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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929107/in-utero-programming-and-early-detection-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-the-offspring-of-mothers-with-obesity
#1
REVIEW
Karolien Van De Maele, Roland Devlieger, Inge Gies
The offspring of women with obesity during their pregnancy are exposed to an altered intra-uterine environment. A subsequent influence on the cardiovascular development during fetal life is assumed. In the present thematic review, we report on the current knowledge about this early development of cardiovascular disease from fetal life until adolescence. Based on animal studies, different contributing mechanisms have been hypothesized that still need confirmation in human subjects. Insulin resistance, increased levels of leptin, chronic inflammatory state, perturbation of sympathetic tone and epigenetic modifications contribute to a suboptimal nutrient environment and changed hemodynamics...
June 9, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928902/insulin-resistance-involvement-in-prevalence-of-familial-dysbetalipoproteinemia-in-%C3%AE%C2%B52%C3%AE%C2%B52-subjects-by-bayesian-network-modeling
#2
James P Corsetti, Tanzy M Love, Charles E Sparks, Stephan J L Bakker, Robin P F Dullaart
OBJECTIVE: Familial dysbetalipoproteinemia (FD) or Type III hyperlipoproteinemia is closely associated with the ε2ε2 genotype of the common APOE polymorphism although not all ε2 homozygotes develop FD indicating that additional factors play a role including insulin resistance (IR). The current study was undertaken to explore relationships and influences among factors, especially IR, that might elucidate FD progression pathways. METHODS: Bayesian network (BN) modeling, a probabilistic graphical exploratory data analysis tool that portrays relationships and influences among variables as simple diagrams, was applied to 52 e2e2 subjects...
June 18, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928647/loss-of-metabolic-flexibility-in-the-failing-heart
#3
REVIEW
Qutuba G Karwi, Golam M Uddin, Kim L Ho, Gary D Lopaschuk
To maintain its high energy demand the heart is equipped with a highly complex and efficient enzymatic machinery that orchestrates ATP production using multiple energy substrates, namely fatty acids, carbohydrates (glucose and lactate), ketones and amino acids. The contribution of these individual substrates to ATP production can dramatically change, depending on such variables as substrate availability, hormonal status and energy demand. This "metabolic flexibility" is a remarkable virtue of the heart, which allows utilization of different energy substrates at different rates to maintain contractile function...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927746/ameliorative-potential-of-acupressure-on-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Fayiz F El-Shamy, Sanad S El-Kholy, Mahmoud Labib, Ahmed M Kabel
Background and aim Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) poses a threat to the mother and child. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of acupressure on the glycemic control and insulin requirement of GDM females. Materials and methods Thirty GDM female patients were randomized to either the study group (SG; n=15), which was treated with acupressure and the standard antenatal care, or the control group (CG; n=15), which was treated with the standard antenatal care. Fasting and 2-h post-prandial blood glucose levels, requirement for insulin and insulin resistance were measured at 24 and 36 weeks' gestation (WG)...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927216/-research-advances-in-hydrogen-sulfide-and-diabetes-mellitus-as-well-as-diabetic-complications
#5
Yue Gu, Li-Ping Xie, Guo-Liang Meng, Yong Ji
Diabetes and its complications continue to be an increasing global health problem. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)has emerged as the third gasotransmitter following the nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in the body, and plays an important role in both physiology and pathophysiology. Recent work has suggested important roles for H2S in the regulation of pancreatic β-cell function, as well as development of insulin resistance and diabetic complications. Targeting H2S represents a novel therapeutic approach in diabetes and its associated complications...
June 21, 2018: Sheng Li Ke Xue Jin Zhan [Progress in Physiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927023/genetic-basis-of-early-onset-mody-like-diabetes-in-japan-and-features-of-patients-without-mutations-in-the-major-mody-genes-dominance-of-maternal-inheritance
#6
Tohru Yorifuji, Shinji Higuchi, Rie Kawakita, Yuki Hosokawa, Takane Aoyama, Akiko Murakami, Yoshiko Kawae, Kazue Hatake, Hironori Nagasaka, Nobuyoshi Tamagawa
BACKGROUND: Causative mutations cannot be identified in the majority of Asian patients with suspected maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the genetic basis of Japanese patients with MODY-like diabetes and gain insight into the etiology of patients without mutations in the major MODY genes. SUBJECTS: 263 Japanese patients with early-onset, nonobese, MODY-like diabetes mellitus referred to Osaka City General Hospital for diagnosis...
