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Epidemiologic Methods

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918448/a-systematic-review-of-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-screening-interventions-for-assessing-the-risk-of-venous-thromboembolism-in-women-considering-combined-oral-contraceptives
#1
REVIEW
Zanfina Ademi, C Simone Sutherland, Joris Van Stiphout, Jöelle Michaud, Goranka Tanackovic, Matthias Schwenkglenks
Use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) by women increases the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), which can have a major impact on an individuals' quality of life. VTE is also associated with an increase in healthcare costs. Our aim was to systematically review cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) considering any screening for risk of VTE in women using COCs. The quality of reporting in each study was assessed, a summary of results was prepared, and the key drivers of cost effectiveness in each of the eligible CEAs were identified...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918194/cleaning-and-asthma-a-systematic-review-and-approach-for-effective-safety-assessment
#2
Melissa J Vincent, Ann Parker, Andrew Maier
Research indicates a correlative relationship between asthma and use of consumer cleaning products. We conduct a systematic review of epidemiological literature on persons who use or are exposed to cleaning products, both in occupational and domestic settings, and risk of asthma or asthma-like symptoms to improve understanding of the causal relationship between exposure and asthma. A scoring method for assessing study reliability is presented. Although research indicates an association between asthma and the use of cleaning products, no study robustly investigates exposure to cleaning products or ingredients along with asthma risk...
September 13, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918076/simultaneous-detection-of-wheat-dwarf-virus-northern-cereal-mosaic-virus-barley-yellow-striate-mosaic-virus-and-rice-black-streaked-dwarf-virus-in-wheat-by-multiplex-rt-pcr
#3
Peipei Zhang, Yan Liu, Wenwen Liu, Sebastien Massart, Xifeng Wang
Wheat dwarf virus (WDV), barley yellow striate mosaic virus (BYSMV), rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) and northern cereal mosaic virus (NCMV) are four viruses infecting wheat and causing similar symptoms. In this paper, a multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (m-RT-PCR) method has been developed for the simultaneous detection and discrimination of these viruses. The protocol uses specific primer set for each virus and produces four distinct fragments (273, 565, 783 and 1296bp), detecting the presence of RBSDV, BYSMV, WDV and NCMV, respectively...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917307/evaluation-of-western-blot-elisa-and-latex-agglutination-tests-to-detect-toxoplasma-gondii-serum-antibodies-in-farmed-red-deer
#4
Kandarp Khodidas Patel, Laryssa Howe, Cord Heuer, Geoffery William Asher, Peter Raymond Wilson
Abortion due to Toxoplasma gondii has been suspected in New Zealand farmed red deer. However, knowledge around the epidemiology and prevalence of T. gondii in farmed red deer is limited. The aim of this study was to firstly, assess the sensitivity and specificity of two commercially available assays, ELISA and latex agglutination test (LAT), for use in deer and secondly, to estimate the sero-prevalence of T. gondii in red deer. A total of 252 sera from rising 2-year-old and adult hinds from 17 New Zealand red deer herds at early and late pregnancy scanning and from known aborted and/or non-aborted hinds were tested for the presence of T...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917303/the-evaluation-of-gm6-based-elisa-and-ict-as-diagnostic-methods-on-a-mongolian-farm-with-an-outbreak-of-non-tsetse-transmitted-horse-trypanosomosis
#5
Batdorj Davaasuren, Tovuu Amgalanbaatar, Simon Peter Musinguzi, Keisuke Suganuma, Davaajav Otgonsuren, Ehab Mossaad, Sandagdorj Narantsatsral, Banzragch Battur, Badgar Battsetseg, Xuenan Xuan, Noboru Inoue
Trypanosoma equiperdum, which is the etiological agent of dourine, spreads through sexual intercourse in equines. Dourine (T. equiperdum) has been reported in Mongolia, where it is considered an economically important disease of horses. T. evansi has also been reported in Mongolian domestic animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential application of recombinant T. evansi GM6 (rTeGM6-4r)-based diagnostic methods on a farm with an outbreak of non-tsetse transmitted horse trypanosomosis. Ninety-seven percent homology was found between the amino acid sequences of T...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915951/male-contraception-prospects-for-sound-and-ultrasound
#6
Robert Sewak, Bettina Teng, Lee A Learman, Charles H Hennekens
The worldwide human population growth rate, which doubled during the 20th century, as well as the increasing fertility rate, have contributed to an increasing and evolving emphasis on contraception. With respect to female contraceptive methods, many have been developed, marketed, and are widely available. In contrast, male contraception has been limited to condoms, which pose logistical challenges, and vasectomy, which is largely irreversible. The use of sound to achieve effective and safe male contraception is a promising but unproven hypothesis...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915872/risk-factors-of-chronic-periodontitis-on-healing-response-a-multilevel-modelling-analysis
#7
J Song, H Zhao, C Pan, C Li, J Liu, Y Pan
BACKGROUND: Chronic periodontitis is a multifactorial polygenetic disease with an increasing number of associated factors that have been identified over recent decades. Longitudinal epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that the risk factors were related to the progression of the disease. A traditional multivariate regression model was used to find risk factors associated with chronic periodontitis. However, the approach requirement of standard statistical procedures demands individual independence...
