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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067890/validity-of-visceral-adiposity-estimates-from-dxa-against-mri-in-kuwaiti-men-and-women
#1
A Mohammad, E De Lucia Rolfe, A Sleigh, T Kivisild, K Behbehani, N J Wareham, S Brage, T Mohammad
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the Middle East is among the highest in the world. Valid measures of abdominal adiposity are essential to understanding the metabolic consequences of obesity. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is increasingly being utilised to assess body composition in population studies, and has recently been used to estimate visceral adipose tissue (VAT). The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of DXA-derived VAT in a Middle Eastern population using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the criterion measure...
January 9, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067407/analysis-of-whole-exome-sequencing-with-cardiometabolic-traits-using-family-based-linkage-and-association-in-the-iras-family-study
#2
Keri L Tabb, Jacklyn N Hellwege, Nicholette D Palmer, Latchezar Dimitrov, Satria Sajuthi, Kent D Taylor, Maggie C Y Ng, Gregory A Hawkins, Yii-der Ida Chen, W Mark Brown, David McWilliams, Adrienne Williams, Carlos Lorenzo, Jill M Norris, Jirong Long, Jerome I Rotter, Joanne E Curran, John Blangero, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Carl D Langefeld, Donald W Bowden
Family-based methods are a potentially powerful tool to identify trait-defining genetic variants in extended families, particularly when used to complement conventional association analysis. We utilized two-point linkage analysis and single variant association analysis to evaluate whole exome sequencing (WES) data from 1205 Hispanic Americans (78 families) from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study. WES identified 211,612 variants above the minor allele frequency threshold of ≥0.005. These variants were tested for linkage and/or association with 50 cardiometabolic traits after quality control checks...
January 9, 2017: Annals of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051898/high-proportion-of-deaths-attributable-to-hiv-among-postpartum-women-in-botswana-despite-widespread-uptake-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#3
Rebecca Marie Zash, Sajini Souda, Jean Leidner, Kelebogile Binda, Chazha Hick, Kathleen Powis, Joseph Makhema, Mompati Mmalane, Max Essex, Shahin Lockman, Roger L Shapiro
Mortality in the postpartum period may be impacted by antiretroviral therapy (ART) received in pregnancy, and whether ART is continued in the postpartum period. HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers were enrolled within 48 h of delivery at five public hospital maternity wards throughout Botswana and followed for 24 months. Maternal deaths were reported by one of the approved contacts given by the mother at enrollment. Detailed information on the cause of death was not available. Risk factors for 24-month mortality were assessed using Cox proportional hazard models...
January 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024619/microstructure-and-mechanical-properties-of-a-newly-developed-low-young-s-modulus-ti-15zr-5cr-2al-biomedical-alloy
#4
Pan Wang, Lihong Wu, Yan Feng, Jiaming Bai, Baicheng Zhang, Jie Song, Shaokang Guan
The Ti-15Zr-5Cr-2Al alloy has been developed and various heat treatments have been investigated to develop new biomedical materials. It is found that the heat treatment conditions strongly affect the phase constitutions and mechanical properties. The as-cast specimen is comprised of β phase and a small fraction of α phase, which is attributed to the suppression of ω phase caused by adding Al. A high yield strength of 1148±36MPa and moderate Young's modulus of 96±3GPa are obtained in the as-cast specimen...
March 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007373/effect-of-inner-taper-angle-of-acetabular-metal-shell-on-the-malseating-and-dissociation-force-of-ceramic-liner
#5
Young-Kyun Lee, Ki-Chul Kim, Woo-Lam Jo, Yong-Chan Ha, Javad Parvizi, Kyung-Hoi Koo
BACKGROUND: Malseating of ceramic liner appeared as a matter of concern in multibearing metal, although multibearing cup can be coupled with hard liners as well as polyethylene liner. In this metal shell, the inner taper angle should be 10° for the modularity, while standard metal shells for ceramic liner have an inner taper angle of 18°. However, there has been no study in the effect of taper angle to the risk of malseating. We evaluated whether the taper angle of metal shell might affect the malseating of ceramic liner, and dissociation force of ceramic liner from metal shell...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936959/significance-of-perioperative-goal-directed-hemodynamic-approach-in-preventing-postoperative-complications-in-patients-after-cardiac-surgery-a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review
#6
Peng Li, Li-Ping Qu, Dong Qi, Bo Shen, Yi-Mei Wang, Jia-Rui Xu, Wu-Hua Jiang, Hao Zhang, Xiao-Qiang Ding, Jie Teng
PURPOSE: Goal-directed hemodynamic therapy (GDT) is used to prevent hypoperfusion resulting from surgery. The objective of this study was to analyze the efficacy and importance of perioperative GDT. METHODS: PUBMED, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and Google Scholar databases were searched until June 17, 2016 using the search terms: cardiac output, cardiac surgical procedures, hemodynamics, goal-directed therapy, and intraoperative. Randomized-controlled trials with pre-emptive hemodynamic intervention for cardiac surgical population versus standard hemodynamic therapy were included...