June 21, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926665/-effects-of-aerobic-exercise-plus-diet-control-on-serum-levels-of-total-igf-1-and-igf-1-binding-protein-3-in-female-obese-youths-and-adolescents
#7
Hong-Fang Yang, Xiao-Jing Lin, Xiao-Hui Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of 4-week moderate aerobic exercise plus diet control on serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1) and IGF-1 binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) as well as IGF-1 activity (reflected by molar ratio of IGF-1/IGFBP-3) in female obese adolescents and youths, and their possible role on fat loss, and improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism. METHODS: Nine female obese youths (age:18~19 y) and 30 female obese adolescents (age:14~16 y) were recruited and undertook 4-week aerobic exercise such as swimming and jogging (6 days/week, twice a day, 2 h/time with 5 min rest per 30 min exercise) with gradual increase of intensity from low (heart rate immediately post-exercise of 1st week:100~120 beats/min) to moderate (heart rate immediately post-exercise of 2nd -4th weeks:120~140 beats/min) level, combined with a diet intervention (total daily energy intake of 1 400 or 1 600 kcal according to basal metabolism rate) in Shanghai Dianfeng weight loss enclosed camp...
January 8, 2018: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925841/the-relationship-between-metabolic-syndrome-and-asthma-in-the-elderly
#8
Sangshin Park, Nam-Kyong Choi, Seungsoo Kim, Chang-Hoon Lee
The burden of asthma in the elderly is increasing, but the etiology of asthma in the elderly is not clearly understood. Recent studies have reported the epidemiological link between metabolic syndrome (MS) and asthma, but it has rarely been studied in the elderly. This study investigated the association between MS and asthma and the contribution of insulin resistance (IR) and systemic inflammation to this MS-asthma association in the elderly. Our study analyzed 4,060 elderly participants (≥65 years old) from a cross-sectional survey, the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2007-2012...
June 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925744/effect-of-lipoprotein-associated-phospholipase-a2-inhibitor-on-insulin-resistance-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-pregnant-rats
#9
Guo-Hua Wang, Jun Jin, Li-Zhou Sun
This paper aims to investigate the influence of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) inhibitor, darapladib, on insulin resistance (IR) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic pregnant rats. The rat models were divided into Control (normal pregnancy), STZ + saline (STZ-induced diabetic pregnant rats), STZ + Low-dose and STZ + High-dose darapladib (STZ-induced diabetic pregnant rats treated with low-/high-dose darapladib) groups. Pathological changes were observed by Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Immunohistochemistry staining...
June 21, 2018: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925691/pan-ampk-activator-o304-improves-glucose-homeostasis-and-microvascular-perfusion-in-mice-and-type-2-diabetes-patients
#10
Pär Steneberg, Emma Lindahl, Ulf Dahl, Emmelie Lidh, Jurate Straseviciene, Fredrik Backlund, Elisabet Kjellkvist, Eva Berggren, Ingela Lundberg, Ingela Bergqvist, Madelene Ericsson, Björn Eriksson, Kajsa Linde, Jacob Westman, Thomas Edlund, Helena Edlund
AMPK activated protein kinase (AMPK), a master regulator of energy homeostasis, is activated in response to an energy shortage imposed by physical activity and caloric restriction. We here report on the identification of PAN-AMPK activator O304, which - in diet-induced obese mice - increased glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, reduced β cell stress, and promoted β cell rest. Accordingly, O304 reduced fasting plasma glucose levels and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a proof-of-concept phase IIa clinical trial in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients on Metformin...
