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Epidemiologic Methods

Daniel Goldenberger, Vladimira Hinić, Spasenija Savic Prince, Michael Tamm, Anna-Maria Balestra, Doris Hohler, Reno Frei
BACKGROUND: Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans is a recently described yeast-like fungal organism and its association as a pathogen for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) was reported previously. We show the clinical course of a CF patient over 9 years as well as the applications of modern molecular and proteomic identification techniques of this rare fungus. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 32-year-old male CF patient with sputum cultures continuously positive with the anamorphic yeast T...
October 25, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Max S Chiu, Vivek Verma, Nathan R Bennion, Abhijeet R Bhirud, Jinluan Li, Mary E Charlton, Chandrakanth Are, Chi Lin
Large, population-based analyses of rectal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) have not been previously conducted. We assessed patterns of care, prognostic factors, and outcomes of rectal SCC and adenocarcinoma (AC) in population-based cohorts. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry searches were performed (1998-2011), producing 42,308 nonmetastatic rectal cancer patients (999 SCC and 41,309 AC). Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were compared. Based on risk factors, SCC/AC groups were subdivided into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups...
October 26, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Sandeep J Joseph, Ben Li, Robert A Petit Iii, Zhaohui S Qin, Lyndsey Darrow, Timothy D Read
In this study we developed a genome-based method for detecting Staphylococcus aureus subtypes from metagenome shotgun sequence data. We used a binomial mixture model and the coverage counts at >100,000 known S. aureus SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) sites derived from prior comparative genomic analysis to estimate the proportion of 40 subtypes in metagenome samples. We were able to obtain >87% sensitivity and >94% specificity at 0.025X coverage for S. aureus. We found that 321 and 149 metagenome samples from the Human Microbiome Project and metaSUB analysis of the New York City subway, respectively, contained S...
2016: PeerJ
Massimo Accorinti, Giovanni Spinucci, Maria Pia Pirraglia, Simone Bruschi, Francesca Romana Pesci, Ludovico Iannetti
Purpose. To study epidemiology, clinical findings and visual prognosis of patients with Fuchs' Heterochromic Iridocyclitis (FHI). Methods. A retrospective analysis was performed on 158 patients with FHI. Thirty-five patients were observed only once; the remaining 123 had a mean follow-up of 30.7 months (50 of them had a mean follow-up of 63.5 months) and in those we assessed complications, medical and surgical treatment, and long-term visual prognosis. Results. Average age at uveitis diagnosis was 27.2 years and 18...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
Hui Zhao, Nainan Hei, Yiling Wu, Winston Chan, Xiudong Lei, Carrie Cameron, Shine Chang, Mariana Chavez-MacGregor, Sharon H Giordano
BACKGROUND: The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B35 and International Breast Cancer Intervention Studies II Ductal Carcinoma In Situ trials showed similar treatment effects of anastrozole and tamoxifen in reducing cancer recurrence risk among ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) patients. Studies have shown low levels of hormone therapy drug initiation for DCIS patients, but the current body of literature lacks information on the 5-year adherence rates for these drugs from population-based studies...
October 25, 2016: Cancer
Maria Gogou, Katerina Haidopoulou, Maria Eboriadou, Evangelos Pavlou
Background The aim of this study is to investigate through polysomnography sleep quality in children with rolandic epilepsy and compare sleep variables between these children and healthy controls. Methods Our study population included 15 children with rolandic epilepsy and 27 healthy children who underwent overnight polysomnography. Parameters about sleep architecture and sleep respiratory events were recorded and analyzed. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. Results Patients and controls did not differ in basic epidemiological traits...
October 25, 2016: Neuropediatrics
Carlos L Hoyos, Silvana P Cajal, Marisa Juarez, Jorge D Marco, Anahí M Alberti D'Amato, Melina Cayo, Irma Torrejón, Rubén O Cimino, Patricio Diosque, Alejandro J Krolewiecki, Julio R Nasser, José F Gil
Background. Endemic areas of tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) in Salta, Argentina, present some overlap zones with the geographical distribution of Chagas disease, with mixed infection cases being often detected. Objectives. The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude of Leishmania sp. infection and potential associated risk factors, the serologic prevalence of T. cruzi, and the presence of T. cruzi-Leishmania sp. mixed infection in a region of the northwest of Argentina. Methods. Cross-sectional studies were conducted to detect TL prevalence and T...
