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Epidemiologic Methods

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103460/-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-107-hiv-infected-patients-admitted-to-the-department-of-infectious-diseases-at-santa-maria-hospital-lisbon-2002-2013
#1
Vilma Grilo, Aida Pereira
INTRODUCTION: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia remains one of the most common opportunistic illnesses in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. It is currently the most reported AIDS-defining infection in Portugal. The aims of this study were to analyze the features of a human immunodeficiency virus /Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia coinfected population, to compare it with the current literature, and to evaluate comparatively subpopulations of patients based on the previous knowledge of the human immunodeficiency virus infection, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia diagnostic method and discharge results...
October 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103398/cognitive-behavioral-and-psycho-social-factors-associated-with-successful-and-maintained-quit-smoking-status-among-patients-who-received-smoking-cessation-intervention-with-nurses-counseling
#2
Chie Taniguchi, Hideo Tanaka, Hideo Saka, Isao Oze, Kazunobu Tachibana, Yasuhiro Nozaki, Yukio Suzuki, Hisataka Sakakibara
AIM: To identify cognitive, behavioral and psycho-social factors associated with successful and maintained quit smoking status after patients received smoking cessation intervention with nurses' counseling. BACKGROUND: Although nurses' intervention for smoking cessation is effective for patients, few studies have been conducted to identify cognitive, behavioral and psycho-social factors associated with the success of quitting smoking. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study METHODS: In a multi-institutional study between October 2008 - October 2014, we administered the Japanese smoking cessation therapy, which consists of smoking cessation intervention five times with nurses' counseling over 12 weeks...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103259/characterization-and-genetic-variation-of-vibrio-cholerae-isolated-from-clinical-and-environmental-sources-in-thailand
#3
Achiraya Siriphap, Pimlapas Leekitcharoenphon, Rolf S Kaas, Chonchanok Theethakaew, Frank M Aarestrup, Orasa Sutheinkul, Rene S Hendriksen
Cholera is still an important public health problem in several countries, including Thailand. In this study, a collection of clinical and environmental V. cholerae serogroup O1, O139, and non-O1/non-O139 strains originating from Thailand (1983 to 2013) was characterized to determine phenotypic and genotypic traits and to investigate the genetic relatedness. Using a combination of conventional methods and whole genome sequencing (WGS), 78 V. cholerae strains were identified. WGS was used to determine the serogroup, biotype, virulence, mobile genetic elements, and antimicrobial resistance genes using online bioinformatics tools...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102740/update-on-functional-and-genetic-laboratory-assays-for-the-detection-of-platelet-microvesicles
#4
Maxime Laroche, Claire Dunois, Anne Marie Vissac, Jean Amiral
Functional and genetic assays for measuring platelet microvesicles (PMVs) are presented and discussed. Functional assays concern two groups of methods: a) homogeneous assays using the cofactor activity of phospholipids (PPLs) contained in PMVs and present in assayed plasmas, and a coagulation or a thrombin generation assay (TGA) as "end points"; b) capture-based assays, in which PMVs bind to an immobilized ligand, such as Annexin V in the presence of calcium, or monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) specific for membrane proteins...
