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insulin resistance

Ivone Leong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Birgitta W van der Kolk, Nicole Vogelzangs, Johan W E Jocken, Armand Valsesia, Thomas Hankemeier, Arne Astrup, Wim H M Saris, Ilja C W Arts, Marleen M J van Greevenbroek, Ellen E Blaak
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity-associated insulin resistance (IR) may develop in multiple organs, representing different aetiologies towards cardiometabolic diseases. This study aimed to identify distinct plasma lipid profiles in overweight/obese individuals who show muscle-IR and/or liver-IR. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Baseline data of the European multicenter DiOGenes project were used (n = 640; 401 women, nondiabetic BMI: 27-45 kg/m2 ). Muscle insulin sensitivity index (MISI) and hepatic insulin resistance index (HIRI) were derived from a 5-point oral glucose tolerance test...
September 21, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Joshua W Russo, Ce Gao, Swati S Bhasin, Olga S Voznesensky, Carla Calagua, Seiji Arai, Peter S Nelson, Bruce Montgomery, Elahe A Mostaghel, Eva Corey, Mary-Ellen Taplin, Huihui Ye, Manoj Bhasin, Steven P Balk
The standard treatment for metastatic prostate cancer (PCa), androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), is designed to suppress androgen receptor (AR) activity. However, men invariably progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), and AR reactivation contributes to progression in most cases. To identify mechanisms that may drive CRPC, we examined a VCaP PCa xenograft model as tumors progressed from initial androgen sensitivity prior to castration to castration resistance and then on to relapse after combined therapy with further AR targeted drugs (abiraterone plus enzalutamide)...
September 21, 2018: Cancer Research
Filiz Eksi Haydardedeoglu, Gulay Simsek Bagir, Bulent Haydardedeoglu, Emre Bozkirli, Okan Bakiner, Kerem Metin, Melek Eda Ertorer
Betatrophin is defined as a new marker in glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism. We aimed to investigate the role of serum betatrophin in full-blown polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients and 47-aged healthy women, 51 full-blown PCOS patients were included in this cross-sectional study. Betatrophin concentrations were significantly lower in PCOS group and displayed a positive correlation only with serum tryglyceride in control group (p < .05). A cutoff level (464.5 ng/L) was determined for betatrophin according to Receiver Operating Characteristic curve...
September 21, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
Dessy Chan, Yuanyuan Zhou, Chung Hin Chui, Kim Hung Lam, Simon Law, Albert Sun-Chi Chan, Xingshu Li, Alfred King-Yin Lam, Johnny Cheuk On Tang
Cisplatin (CDDP) is one of the front-line chemotherapeutic drugs used in the treatment of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Occurrence of resistance to CDDP has become one of the main challenges in cancer therapy. In this study, the gene expression profile of CDDP-resistant ESCC cells was investigated and molecular approaches were explored in an attempt to reverse the CDDP resistance. A CDDP-resistant SLMT-1/CDDP1R cell line was established from SLMT-1 cells by subculturing in the medium containing an increasing concentration of CDDP (0...
September 20, 2018: Cells
Jason D Guss, Sophia N Ziemian, Marysol Luna, Taylor N Sandoval, Derek T Holyoak, Gabriel G Guisado, Sebastian Roubert, Rowan L Callahan, Ilana L Brito, Marjolein C H van der Meulen, Steven R Goldring, Christopher J Hernandez
OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome is characterized by obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Metabolic syndrome is associated with osteoarthritis (OA), but it is unclear if the association is attributable to increased mechanical loading on joints caused by obesity or other aspects of metabolic syndrome. Here we examined the effects of metabolic syndrome, obesity, and the gut microbiome on load-induced OA. DESIGN: Cartilage damage was induced through cyclic compressive loading in four groups of adult male mice: Toll-like receptor-5 deficient (TLR5KO) mice that develop metabolic syndrome due to alterations in the gut microbiome, TLR5KO mice submitted to chronic antibiotics to prevent metabolic syndrome (TLR5KOΔMicrobiota), C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet to cause obesity (HFD), and untreated C57BL/6J mice (WT)...
