of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus Featuring ramified uniseriate filaments, this alga has two modes of growth: apical growth and intercalary growth with branching. Apical growth occurs upon the mitosis of a young cell at one extremity and leads to a new tip cell followed by a cylindrical cell, whereas branching mainly occurs when a cylindrical cell becomes rounded and swells, forming a spherical cell. Given the continuous interplay between cell growth and swelling, a poroelastic model combining osmotic pressure and volumetric growth is considered for the whole cell, cytoplasm and cell wall...
February 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228100/influence-of-hooks-and-a-lag-screw-on-internal-fixation-plates-for-lateral-malleolar-fracture-a-biomechanical-and-ergonomic-study
#8
Rina Sakai, Masataka Uchino, Terumasa Yoneo, Yasuaki Ohtaki, Hiroaki Minehara, Terumasa Matsuura, Tsutomu Gomi, Masanobu Ujihira
BACKGROUND: For internal fixation of AO classification Type B lateral malleolar fracture, insertion of lag screws into the fracture plane and fixation with a one-third tubular plate as a neutralization plate are the standard treatment procedures. The one-third tubular plate is processed to a hook shape and hung on the distal end of the fibula. In this study, to compare the function of the hook and lag screws of a one-third tubular plate and LCP for osteosynthesis of lateral malleolar fracture, mechanical indices of internal fixation were compared among the one-third tubular plates with lag screws with and without the hook and a locking compression plate...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227917/evaluation-of-shoulder-joint-kinematics-and-muscle-activity-during-geared-and-standard-manual-wheelchair-mobility
#9
Omid Jahanian, Alyssa J Schnorenberg, Brooke A Slavens, Omid Jahanian, Alyssa J Schnorenberg, Brooke A Slavens, Brooke A Slavens, Alyssa J Schnorenberg, Omid Jahanian
Manual wheelchairs often lead to reduced independent function and an increase in shoulder pain and injuries. Geared manual wheelchairs may be a promising alternative that reduces the biomechanical demands of the shoulder needed for tasks such as propulsion on ramps and carpeted floors, while maximizing function and participation. To investigate the effects of geared manual wheelchair mobility during demanding tasks such as ramp ascent, six able-bodied subjects were evaluated in this study. Subjects were asked to propel both standard and geared manual wheelchairs on a tiled level floor and on a wheelchair ADA ramp...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227884/bone-composition-and-healing-open-electromagnetic-and-biomechanical-problems
#10
Peter Biggane, Xavier Jackson, Ara Nazarian, Peter Biggane, Xavier Jackson, Ara Nazarian, Ara Nazarian, Peter Biggane, Xavier Jackson
In this paper, we present a review of some electromagnetic interactions in bone matter. Special attention is paid to pulsed electromagnetic therapy, which is potentially a promising therapeutic method for bone healing. We review and compare existing setups and their applications.
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227827/a-novel-tool-and-procedure-for-in-situ-volumetric-calibration-of-motion-capture-systems-for-breathing-analysis
#11
C Massaroni, E Schena, P Saccomandi, S Silvestri, C Massaroni, E Schena, P Saccomandi, S Silvestri, C Massaroni, P Saccomandi, E Schena, S Silvestri
Optical motion capture systems are widely used in biomechanics although have not been significantly explored for measuring volumes and volume variations yet. The aim of this study was to propose and test a completely novel procedure for the calibration of motion capture systems for the breathing analysis in terms of volume measurements, by the use of a tool consisting in an ad-hoc designed in-situ calibration device (CD) and two algorithms for calibration. Both the calibration tool and the calibration procedure performed in the range 0-2780mL on an Optoelectronic Plethysmography (OEP) system are presented...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227302/the-role-of-electromechanical-delay-in-modelling-the-emg-force-relationship-during-quasi-dynamic-contractions-of-the-upper-limb
#12
Gregg Johns, Evelyn Morin, Keyvan Hashtrudi-Zaad, Gregg Johns, Evelyn Morin, Keyvan Hashtrudi-Zaad, Keyvan Hashtrudi-Zaad, Gregg Johns, Evelyn Morin
There is a discontinuity in published electromechanical delays (EMD) in upper-limb muscles and the state-of-the-art in modelling end-point force from electromyographic signals collected from one or more muscles. Published values are typically in the range of 10 to 30ms, depending on the nature of the contraction. In published literature where the EMG-force relationship is modelled, generally a delay of 100ms or more is induced during linear enveloping to match the EMD. The implications of EMD on end-point force prediction were considered using inter-session end-point force modelling with a support-vector-regression model...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226974/design-of-an-intraoperative-peritoneal-lavage-device
#13
Maria Ignacia Aguilera, Esteban J Pino, Maria Ignacia Aguilera, Esteban J Pino, Maria Ignacia Aguilera, Esteban J Pino
This paper consists of the design and construction of an intraoperative peritoneal lavage device. It is intended for cleaning the intra-abdominal cavity during a surgical procedure, once the etiology of a peritonitis has been identified and treated. Its purpose is to improve the current standard treatment consisting of simple pouring saline solution. A good washing procedure aids stopping the inflammatory and infectious process generated after the contamination due to the perforation of a hollow viscera. COMSOL Multiphysics software was used to simulate the biomechanical behavior of the liver against localized pressure...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226963/design-and-characterization-of-a-torque-controllable-actuator-for-knee-assistance-during-sit-to-stand
#14
Max K Shepherd, Elliott J Rouse, Max K Shepherd, Elliott J Rouse, Elliott J Rouse, Max K Shepherd