January 19, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102514/carbapenemase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-bloodstream-infection-in-critically-ill-patients-risk-factors-and-predictors-of-mortality
#5
M Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, F Fligou, C Bartzavali, A Zotou, A Spyropoulou, K Koutsileou, S Vamvakopoulou, N Sioulas, V Karamouzos, E D Anastassiou, I Spiliopoulou, M Christofidou, M Marangos
A significant increase in carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CP-Kp) bacteraemias has been observed worldwide. The objective of the present work was to study the risk factors and predictors of mortality of CP-Kp bacteraemias among critically ill patients. During a 4-year period (2012-3015), a matched 1:2 case-control study was conducted. Klebsiella pneumoniae was identified by Vitek 2 technology. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by the agar disc diffusion method and Etest. The presence of the bla KPC, bla VIM and bla NDM genes was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101126/characterisation-of-microbial-communities-within-aggressive-prostate-cancer-tissues
#6
Melissa A Yow, Sepehr N Tabrizi, Gianluca Severi, Damien M Bolton, John Pedersen, Graham G Giles, Melissa C Southey
BACKGROUND: An infectious aetiology for prostate cancer has been conjectured for decades but the evidence gained from questionnaire-based and sero-epidemiological studies is weak and inconsistent, and a causal association with any infectious agent is not established. We describe and evaluate the application of new technology to detect bacterial and viral agents in high-grade prostate cancer tissues. The potential of targeted 16S rRNA gene sequencing and total RNA sequencing was evaluated in terms of its utility to characterise microbial communities within high-grade prostate tumours...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100788/genomic-infectious-disease-epidemiology-in-partially-sampled-and-ongoing-outbreaks
#7
Xavier Didelot, Christophe Fraser, Jennifer Gardy, Caroline Colijn
Genomic data is increasingly being used to understand infectious disease epidemiology. Isolates from a given outbreak are sequenced, and the patterns of shared variation are used to infer which isolates within the outbreak are most closely related to each other. Unfortunately, the phylogenetic trees typically used to represent this variation are not directly informative about who infected whom - a phylogenetic tree is not a transmission tree. However, a transmission tree can be inferred from a phylogeny while accounting for within-host genetic diversity by colouring the branches of a phylogeny according to which host those branches were in...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100388/-reliability-and-validity-of-depression-scales-of-chinese-version-a-systematic-review
#8
X Y Sun, Y X Li, C Q Yu, L M Li
Objective: Through systematically reviewing the reliability and validity of depression scales of Chinese version in adults in China to evaluate the psychometric properties of depression scales for different groups. Methods: Eligible studies published before 6 May 2016 were retrieved from the following database: CNKI, Wanfang, PubMed and Embase. The HSROC model of the diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) for Meta-analysis was used to calculate the pooled sensitivity and specificity of the PHQ-9. Results: A total of 44 papers evaluating the performance of depression scales were included...
January 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100382/-epidemiological-pattern-of-abnormal-urinary-fluoride-rates-in-population-with-occupational-fluoride-exposure-in-shanghai
#9
M H Gu, J Su, C H Liu, Y Q Zhu, H Shen, Y H Huang, L Zhong, M H Zhang, Y H Li
Objective: To investigate the epidemiological features of abnormal urinary fluoride rates in population with occupational exposure, and its relationships with age, work years and gender in Shanghai. Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted respectively in 4 999 exposed workers and 283 non-exposed people during 2012-2015. Their urine samples were collected in plastic bottles and the fluoride ion selective electrode method was used for urinary fluoride level analysis. Logistic regression model was used to estimate associations between the abnormal rates and demographic/socioeconomic status of the study subjects...
January 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100375/-epidemiological-characteristics-of-hbeag-reversion-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-with-hbeag-seroconversion-in-jiangsu-province-2012-2014
#10
L G Zhu, H Tian, J Jiang, C Song, Y Zou, J F Xu, H J Liu, H Peng, Z B Hu, F C Zhu, H B Shen, X J Zhai
Objective: To understand characteristics and influencing factors of reversion of HBeAg in chronic hepatitis B patients with HBeAg sero-conversion, and provide epidemiological evidence for the regular management of chronic hepatitis B patients. Methods: From 2012 to 2014, a cohort study was conducted among the chronic hepatitis B patients with sero-conversion of HBeAg in Jiangsu province. Association between participants' demographics, ALT, HBV DNA and incidence of HBeAg reversion was analyzed by Cox regression model...
January 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100373/-epidemiological-characteristics-of-children-aged-1-4-years-without-timely-birth-dose-of-hepatitis-b-vaccine-vaccination-in-china-2014
#11
F Z Wang, G M Zhang, L P Shen, J H Liu, H Zheng, F Wang, N Miao, X J Sun, X F Liang, F Q Cui
Objective: To evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of the children aged 1-4 years without timely birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB(1)) vaccination. Methods: Based on the data from 160 disease surveillance points in 31 provinces of China, two-stage cluster random sampling was used to select the target population aged 1-4 years. A standard questionnaire was used to collect the information about the birth date, gender, ethnic group, place of birth, HepB immunization history of the children selected...