September 18, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Miriam S Udler, Jaegil Kim, Marcin von Grotthuss, Sílvia Bonàs-Guarch, Joanne B Cole, Joshua Chiou, Michael Boehnke, Markku Laakso, Gil Atzmon, Benjamin Glaser, Josep M Mercader, Kyle Gaulton, Jason Flannick, Gad Getz, Jose C Florez
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a heterogeneous disease for which (1) disease-causing pathways are incompletely understood and (2) subclassification may improve patient management. Unlike other biomarkers, germline genetic markers do not change with disease progression or treatment. In this paper, we test whether a germline genetic approach informed by physiology can be used to deconstruct T2D heterogeneity. First, we aimed to categorize genetic loci into groups representing likely disease mechanistic pathways...
September 2018: PLoS Medicine
Annamalai Muthiah, Morgan S Angulo, Natalie N Walker, Susanna R Keller, Jae K Lee
One of the biggest challenges in analyzing high throughput omics data in biological studies is extracting information that is relevant to specific biological mechanisms of interest while simultaneously restricting the number of false positive findings. Due to random chances with numerous candidate targets and mechanisms, computational approaches often yield a large number of false positives that cannot easily be discerned from relevant biological findings without costly, and often infeasible, biological experiments...
2018: PloS One
Karilyn E Sant, Olivia L Venezia, Paul P Sinno, Alicia R Timme-Laragy
Since phase-out of highly persistent perfluorosulfonates in the U.S. from non-stick and stain-resistant products in the early 2000s, perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS) has replaced these compounds as a primary surfactant. Measurements of PFBS in environmental and human samples have been rising in recent years, raising concerns about potential negative health effects. We previously found that embryonic exposures to a related compound, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), decreased pancreas length and insulin-producing islet area in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio)...
September 14, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Laurie R Braun, Meghan N Feldpausch, Natalia Czerwonka, Julian Weiss, Karen Branch, Hang Lee, Edgar L Martinez-Salazar, Martin Torriani, Craig A Sponseller, Steven K Grinspoon, Takara L Stanley
Context: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are widely prescribed. Statins may have important metabolic effects on insulin sensitivity and liver fat, but limited studies have assessed these effects using euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, stable isotopes, and 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for liver fat quantification. Objective: To study the effects of pitavastatin on hepatic fat and insulin sensitivity. Design: Six month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ele Ferrannini, Patricia Iozzo, Kirsi A Virtanen, Miikka-Juhani Honka, Marco Bucci, Pirjo Nuutila
Background: Adipose tissue glucose uptake is impaired in insulin-resistant states, but ex vivo studies of human adipose tissue have yielded heterogeneous results. This discrepancy may be due to different regulation of blood supply. Objective: The aim of this study was to test the flow dependency of in vivo insulin-mediated glucose uptake in fat tissues, and to contrast it with that of skeletal muscle. Design: We reanalyzed data from 159 individuals in which adipose tissue depots-subcutaneous abdominal and femoral, and intraperitoneal-and femoral skeletal muscle were identified by MRI, and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake ([18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose) and blood flow ([15O]-H2O) were measured simultaneously by positron emission tomography scanning...
September 18, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Juliana M A Almeida, Adaliene V M Ferreira, Verena B Oliveira, Marina C Oliveira, Mauro M Teixeira, Maria G L Brandão
Obesity is characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammation, which has been shown to be involved in the development of comorbidities such as insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and liver damage. Phytochemicals found in plants may modulate inflammation and improve health problems associated with the excess of adiposity. Teas prepared with many plants are used in Brazil for losing weight. In this study, we evaluated the potential of Rudgea viburnoides (Cham.) Benth. on metabolic and inflammatory disarrangement induced by high refined carbohydrate (HC)-containing diet in mice...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Amany I Mustafa, Ola S El-Shimi
BACKGROUND: Acne vulgaris is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease involving pilosebaceous units. Adipokines are secreted by adipose tissue and function as signaling networks communicating it with different organs. They may have role in pathogenesis of acne vulgaris and the associated insulin resistance. Irisin, a hormone like myokine, is one of adipokines with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-diabetic effects. AIMS: We aimed at evaluation of serum irisin level in patients with acne vulgaris to assess its correlation with disease pathogenesis...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Wenqiang He, Linling Yan, Meng Wang, Qin Li, Min He, Zengyi Ma, Zhao Ye, Qilin Zhang, Yichao Zhang, Nidan Qiao, Yun Lu, Hongying Ye, Bin Lu, Xuefei Shou, Yao Zhao, Yiming Li, Shiqi Li, Zhaoyun Zhang, Ming Shen, Yongfei Wang
PURPOSE: The surgical outcome on glucose metabolism in acromegaly patients is not fully understood. We aimed to investigate the impact of surgery on glucose metabolism and identify key factors that influence alterations of glucose metabolic status in acromegaly patients. METHODS: Oral glucose tolerance test was performed in 151 newly diagnosed acromegaly patients before and 3-12 months after surgery. Insulin resistance and insulin secretion was assessed. Patients were grouped as cured, discordant, and having active disease according to postoperative growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels...