June 21, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925687/androgen-excess-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-and-neurons-predisposes-female-mice-to-type-2-diabetes
#11
Guadalupe Navarro, Camille Allard, Jamie J Morford, Weiwei Xu, Suhuan Liu, Adrien Jr Molinas, Sierra M Butcher, Nicholas Hf Fine, Manuel Blandino-Rosano, Venkata N Sure, Sangho Yu, Rui Zhang, Heike Münzberg, David A Jacobson, Prasad V Katakam, David J Hodson, Ernesto Bernal-Mizrachi, Andrea Zsombok, Franck Mauvais-Jarvis
Androgen excess predisposes women to type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the mechanism of this is poorly understood. We report that female mice fed a Western diet and exposed to chronic androgen excess using dihydrotestosterone (DHT) exhibit hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance associated with secondary pancreatic β cell failure, leading to hyperglycemia. These abnormalities are not observed in mice lacking the androgen receptor (AR) in β cells and partially in neurons of the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) as well as in mice lacking AR selectively in neurons...
June 21, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924854/food-restriction-promotes-damage-reduction-in-rat-models-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#12
Carlos Vinicius Dalto da Rosa, Jéssica Men de Campos, Anacharis Babeto de Sá Nakanishi, Jurandir Fernando Comar, Isabela Peixoto Martins, Paulo Cézar de Freitas Mathias, Maria Montserrat Diaz Pedrosa, Vilma Aparecida Ferreira de Godoi, Maria Raquel Marçal Natali
There are several animal models of type 2 diabetes mellitus induction but the comparison between models is scarce. Food restriction generates benefits, such as reducing oxidative stress, but there are few studies on its effects on diabetes. The objective of this study is to evaluate the differences in physiological and biochemical parameters between diabetes models and their responses to food restriction. For this, 30 male Wistar rats were distributed in 3 groups (n = 10/group): control (C); diabetes with streptozotocin and cafeteria-style diet (DE); and diabetes with streptozotocin and nicotinamide (DN), all treated for two months (pre-food restriction period)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924632/heat-shock-protein-72-regulates-hepatic-lipid-accumulation
#13
Ashley E Archer, Robert S Rogers, Alex T Von Schulze, Joshua L Wheatley, E Matthew Morris, Colin S McCoin, John P Thyfault, Paige C Geiger
Induction of the chaperone Heat Shock Protein 72 (HSP72) through heat treatment, exercise, or overexpression improves glucose tolerance and mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Less is known about HSP72 function in the liver where lipid accumulation can result in insulin resistance and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). The purpose of this study was 1) to determine whether weekly in vivo heat treatment (HT) induces hepatic HSP72 and improves glucose tolerance in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and 2) to determine the ability of HSP72 to protect against lipid accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction in primary hepatocytes...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924212/influence-of-oophorectomy-on-glycemia-and-lipidogram
#14
Renan Kleber Costa Teixeira, Daniel Haber Feijó, André Lopes Valente, Luan Teles Ferreira de Carvalho, Hícaro Donato Granhen, Andy Petroianu, Nara Macedo Botelho
PURPOSE: To verify the influence of oophorectomy on lipidogram and glycemia. METHODS: Fifty six female rats were divided into the following 7 groups (n = 8): group 1 - sham group, group 2 - oophorectomy 30 days, group 3 - oophorectomy 35 days, group 4 - oophorectomy 40 days, group 5 - oophorectomy 45 days, group 6 - oophorectomy 70 days, group 7 - oophorectomy 55 days. Animals were following by number of days according the group. Was evaluated the serum levels of glucose and lipid profile...