September 15, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915771/low-back-pain-with-impact-at-17-years-of-age-is-predicted-by-early-adolescent-risk-factors-from-multiple-domains-analysis-of-the-western-australian-pregnancy-cohort-raine-study
#8
Anne Smith, Darren Beales, Peter O'Sullivan, Natasha Bear, Leon Straker
Study Design Prospective cohort study of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Background Low back pain (LBP) commonly develops in adolescence and is a significant risk factor for adult LBP. A broad range of factors have been associated with the development of adolescent LBP, but prior literature has limitations related to characterisation of LBP and scope of risk factors considered. Objective This study aimed to identify potential factors contributing to the development of LBP with and without impact at 17 years of age, utilising a broad range of exposures at 14...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914824/use-of-principal-components-analysis-and-kriging-to-predict-groundwater-sourced-rural-drinking-water-quality-in-saskatchewan
#9
Lianne McLeod, Lalita Bharadwaj, Tasha Epp, Cheryl L Waldner
Groundwater drinking water supply surveillance data were accessed to summarize water quality delivered as public and private water supplies in southern Saskatchewan as part of an exposure assessment for epidemiologic analyses of associations between water quality and type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Arsenic in drinking water has been linked to a variety of chronic diseases and previous studies have identified multiple wells with arsenic above the drinking water standard of 0.01 mg/L; therefore, arsenic concentrations were of specific interest...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914110/evaluation-of-dual-target-specific-real-time-pcr-for-the-detection-of-kingella-kingae-in-a-danish-paediatric-population
#10
Victoria Elizabeth de Knegt, Gitte Qvist Kristiansen, Kristian Schønning
BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the relevance of dual target real-time polymerase chain (PCR) assays targeting the rtxA and cpn60 genes of the paediatric pathogen Kingella kingae. We also studied for the first time the clinical and epidemiological features of K. kingae infections in a Danish population. METHOD: Children with K. kingae-positive cultures were identified from 11,477 children and 86 children younger than 16 years old from whom blood cultures and joint fluid cultures were obtained between January 2010 and November 2016...
September 15, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913714/high-transient-colonization-by-pneumocystis-jirovecii-between-mothers-and-newborn
#11
Cristian Vera, Yudy A Aguilar, Lázaro A Vélez, Zulma Vanessa Rueda
The aim of the study was to explore the frequency and dynamics of acquisition and colonization of Pneumocystis jirovecii among neonates, as well as the epidemiological and genotypic characteristics in mother-child binomial. In a prospective enrolled cohort of women in their third trimester of pregnancy, nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and clinical and epidemiological data were collected at four different times: 17 days, 2nd, 4th, and 6th month of life of the newborn. P. jirovecii was detected by nested-PCR for the mtLSU-rRNA gene in each NPS; the genotypes were determined amplifying four genes...
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913330/resurgence-of-diphtheria-in-north-kerala-india-2016-laboratory-supported-case-based-surveillance-outcomes
#12
Lucky Sangal, Sudhir Joshi, Shalini Anandan, Veeraraghavan Balaji, Jaichand Johnson, Asish Satapathy, Pradeep Haldar, Ramesh Rayru, Srinath Ramamurthy, Asha Raghavan, Pankaj Bhatnagar
INTRODUCTION: As part of national program, laboratory supported vaccine preventable diseases surveillance was initiated in Kerala in 2015. Mechanisms have been strengthened for case investigation, reporting, and data management. Specimens collected and sent to state and reference laboratories for confirmation and molecular surveillance. The major objective of this study is to understand the epidemiological information generated through surveillance system and its utilization for action...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912887/rsj16-protects-against-dss-induced-colitis-by-inhibiting-the-ppar-%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#13
Lifu Wang, Hui Xie, Lian Xu, Qi Liao, Shuo Wan, Zilong Yu, Datao Lin, Beibei Zhang, Zhiyue Lv, Zhongdao Wu, Xi Sun
Background: Epidemiologic studies and animal model experiments have shown that parasites have significant modulatory effects on autoimmune disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recombinant Sj16 (rSj16), a 16-kDa secreted protein of Schistosoma japonicum (S.japonicum) produced by Escherichia coli (E. coli), has been shown to have immunoregulatory effects in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of rSj16 on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Methods: DSS-induced colitis mice were treated with rSj16...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912478/the-molecular-epidemiology-of-hiv-1-in-the-comunidad-valenciana-spain-analysis-of-transmission-clusters
#14
Juan Ángel Patiño-Galindo, Manoli Torres-Puente, María Alma Bracho, Ignacio Alastrué, Amparo Juan, David Navarro, María José Galindo, Dolores Ocete, Enrique Ortega, Concepción Gimeno, Josefina Belda, Victoria Domínguez, Rosario Moreno, Fernando González-Candelas
HIV infections are still a very serious concern for public heath worldwide. We have applied molecular evolution methods to study the HIV-1 epidemics in the Comunidad Valenciana (CV, Spain) from a public health surveillance perspective. For this, we analysed 1804 HIV-1 sequences comprising protease and reverse transcriptase (PR/RT) coding regions, sampled between 2004 and 2014. These sequences were subtyped and subjected to phylogenetic analyses in order to detect transmission clusters. In addition, univariate and multinomial comparisons were performed to detect epidemiological differences between HIV-1 subtypes, and risk groups...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912340/donor-recipient-identification-in-para-and-poly-phyletic-trees-under-alternative-hiv-1-transmission-hypotheses-using-approximate-bayesian-computation
#15
Ethan O Romero-Severson, Ingo Bulla, Nick Hengartner, Inês Bártolo, Ana Abecasis, José M Azevedo-Pereira, Nuno Taveira, Thomas Leitner
Diversity of the founding population of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) transmissions raises many important biological, clinical, and epidemiological issues. In up to 40% of sexual infections there is clear evidence for multiple founding variants, which can influence the efficacy of putative prevention methods and the reconstruction of epidemiologic histories. To infer who-infected-whom and to compute the probability of alternative transmission scenarios, while explicitly taking phylogenetic uncertainty into account, we created an Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) method based on a set of statistics measuring phylogenetic topology, branch lengths, and genetic diversity...