January 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100237/surveillance-and-response-for-high-risk-populations-what-can-malaria-elimination-programmes-learn-from-the-experience-of-hiv
#12
REVIEW
Jerry O Jacobson, Carmen Cueto, Jennifer L Smith, Jimee Hwang, Roly Gosling, Adam Bennett
To eliminate malaria, malaria programmes need to develop new strategies for surveillance and response appropriate for the changing epidemiology that accompanies transmission decline, in which transmission is increasingly driven by population subgroups whose behaviours place them at increased exposure. Conventional tools of malaria surveillance and response are likely not sufficient in many elimination settings for accessing high-risk population subgroups, such as mobile and migrant populations (MMPs), given their greater likelihood of asymptomatic infections, illegal risk behaviours, limited access to public health facilities, and high mobility including extended periods travelling away from home...
January 18, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099825/transmission-of-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-south-africa
#13
N Sarita Shah, Sara C Auld, James C M Brust, Barun Mathema, Nazir Ismail, Pravi Moodley, Koleka Mlisana, Salim Allana, Angela Campbell, Thuli Mthiyane, Natashia Morris, Primrose Mpangase, Hermina van der Meulen, Shaheed V Omar, Tyler S Brown, Apurva Narechania, Elena Shaskina, Thandi Kapwata, Barry Kreiswirth, Neel R Gandhi
Background Drug-resistant tuberculosis threatens recent gains in the treatment of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection worldwide. A widespread epidemic of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis is occurring in South Africa, where cases have increased substantially since 2002. The factors driving this rapid increase have not been fully elucidated, but such knowledge is needed to guide public health interventions. Methods We conducted a prospective study involving 404 participants in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, with a diagnosis of XDR tuberculosis between 2011 and 2014...
19, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099518/evaluation-of-methods-for-the-concentration-and-extraction-of-viruses-from-sewage-in-the-context-of-metagenomic-sequencing
#14
Mathis Hjort Hjelmsø, Maria Hellmér, Xavier Fernandez-Cassi, Natàlia Timoneda, Oksana Lukjancenko, Michael Seidel, Dennis Elsässer, Frank M Aarestrup, Charlotta Löfström, Sílvia Bofill-Mas, Josep F Abril, Rosina Girones, Anna Charlotte Schultz
Viral sewage metagenomics is a novel field of study used for surveillance, epidemiological studies, and evaluation of waste water treatment efficiency. In raw sewage human waste is mixed with household, industrial and drainage water, and virus particles are, therefore, only found in low concentrations. This necessitates a step of sample concentration to allow for sensitive virus detection. Additionally, viruses harbor a large diversity of both surface and genome structures, which makes universal viral genomic extraction difficult...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098578/helicobacter-pylori-and-risk-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Karn Wijarnpreecha, Charat Thongprayoon, Panadeekarn Panjawatanan, Wuttiporn Manatsathit, Veeravich Jaruvongvanich, Patompong Ungprasert
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most common chronic bacterial infection. Patients with H. pylori infection may be at an increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) because of chronic inflammation and insulin resistance. Several epidemiologic studies attempting to determine this risk have yielded inconsistent results. This meta-analysis was conducted with the aims to summarize all available evidence and estimate the risk of NAFLD in patients with H...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098412/a-hierarchical-modeling-approach-to-estimate-regional-acute-health-effects-of-particulate-matter-sources
#16
Jenna R Krall, Amber J Hackstadt, Roger D Peng
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution has been associated with a range of adverse health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease hospitalizations and other clinical parameters. Determining which sources of PM, such as traffic or industry, are most associated with adverse health outcomes could help guide future recommendations aimed at reducing harmful pollution exposure for susceptible individuals. Information obtained from multisite studies, which is generally more precise than information from a single location, is critical to understanding how PM impacts health and to informing local strategies for reducing individual-level PM exposure...