Individuals with post-stroke hemiparesis often have difficulty standing out of a chair. One way to potentially improve sit-to-stand is to provide knee extension assistance using a powered knee exoskeleton. An exoskeleton providing unilateral, partial assistance during sit-to-stand would need to be torque-controllable. There are no knee exoskeletons on the market suitable for conducting experiments assisting stroke patients with sit-to-stand, so to enable such experiments a research device was developed. The purpose of this report is to present the design of a novel knee exoskeleton actuator that uses a fiberglass leaf spring in series to improve torque-controllability, and present a characterization of the actuator performance...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226955/an-investigation-of-animal-and-human-bones-for-predicting-probable-location-of-fractures
#15
Irfan Manarvi, Irfan Manarvi, Irfan Manarvi
Predicting location of fracture in animal and human bones has been a keen area of research for the past few decades. It has been established that it is various types of stress that results into bone failure. Past studies were mostly based on experimental testing of variety of bones with limited accuracy equipment leading to experimental errors. An effort has been made in present research to use latest experimental testing equipment in parallel with some modern techniques and tools such as 3D scanners for creating computer models and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to conduct structural analysis that could allow unlimited changes in boundary conditions expected to be faced by a bone...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226946/optical-measurement-of-breathing-algorithm-volume-calibration-and-preliminary-validation-on-healthy-trained-subjects
#16
C Massaroni, E Cassetta, I K Levai, S Winter, J W Dickinson, S Silvestri, C Massaroni, E Cassetta, I K Levai, S Winter, J W Dickinson, S Silvestri, E Cassetta, S Winter, J W Dickinson, S Silvestri, C Massaroni, I K Levai
The use of optical technologies may be beneficial when measuring breathing biomechanics. The purpose of this study was twofold: i) to enhance the optoelectronic plethysmography (OEP) algorithm performance for the volume estimation by the use of a novel volume calibration procedure and ii) to compare the OEP volumes gained by a commercial optoelectronic system against actual respiratory volumes measured by a breath-by-breath gas analyzer (BbB). The OEP volume algorithm calibration was performed by the use of a novel volume calibration procedure based on both a calibrator device that delivered known volumes changes and one ad-hoc designed software for the static and dynamic calibration analysis...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226917/development-of-a-planar-shear-sensor
#17
Bruce J P Mortimer, Gary A Zets, Brian J Altenbernd, Tharaka Goonetilleke, Bruce J P Mortimer, Gary A Zets, Brian J Altenbernd, Tharaka Goonetilleke, Bruce J P Mortimer, Tharaka Goonetilleke, Gary A Zets, Brian J Altenbernd
This paper describes a wearable sensor that simultaneously measures both shear and orthogonal force. The planar shear sensor is based on inductive coupling between a small target and a series of adjacent coils. Lateral movement of the target changes the coupling between a primary coil and a series of geometrically shaped and scaled sense coils. Design of the sensor and methods for calibration are investigated. The wearable sensor can be used for measurement of in-situ foot loading during ambulation and we postulate that this may be useful for biomechanical analysis including exoskeletons and balance rehabilitation applications...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226584/leveraging-imu-data-for-accurate-exercise-performance-classification-and-musculoskeletal-injury-risk-screening
#18
Darragh Whelan, Martin O'Reilly, Bingquan Huang, Oonagh Giggins, Tahar Kechadi, Brian Caulfield, Darragh Whelan, Martin O'Reilly, Bingquan Huang, Oonagh Giggins, Tahar Kechadi, Brian Caulfield, Martin O'Reilly, Brian Caulfield, Oonagh Giggins, Tahar Kechadi, Darragh Whelan, Bingquan Huang
Inertial measurement units (IMUs) are becoming increasingly prevalent as a method for low cost and portable biomechanical analysis. However, to date they have not been accepted into routine clinical practice. This is often due to a disconnect between translating the data collected by the sensors into meaningful and actionable information for end users. This paper outlines the work completed by our group in attempting to achieve this. We discuss the conceptual framework involved in our work, the methodological approach taken in analysing sensor signals and discuss possible application models...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226560/biomechanical-analysis-of-a-fall-velocities-at-impact
#19
Norbert Noury, Julien Poujaud, Pierre Cousin, Nicolas Poujaud, Norbert Noury, Julien Poujaud, Pierre Cousin, Nicolas Poujaud, Nicolas Poujaud, Norbert Noury, Julien Poujaud, Pierre Cousin
There are numerous research works focusing on falls of the elderly, proposing various technologies for its detection; however, few research works attempted to describe the mechanical phenomenon itself. In this study, we analyzed the kine(ma)tics of human falls with a simplified biomechanical model of human segments. We present some results based on data found in the literature and in our own laboratory experiments, to conclude that fall velocities at impact can reach values from 3.78 m.s(-1) (center of mass) to 6...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226218/assessing-cartilage-biomechanical-properties-techniques-for-evaluating-the-functional-performance-of-cartilage-in-health-and-disease
#20
Benjamin A Lakin, Brian D Snyder, Mark W Grinstaff
Osteoarthritis (OA) affects millions of people and results in weakened hyaline cartilage due to overloading. During joint articulation, hyaline cartilage must withstand high loads while maintaining low friction to prevent wear and tissue loss. Thus, cartilage compressive stiffness and the coefficient of friction are important indicators of the tissue's functional performance. These mechanical properties are often measured ex vivo using mechanical testing regimens, but arthroscopic handheld probes (e.g., for indentation testing, ultrasound, and optical coherence tomography) and noninvasive imaging modalities (e...
February 2, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
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