September 14, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911765/prevalence-of-hepatitis-d-virus-infection-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Alexander J Stockdale, Mas Chaponda, Apostolos Beloukas, Richard Odame Phillips, Philippa C Matthews, Athanasios Papadimitropoulos, Simon King, Laura Bonnett, Anna Maria Geretti
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis D virus (also known as hepatitis delta virus) can establish a persistent infection in people with chronic hepatitis B, leading to accelerated progression of liver disease. In sub-Saharan Africa, where HBsAg prevalence is higher than 8%, hepatitis D virus might represent an important additive cause of chronic liver disease. We aimed to establish the prevalence of hepatitis D virus among HBsAg-positive populations in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We systematically reviewed studies of hepatitis D virus prevalence among HBsAg-positive populations in sub-Saharan Africa...
October 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911047/the-role-of-in-vitro-susceptibility-testing-in-the-management-of-candida-and-aspergillus
#17
Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner, David Andes
Antifungal susceptibility testing has evolved from a research technique to a standardized and well-validated tool for the clinical management of fungal infections and for epidemiological studies. Genetic mutations and phenotypic resistance in vitro have been shown to correlate with clinical outcomes and treatment failures, and this in turn has led to the creation of clinical breakpoints and, more recently, epidemiological cutoff values for clinically relevant fungal pathogens. Resistance mechanisms for Candida and Aspergillus species have been extensively described and their corresponding genetic mutations can now be readily detected...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910938/-comparison-of-commercial-hiv-1-viral-load-tests-by-using-proficiency-test-results-in-china-2013-2015
#18
L Zhang, C Jin, Z Jiang, T Tang, Y Jiang, P L Pan
Objective: To compare the bio-equivalence among commercial HIV-1 viral load tests, including EasyQ HIV-1 v2.0 (EasyQ) from bioMerieux NucliSens of France; VERSANT HIV-1 RNA 3.0 assay (bDNA) from Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics of USA; COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test (Taqman) from Roche Molecular Diagnosis of USA; Abbott Real Time HIV-1 Kit (M2000) from Abbott Molecular of USA and two domestic HIV-1 viral load test kits (domestic kit) from DaAn Gene Company of Sun Yat-Sen University and Liaoning Bio-Pharmaceutical company of Northeast pharmaceutical group, by using proficiency test results in China from 2013 to 2015...
September 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910935/-application-of-state-space-model-in-the-evaluation-of-the-prevention-and-control-for-mumps
#19
C Luo, R Z Li, Q Q Xu, P Xiong, Y X Liu, F Z Xue, Q Xu, X J Li
Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of mumps in 2012 and 2014, and to explore the preventive effect of the second dose of mumps-containing vaccine (MuCV) in mumps in Shandong province. Methods: On the basis of certain model assumptions, a Space State model was formulated. Iterated Filter was applied to the epidemic model to estimate the parameters. Results: The basic reproduction number (R(0)) for children in schools was 4.49 (95%CI: 4.30-4.67) and 2.50 (95%CI: 2.38-2.61) respectively for the year of 2012 and 2014...
September 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910934/-analysis-on-epidemiology-and-spatial-temporal-clustering-of-human-brucellosis-in-fujian-province-2011-2016
#20
H S Zhu, L L Wang, D H Lin, R T Hong, J M Ou, W Chen, B P Wu, W L Huang, Z H Xie, G M Chen, S G Wu, Z B Xu, Y Q Deng
Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics and spatial distribution of human brucellosis in Fujian province during 2011-2016, and provide evidence for the prevention and control of the disease. Methods: The surveillance data of human brucellosis in Fujian during 2011-2016 was analyzed with software R 3.3.1, ArcGIS 10.3.1, GeoDa 1.8.8 and SaTScan 9.4.3. Results: During 2011-2016, a total of 319 human brucellosis cases were reported, the incidence increased year by year (F=11.838, P=0.026) with the annual incidence of 0...
September 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
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