January 18, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098392/bayesian-nonparametric-clustering-in-phylogenetics-modeling-antigenic-evolution-in-influenza
#17
Gabriela B Cybis, Janet S Sinsheimer, Trevor Bedford, Andrew Rambaut, Philippe Lemey, Marc A Suchard
Influenza is responsible for up to 500,000 deaths every year, and antigenic variability represents much of its epidemiological burden. To visualize antigenic differences across many viral strains, antigenic cartography methods use multidimensional scaling on binding assay data to map influenza antigenicity onto a low-dimensional space. Analysis of such assay data ideally leads to natural clustering of influenza strains of similar antigenicity that correlate with sequence evolution. To understand the dynamics of these antigenic groups, we present a framework that jointly models genetic and antigenic evolution by combining multidimensional scaling of binding assay data, Bayesian phylogenetic machinery and nonparametric clustering methods...
January 18, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097842/in-hospital-capacity-building-in-research-and-management-for-pediatric-professionals
#18
Graciela Demirdjian, Susana Rodríguez, Juan C Vassallo, Vilma Irazola, Josefa Rodríguez
We describe an educational strategy aimed at capacity-building of hospital health care professionals in research and management initiated at a pediatric hospital in 2006, and the results obtained eight years after its implementation. Research and Management in Pediatrics (GIP) is an annual 250-hour course combining meetings and off-site assignments delivered through the Hospital's on-line campus. It provides students with practical tools for research (epidemiology, methodology, bibliographic search, evidencebased medicine, biostatistics) and management (strategic planning, management programs, health services research, quality improvement, health economics)...
1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097472/proceedings-of-the-third-international-molecular-pathological-epidemiology-mpe-meeting
#19
REVIEW
Peter T Campbell, Timothy R Rebbeck, Reiko Nishihara, Andrew H Beck, Colin B Begg, Alexei A Bogdanov, Yin Cao, Helen G Coleman, Gordon J Freeman, Yujing J Heng, Curtis Huttenhower, Rafael A Irizarry, N Sertac Kip, Franziska Michor, Daniel Nevo, Ulrike Peters, Amanda I Phipps, Elizabeth M Poole, Zhi Rong Qian, John Quackenbush, Harlan Robins, Peter K Rogan, Martha L Slattery, Stephanie A Smith-Warner, Mingyang Song, Tyler J VanderWeele, Daniel Xia, Emily C Zabor, Xuehong Zhang, Molin Wang, Shuji Ogino
Molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) is a transdisciplinary and relatively new scientific discipline that integrates theory, methods, and resources from epidemiology, pathology, biostatistics, bioinformatics, and computational biology. The underlying objective of MPE research is to better understand the etiology and progression of complex and heterogeneous human diseases with the goal of informing prevention and treatment efforts in population health and clinical medicine. Although MPE research has been commonly applied to investigating breast, lung, and colorectal cancers, its methodology can be used to study most diseases...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096863/seroepidemiological-study-of-toxocariasis-in-the-owners-of-domestic-cats-and-dogs-in-mashhad-northeastern-iran
#20
Fariba Berenji, Ali Pouryousef, Abdolmajid Fata, Mahmoud Mahmoudi, Maryam Salehi, Javad Khoshnegah
BACKGROUND: Toxocariasis is the clinical terms applied to infection of human with Ascarid nematodes in the order Ascaridida, named Toxocara canis and T. cati. Because in recent years in Iran many people desire to keep pets (cats and dogs), and lacking of seroepidemiological study of toxocariasis in Mashhad, we decided to determine the seroprevalence of toxocariasis among people who own cats and dogs in comparison with control group. METHODS: A serological study for detection antibodies to Toxocara in two groups (93 cat and dog owners and 93 healthy people as control group) was conducted from Feb 2013 to Dec 2013...
April 2016: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
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