December 12, 2016: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931898/cross-cultural-differences-on-gunas-and-other-well-being-dimensions
#7
Kamlesh Singh, Anjali Jain, Jasleen Kaur, Mohita Junnarkar, Alena Slezackova
Indian perspective of human nature and personality are often viewed through a trigunas perspective-Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. The current study investigated the triadic gunas and well-being dimensions across 3 nations India (n=493; 194 males and 299 females; mean age=21.73 years, SD=3.23), USA (n=302; 80 males and 222 females; mean age=22.90years, SD=2.78) and Czech Republic (n=353; 67 males and 286 females; mean age=22.29years, SD=2.29) with a total of 1148 participants. Triguna Personality (Vedic Personality inventory) and well- being dimensions measured by Mental Health Continuum- Short Form, Flourishing scale and the Scale of Positive and Negative Experiences (MHC-SF, FS and SPANE) differed across countries...
December 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875282/metabolic-requirement-of-septic-shock-patients-before-and-after-liberation-from-mechanical-ventilation
#8
Peggy Siu-Pik Lee, Kar Lung Lee, James A Betts, Kin Ip Law
OBJECTIVES: This study identified the difference in energy expenditure and substrate utilization of patients during and upon liberation from mechanical ventilation. METHODS: Patients under intensive care who were diagnosed with septic shock and dependent on mechanical ventilation were recruited. Indirect calorimetry measurements were performed during and upon liberation from mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients were recruited (20 men and 15 women; mean age, 69 ± 10 years)...
October 3, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868066/application-of-machine-learning-approaches-for-classifying-sitting-posture-based-on-force-and-acceleration-sensors
#9
Roland Zemp, Matteo Tanadini, Stefan Plüss, Karin Schnüriger, Navrag B Singh, William R Taylor, Silvio Lorenzetti
Occupational musculoskeletal disorders, particularly chronic low back pain (LBP), are ubiquitous due to prolonged static sitting or nonergonomic sitting positions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop an instrumented chair with force and acceleration sensors to determine the accuracy of automatically identifying the user's sitting position by applying five different machine learning methods (Support Vector Machines, Multinomial Regression, Boosting, Neural Networks, and Random Forest). Forty-one subjects were requested to sit four times in seven different prescribed sitting positions (total 1148 samples)...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850785/1148-graphical-display-of-patient-information-improves-outcomes-in-critical-care-a-systematic-review
#10
Rosalie Waller, Noa Segall, Damian Borbolla, Paige Nesbitt, Thomas Reese, Guilherme Del Fiol, Melanie Wright
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776985/depression-among-nonfrail-old-men-is-associated-with-reduced-physical-function-and-functional-capacity-after-9%C3%A2-years-follow-up-the-health-in-men-cohort-study
#11
Osvaldo P Almeida, Graeme J Hankey, Bu B Yeap, Jonathan Golledge, Keith D Hill, Leon Flicker
BACKGROUND: Older adults with depression have increased risk of frailty and death. OBJECTIVE: To determine if history of depression hinders future physical and functional capacity. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective longitudinal cohort study of 1148 men aged 70-87 years who were living in the Perth metropolitan community in 2001-2004 and completed a follow-up assessment of physical and functional capacity in 2011-2012. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES: Outcomes were collected in 2011-2012 and included 4 measures of physical function (timed up-and-go, timed sit-to-stand, functional reach, and step test) and the assessment of basic (activities of daily living) and instrumental activities of daily living...
January 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766964/adequacy-of-public-maternal-care-services-in-brazil
#12
Sonia Duarte de Azevedo Bittencourt, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues, Lenice Gnocchi da Costa Reis, Márcia Melo Ramos, Maria do Carmo Leal
BACKGROUND: In Brazil, hospital childbirth care is available to all, but differences in access and quality of care result in inequalities of maternal health. The objective of this study is to assess the infrastructure and staffing of publicly financed labor and birth care in Brazil and its adequacy according to clinical and obstetric conditions potentially associated with obstetric emergencies. METHODS: Nationwide cross-sectional hospital-based study "Birth in Brazil: national survey into labor and birth" conducted in 2011-2012...
October 17, 2016: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704695/weight-loss-after-head-and-neck-cancer-a-dynamic-relationship-with-depressive-symptoms
#13
Julia R Van Liew, Rebecca L Brock, Alan J Christensen, Lucy Hynds Karnell, Nitin A Pagedar, Gerry F Funk
BACKGROUND: Weight loss and depressive symptoms are critical head and neck cancer outcomes, yet their relation over the illness course is unclear. METHODS: Associations between self-reported depressive symptoms and objective weight loss across the year after head and neck cancer diagnosis were examined using growth curve modeling techniques (n = 564). RESULTS: A reciprocal covariation pattern emerged-changes in depressive symptoms over time were associated with same-month changes in weight loss (t [1148] = 2...