September 20, 2018: Endocrine
Xichuan Zhai, Dehui Lin, Yan Zhao, Wenwen Li, Xingbin Yang
This study aimed to investigate the effects of supplementation with bacterial cellulose (BC), konjac glucomannan (KGM) and combined BC/KGM fiber on high-fat (HF)-diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6J mice. The results showed that combined supplementation with BC/KGM in HF-fed mice was more efficient in reducing body weight, lowing serum lipid profiles and suppressing insulin resistance than single supplementation with BC or KGM. Moreover, supplementation with combined BC/KGM fiber more efficiently alleviated HF-diet-induced liver injury by decreasing hepatic steatosis in comparison with supplementation with BC or KGM alone...
September 21, 2018: Food & Function
Vipulkumar Patel, Alok K Dwivedi, Sneha Deodhar, Ina Mishra, David P Cistola
Background: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of abnormalities that increases the risk for type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Plasma and serum water T2 from benchtop nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry are early, global and practical biomarkers for metabolic syndrome and its underlying abnormalities. In a prior study, water T2 was analyzed against ~ 130 strategically selected proteins and metabolites to identify associations with insulin resistance, inflammation and dyslipidemia...
2018: Biomarker Research
Jonatan Zorea, Manu Prasad, Limor Cohen, Nan Li, Roman Schefzik, Susmita Ghosh, Barak Rotblat, Benedikt Brors, Moshe Elkabets
Genomic alterations (GA) in PIK3CA leads to the hyper-activation of the phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway in more than 20% of ovarian cancer (OC) patients. Therefore, PI3K therapies are under clinical evaluation for this subset of patients. Evidently, in clinical trials testing the efficacy of isoform-specific inhibitors of PI3K (PI3Ki), patients having a stable disease eventually relapse, as tumors become resistant to treatment. Hence, there is an urgent clinical need to develop new therapeutic combinations to improve the efficacy of PI3Ki in PIK3CA-driven OC patients...
September 20, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Pragya Sharma, Yu Dong, Virend K Somers, Timothy E Peterson, Yuebo Zhang, Shihan Wang, Guangxi Li, Prachi Singh
Vascular dysfunction and insulin resistance (IR) are associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which is characterized by frequent episodes of nocturnal intermittent hypoxia (IH). While it is recognized that the balance between vasoconstrictive (endothelin-1) and vasodilatory molecules (nitric oxide, NO) determine vascular profile, molecular mechanisms contributing to vascular dysfunction and IR in OSA are not completely understood. Caveolin-1 is a membrane protein which regulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity which is responsible for NO generation and cellular insulin-signaling...
September 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiaofang Sun, Wei Li, Yujie Deng, Bingzi Dong, Ying Sun, Yu Xue, Yangang Wang
The liver is a central metabolic organ. Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) acts as an ER stress responsive gene and is reported to attenuate hepatic steatosis. Over expressing a dominant-negative form of ATF6 exacerbates glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. In the present study, we used the conditional knockout technique to specifically knockout ATF6 in the mouse liver. We used qPCR to detect the mRNA levels of related genes. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate protein levels. Flow cytometry assay showed the apoptosis status...
September 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Linda A Barbour, Teri L Hernandez
There is increasing recognition that maternal glucose concentrations lower than those previously used for diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and targeted for treatment can result in excess fetal growth. Yet, mothers with GDM who appear to have optimal glycemic control and mothers with obesity and normal glucose tolerance still have a significantly increased risk for delivering infants who are large for gestational age, or even more importantly, who have increased adiposity at birth. What is less appreciated is that in addition to glucose, maternal lipids are also substrates for fetal fat accretion and that placental lipases can hydrolyze maternal triglycerides (TGs) to free fatty acids for fetal-placental availability...
September 17, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
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