May 2018: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924135/exenatide-ameliorates-hepatic-steatosis-and-attenuates-fat-mass-and-fto-gene-expression-through-pi3k-signaling-pathway-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#15
Shan Li, Xiaoman Wang, Jielei Zhang, Jingyi Li, Xiaogang Liu, Yuanyuan Ma, Chao Han, Lixia Zhang, Lili Zheng
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common disease associated with metabolic syndrome and can lead to life-threatening complications like hepatic carcinoma and cirrhosis. Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist antidiabetic drug, has the capacity to overcome insulin resistance and attenuate hepatic steatosis but the specific underlying mechanism is unclear. This study was designed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of exenatide therapy on NAFLD. We used in vivo and in vitro techniques to investigate the protective effects of exenatide on fatty liver via fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) in a high-fat (HF) diet-induced NAFLD animal model and related cell culture model...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923910/hypoxic-training-improves-normoxic-glucose-tolerance-in-adolescents-with-obesity
#16
Estelle De Groote, Florian A Britto, Loïc Bullock, Marie François, Carine De Buck, Henri Nielens, Louise Deldicque
PURPOSE: To test whether environmental hypoxia could potentiate the effects of exercise training on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. METHODS: Fourteen adolescents with obesity were assigned to 6 weeks of exercise training either in normoxic or in hypoxic conditions (FiO2 15%). Adolescents trained 3x/w for 50-60min, including endurance and resistance exercises. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), blood and morphological analyses as well as physical performance tests were performed before and after the training period...
June 20, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923306/acid-sphingomyelinase-down-regulation-alleviates-vascular-endothelial-insulin-resistance-in-diabetic-rats
#17
Xin Li, Shi-Jie Jin, Jie Su, Xiao-Xue Li, Ming Xu
Insulin resistance in endothelial cells contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is a soluble glycoprotein which plays a vital role in the development and progression of various diseases such as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. However, it remains unknown if ASM regulates insulin resistance in vascular endothelial cells in type 2 diabetes. ASM down-regulation with gene silencing and selective inhibitor amitriptyline was used in the rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs) treated with palmitic acid (PA), a common saturated free fatty acid, which is thought to be the major cause of insulin resistance...
June 19, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923295/dapagliflozin-a-sglt2-inhibitor-slows-the-progression-of-renal-complications-through-the-suppression-of-renal-inflammation-er-stress-and-apoptosis-in-pre-diabetic-rats
#18
Krit Jaikumkao, Anchalee Pongchaidecha, Nuttawud Chueakula, La-Ongdao Thongnak, Keerati Wanchai, Varanuj Chatsudthipong, Nipon Chattipakorn, Anusorn Lungkaphin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor dapagliflozin has been shown to exert both anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects in metabolic syndrome. However, the effects of dapagliflozin on the renal complications associated with metabolic dysfunction in diet-induced obesity (DIO) are not fully understood. In this study, to work towards a resolution of these issues, we evaluated the renoprotective roles of dapagliflozin in pre-diabetic rats. METHODS: DIO was induced by feeding a high-fat diet (HF) to male Wistar rats for 16 weeks...
June 19, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923291/inflammation-of-brown-beige-adipose-tissues-in-obesity-and-metabolic-disease
#19
Francesc Villarroya, Rubén Cereijo, Aleix Gavaldà-Navarro, Joan Villarroya, Marta Giralt
Many of the comorbidities of obesity, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are related to the low-grade chronic inflammation of white adipose tissue. Under white adipocyte stress, local infiltration of immune cells and enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines together reduce metabolic flexibility and lead to insulin resistance in obesity. Whereas white adipocytes act in energy storage, brown and beige adipocytes specialize in energy expenditure. Brown and beige activity protects against obesity and associated metabolic disorders, such as hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923211/beneficial-effect-of-apple-vinegar-on-reproductive-parameters-in-male-rat-model-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#20
Fahimeh Mohammadghasemi, Masumeh Abbasi, Kamran Rudkhaneei, Monireh Aghajany-Nasab
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with low testosterone levels in serum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of apple vinegar on fertility indices in a rat model of NAFLD. To study this effect, 32 adult male rats were divided into four groups: A-normal diet, B-high-fat diet (HFD), C-apple vinegar and D-HFD plus apple vinegar. At the end of the week 22, the Lee index, serum lipid profiles, liver enzymes, glucose and total antioxidant levels (TAC) in serum were determined. In addition, liver and testis tissue homogenate, histopathology, serum testosterone and sperm parameters were measured and HOMA-IR calculated...
June 19, 2018: Andrologia
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