October 5, 2016: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685870/comparison-of-laparoscopic-major-hepatectomy-with-propensity-score-matched-open-cases-from-the-national-clinical-database-in-japan
#14
Takeshi Takahara, Go Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki Konno, Mitsukazu Gotoh, Hiroki Yamaue, Katsuhiko Yanaga, Jirou Fujimoto, Hironori Kaneko, Michiaki Unno, Itaru Endo, Yasuyuki Seto, Hiroaki Miyata, Masaru Miyazaki, Masakazu Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: The National Clinical Database (NCD) in Japan is a nationwide registry that collects the data of more than 1,200,000 surgical cases annually from over 3,500 hospitals. Based on the NCD data, this study compared the perioperative outcomes of major laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) with those of major open liver resection (OLR) using the propensity score matching method. METHODS: We collected data on 15,191 major hepatectomy cases (929 major LLR cases and 14,262 major OLR cases), and investigated the short-term outcomes in well-matched groups...
November 2016: Journal of Hepato-biliary-pancreatic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680515/the-impact-of-tp53-mutations-and-tp53-deletions-on-survival-varies-between-aml-all-mds-and-cll-an-analysis-of-3307-cases
#15
A Stengel, W Kern, T Haferlach, M Meggendorfer, A Fasan, C Haferlach
Alterations in TP53 have been described in many cancer types including hematological neoplasms. We aimed at comparing TP53 mutations (mut) and deletions (del) in a large cohort of patients with hematological malignancies (n=3307), including AML (n=858), MDS (n=943), ALL (n=358), CLL (n=1148). Overall, alterations in TP53 were detected in 332/3307 cases (10%). The highest frequency was observed in ALL (total: 19%; mut+del: 6%; mut only: 8%; del only: 5%) and AML (total: 13%; mut+del: 5%; mut only: 7%; del only: 1%), whereas TP53 alterations occurred less frequently in CLL (total: 8%) and MDS (total: 7%)...
October 14, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679519/incidence-severity-and-outcomes-of-aki-associated-with-dual-renin-angiotensin-system-blockade
#16
Paul M Palevsky, Jane H Zhang, Stephen L Seliger, Nicholas Emanuele, Linda F Fried
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The benefit of dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin system is limited by adverse effects. We performed a secondary analysis of the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) Study to describe the effect of increased intensity of renin-angiotensin system blockade on the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of AKI. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: In the VA NEPHRON-D Study, we randomized 1148 veterans receiving outpatient care with type 2 diabetes mellitus, eGFR of between 30 and 89...
November 7, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644039/age-related-differences-in-cortical-thickness-vary-by-socioeconomic-status
#17
Luciane R Piccolo, Emily C Merz, Xiaofu He, Elizabeth R Sowell, Kimberly G Noble
Recent findings indicate robust associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and brain structure in children, raising questions about the ways in which SES may modify structural brain development. In general, cortical thickness and surface area develop in nonlinear patterns across childhood and adolescence, with developmental patterns varying to some degree by cortical region. Here, we examined whether age-related nonlinear changes in cortical thickness and surface area varied by SES, as indexed by family income and parental education...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636398/iliac-and-femoro-popliteal-arteries-morphological-cta-features-as-determinants-of-outcome-after-standard-evar-procedures
#18
Pasqualino Sirignano, Francesco Speziale, Laura Capoccia, Danilo Menna, Wassim Mansour, Nunzio Montelione, Francesco Setacci, Giuseppe Galzerano, Carlo Setacci
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the impact of iliac artery's diameters, tortuosity, and peripheral vascular patency on outcome of elective endovascular repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in 2 high volume vascular centers' experience. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on a prospectively collected database between 2010 and 2012. Anatomical features at pre-operative computed tomography (CTA) considered as potentially influencing outcomes were: iliac diameters, tortuosity (expressed as a ratio), and calcifications, bilateral internal iliac artery (IIA) patency, and presence of Trans-Atlantic Inter-Societies Consensus (TASC) II C/D femoro-popliteal occlusive disease (PAD)...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615437/hobi-like-virus-rna-detected-in-foetuses-following-challenge-of-pregnant-cows-that-had-previously-given-birth-to-calves-persistently-infected-with-bovine-viral-diarrhoea-virus
#19
F V Bauermann, S M Falkenberg, J F Ridpath
The ability of ruminant pestivirus including bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and the related emerging pestivirus, HoBi-like virus, to establish persistent infection (PI) following foetal infection is central to keeping these viruses in circulation. Non-PI dams carrying BVDV PI calves develop high levels of immunity due constantly viral exposure. A study to determine whether the immunity developed following the generation of a BVDV PI is enough to prevent HoBi-like virus infection of a subsequent foetus was performed...
September 11, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590103/decline-in-the-use-of-surgical-biopsy-for-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-disease-in-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-recipients-in-an-era-of-improved-diagnostics-and-empirical-therapy
#20
Guang-Shing Cheng, Zach J Stednick, David K Madtes, Michael Boeckh, George B McDonald, Steven A Pergam
Historically, diagnosis of enigmatic pulmonary disease after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) required lung biopsy, but recent advancements in diagnosis and therapy for respiratory infections have changed how clinicians approach pulmonary abnormalities. We examined temporal trends in the use of lung biopsy after HCT. We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent their first allogeneic HCT at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center between the years 1993 to 1997, 2003 to 2007, and 2013 to 2015 and subsequently underwent surgical lung biopsy for any reason...
August 31, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
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