2016: BioMed Research International
Hamid Najafipour, Mostafa Shokoohi, Gholamreza Yousefzadeh, Behzad Sarvar Azimzadeh, Gholamreza Moshtaghi Kashanian, Mohamad Mehdi Bagheri, Ali Mirzazadeh
BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of identifying and screening dyslipidemia to prevent coronary artery diseases CAD(Coronary Artery Disease), little information is available on dyslipidemia in our large area. So the present study aimed to assess the management status of lipid abnormalities and its association with other CAD risk factors in an urban population of southeast of Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was a part of the Kerman coronary artery disease risk factor study KERCADRS (Kerman coronary artery disease risk study) as a population-based, epidemiological research among 5900 individuals aged 15 to 75 years who were residents of Kerman city, the largest city in Southeast of Iran...
2016: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
Shelley E Keating, Helen M Parker, Toby G Pavey, Michael K Baker, Ian D Caterson, Jacob George, Nathan A Johnson
Objective. Epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and self-reported physical activity levels. However, subjective measurements can be inaccurate and prone to reporter bias. We investigated whether objectively quantified physical activity levels predicted liver fat and VAT in overweight/obese adults. Methods. Habitual physical activity was measured by triaxial accelerometry for four days (n = 82). Time spent in sedentary behavior (MET < 1...
2016: Journal of Obesity
Karol J Szyluk, Andrzej Jasiński, Michał Mielnik, Bogdan Koczy
BACKGROUND The incidence of shoulder joint dislocation has been estimated at 11-26 per 100 000 population per year. In our opinion, basic epidemiological data need to be continually updated in studies of large populations. To study the incidence of posttraumatic dislocation of the shoulder joint in the Polish population. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively investigated the entire Polish population between 1 January 2010 and 1 January 2015. To identify the study group, data collected in the electronic database of the National Health Fund were used...
October 25, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Raminta Daniulaityte, Lu Chen, Francois R Lamy, Robert G Carlson, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Amit Sheth
BACKGROUND: To harness the full potential of social media for epidemiological surveillance of drug abuse trends, the field needs a greater level of automation in processing and analyzing social media content. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to describe the development of supervised machine-learning techniques for the eDrugTrends platform to automatically classify tweets by type/source of communication (personal, official/media, retail) and sentiment (positive, negative, neutral) expressed in cannabis- and synthetic cannabinoid-related tweets...
October 24, 2016: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Alain Luxembourg, Susanne K Kjaer, Mari Nygard, Misoo C Ellison, Thomas Group, J Brooke Marshall, David Radley, Alfred Saah
The 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) (9vHPV) vaccine targets four HPV types (6/11/16/18) also covered by the quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine and five additional types (31/33/45/52/58). Vaccine efficacy to prevent HPV infection and disease was established in a Phase III clinical study in women 16-26years of age. A long-term follow-up (LTFU) study has been initiated as an extension of the Phase III clinical study to assess effectiveness of the 9vHPV vaccine up to at least 14years after the start of vaccination...
October 21, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Amy B Wilfert, Katherine R Chao, Madhurima Kaushal, Sanjay Jain, Sebastian Zöllner, David R Adams, Donald F Conrad
Standard techniques from genetic epidemiology are ill-suited to formally assess the significance of variants identified from a single case. We developed a statistical inference framework for identifying unusual functional variation from a single exome or genome, what we refer to as the 'n-of-one' problem. Using this approach we assessed our ability to identify the causal genotypes in over 5 million simulated cases of Mendelian disease, identifying 39% of disease genotypes as the most damaging unit in a typical exome background...
October 24, 2016: Nature Genetics
Xinyao Ji, Dylan S Small, Charles E Leonard, Sean Hennessy
Cohort studies can be biased by unmeasured confounding. We propose a hybrid ecologic-epidemiologic design called the trend-in-trend design, which requires a strong time-trend in exposure, but is unbiased unless there are unmeasured factors affecting outcome for which there are time-trends in prevalence that are correlated with time-trends in exposure across strata with different exposure trends. Thus, the conditions under which the trend-in-trend study is biased are a subset of those under which a cohort study is biased...
October 20, 2016: Epidemiology
Victor Virlogeux, Vicky J Fang, Minah Park, Joseph T Wu, Benjamin J Cowling
The incubation period is an important epidemiologic distribution, it is often incorporated in case definitions, used to determine appropriate quarantine periods, and is an input to mathematical modeling studies. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS) is an emerging infectious disease in the Arabian Peninsula. There was a large outbreak of MERS in South Korea in 2015. We examined the incubation period distribution of MERS coronavirus infection for cases in South Korea and in Saudi Arabia. Using parametric and nonparametric methods, we estimated a mean incubation period of 6...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rodrigo C Silva, Virgínia B Richini-Pereira, Mariana Kikuti, Pâmela M Marson, Helio Langoni
BACKGROUND: Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) is a worldwide parasitic zoonosis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum around the world. Canids are the definitive hosts and sand flies the intermediate hosts. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that a new set of species-specific primers (Lch14:Lch15, targeting a multiple alignment for L. infantum kDNA minicircle) is an efficient diagnostic tool for routine and epidemiological studies regarding L. infantum. METHODS: The presence of L...
October 24, 2016: Veterinary Quarterly
Maja von Cube, Martin Schumacher, Mercedes Palomar-Martinez, Pedro Olaechea-Astigarraga, Francisco Alvarez-Lerma, Martin Wolkewitz
Analysing the determinants and consequences of hospital-acquired infections involves the evaluation of large cohorts. Infected patients in the cohort are often rare for specific pathogens, because most of the patients admitted to the hospital are discharged or die without such an infection. Death and discharge are competing events to acquiring an infection, because these individuals are no longer at risk of getting a hospital-acquired infection. Therefore, the data is best analysed with an extended survival model - the extended illness-death model...
October 24, 2016: Statistics in Medicine
Melissa Cumming, Anthony Osinski, Lynne O'Hearn, Pamela Waksmonski, Michele Herman, Deborah Gordon, Elzbieta Griffiths, Kim Knox, Eileen McHale, Karen Quillen, Jorge Rios, Patricia Pisciotto, Lynne Uhl, Alfred DeMaria, Chester Andrzejewski
A collaboration that grew over time between local hemovigilance stakeholders and the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) resulted in the change from a paper-based method of reporting adverse reactions and monthly transfusion activity for regulatory compliance purposes to statewide adoption of electronic reporting via the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). The NHSN is a web-based surveillance system that offers the capacity to capture transfusion-related adverse events, incidents, and monthly transfusion statistics from participating facilities...
October 23, 2016: Transfusion
Lulu Xie, Hongyi Kang, Maiken Nedergaard
BACKGROUND: Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. As a consequence, several excellent rodent models have been developed to gain insight into the pathophysiology of stroke and testing the efficacy of neuroprotective interventions. However, one potential problem is that albeit roughly 80% of strokes occur in awake patients, all existing murine stroke models employ anesthesia. Moreover, epidemiological studies have shown that stroke injury is more severe in the minority of patients that suffer stroke while asleep...
2016: Journal of Nature and Science
Matthew D Hall, Mark E J Woolhouse, Andrew Rambaut
The ongoing large-scale increase in the total amount of genetic data for viruses and other pathogens has led to a situation in which it is often not possible to include every available sequence in a phylogenetic analysis and expect the procedure to complete in reasonable computational time. This raises questions about how a set of sequences should be selected for analysis, particularly if the data are used to infer more than just the phylogenetic tree itself. The design of sampling strategies for molecular epidemiology has been a neglected field of research...
January 2016: Virus Evolution
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