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Epidemiologic Methods

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210898/flow-cytometric-analysis-reveals-the-high-levels-of-platelet-activation-parameters-in-circulation-of-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#1
Agnieszka Morel, Joanna Rywaniak, Michał Bijak, Elżbieta Miller, Marta Niwald, Joanna Saluk
The epidemiological studies confirm an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in multiple sclerosis, especially prothrombotic events directly associated with abnormal platelet activity. The aim of our study was to investigate the level of blood platelet activation in the circulation of patients with chronic phase of multiple sclerosis (SP MS) and their reactivity in response to typical platelets' physiological agonists. We examined 85 SP MS patients diagnosed according to the revised McDonald's criteria and 50 healthy volunteers as a control group...
February 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210832/benefits-of-an-android-based-tablet-application-in-primary-screening-for-eye-diseases-in-a-rural-population-india
#2
Sayed Ahmed Imtiaz, Sannapaneni Krishnaiah, Sunil Kumar Yadav, Balasubramaniam Bharath, Ramanathan V Ramani
To investigate the effectiveness, efficiency and cost gains in collecting patient eye health information from remote rural villages of India by trained field investigators through an Android Based Tablet Application namely 'Sankara Electronic Remote Vision Information System (SERVIS)". During January and March 2016, a population based cross-sectional study was conducted in three Indian states employing SERVIS and manual method. The SERVIS application has a 48-items survey instrument programed into the application...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210652/prevention-of-hamstring-injuries-in-collegiate-sprinters
#3
Yusaku Sugiura, Kazuhiko Sakuma, Keishoku Sakuraba, Yamato Sato
BACKGROUND: No studies have been reported on how strength, agility, and flexibility training reduce the occurrence of hamstring injuries in sprinters. Therefore, a program for preventing hamstring injury in these athletes has not been established. PURPOSE: To document the incidence of hamstring injuries during times when different prevention strategies were employed to see whether a particular prevention program reduced their occurrence. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study...
January 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210408/patterns-of-maxillofacial-fractures-in-uttar-pradesh-india
#4
Padmanidhi Agarwal, Divya Mehrotra, Rajul Agarwal, Sumit Kumar, Rahul Pandey
This study aimed to obtain dependable epidemiologic data of the variation in cause and characteristics of maxillofacial fractures by identifying, describing, and quantifying trauma. This retrospective study was conducted in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India, over 1 year, based on a systematic computer-assisted database search from March 2015 to March 2016 for maxillofacial fractures. The demographics, etiology, geographic distribution, date of injury, site and number of fractures, and type of intervention were recorded for each...
March 2017: Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210012/echocardiographic-parameters-as-life-quality-predictors-in-patients-after-myocardial-infarction-treated-with-different-methods
#5
Alen Dzubur, Mevludin Mekic, Senad Pesto, Naser Nabil
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in most countries. The aim was to examine the quality of life and to determine the differences in the quality of life in patients one year after myocardial infarction and the relationship between quality of life and echocardiographic parameters in these patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The research was a prospective, clinical, epidemiological study and was conducted at the Clinic of Cardiology, University Clinical Center Sarajevo (UCCS)...
December 2016: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209552/detection-of-giardia-duodenalis-assemblage-e-infections-at-the-tibetan-plateau-area-yaks-are-suitable-hosts
#6
Wang Guang-Hua, Wang Ge-Ping, Li Xiu-Ping, Ma Li-Qing, Gabriele Karanis, Eleni Christodoulou-Vafeiadou, Panagiotis Karanis
The prevalence of Giardia duodenalis (G. duodenalis) assemblages in yaks is poorly known. The present study examined 297 fecal samples from weaned yak, 4 to 7 months of age, from 3 different farms, in Tibetan Plateau Area (TPA) of the Qinghai Province in Western China. The prevalence of infection was determined by light and immunofluorescence microscopy, and nested-PCR. PCR was performed for the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU) amplified 16 positive for G. duodenalis products. The prevalence of Giardia species was 5...
February 13, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209138/using-whole-genome-sequencing-to-investigate-transmission-in-a-multi-host-system-bovine-tuberculosis-in-new-zealand
#7
Joseph Crispell, Ruth N Zadoks, Simon R Harris, Brent Paterson, Desmond M Collins, Geoffrey W de-Lisle, Paul Livingstone, Mark A Neill, Roman Biek, Samantha J Lycett, Rowland R Kao, Marian Price-Carter
BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is an important livestock disease raising public health and economic concerns around the world. In New Zealand, a number of wildlife species are implicated in the spread and persistence of bTB in cattle populations, most notably the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). Whole Genome Sequenced (WGS) M. bovis isolates sourced from infected cattle and wildlife across New Zealand were analysed. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses were conducted to estimate the substitution rate of the sampled population and investigate the role of wildlife...
February 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209049/5-point-checklist-for-skin-cancer-detection-in-primary-care
#8
Elvira Moscarella, Aimilios Lallas, Caterina Longo, Roberto Alfano, Giuseppe Argenziano
BACKGROUND: Skin cancer screening interventions often relay on the involvement of general practitioners (GPs). Many interventions up to now have been directed to training approaches focusing on the clinical features of skin malignancies to increase GPs skill in skin cancer recognition. METHODS: Based on the available current knowledge about skin cancer epidemiology and risk factors, we built up a 5-point checklist to help GPs in triaging patients to be referred to a dermatologist...
February 16, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208858/approach-to-carbapenemase-detection-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-routine-diagnostic-laboratories
#9
Rangnekar Aseem, Shalini Shenoy, Suchitra Shenoy Mala, Shrikala Baliga, Agarwal Ashish
INTRODUCTION: Resistance to Carbapenems in Klebsiella may be due to Carbapenem hydrolysing enzymes. Accurate detection of carbapenemase must be done for patient treatment and epidemiological purposes. AIM: To detect carbapenemase production by performing Modified Hodge Test (MHT), Combined Disk Test (CDT) for Metallo-β-Lactamases (MBL) and PCR for blaKPC gene, to evaluate the performance of MHT using MacConkey Agar (MCA) and to access the value of MHT for carbapenemase detection...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208759/acute-effects-of-particulate-air-pollution-on-ischemic-heart-disease-hospitalizations-in-shanghai-china
#10
Anyang Xu, Zhe Mu, Bo Jiang, Wei Wang, Han Yu, Lijuan Zhang, Jue Li
Background: Air pollution has been demonstrated to be a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases worldwide. This study examines the relationship between the exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) and patient hospitalizations as a result of ischemic heart disease (IHD) during 2013-2014 in Shanghai, China. Methods: Daily IHD hospitalization data were acquired from the Shanghai Health Insurance Bureau (SHIB) from 1 January 2013 to 21 December 2014. Daily average concentrations of air pollution as well as meteorological data were obtained from the database of Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center (SEMC) during the same time period, and all data were analyzed using standard epidemiological methodology...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207402/reconstructing-the-temporal-progression-of-biological-data-using-cluster-spanning-trees
#11
Ryan Eshleman, Rahul Singh
Identifying the temporal progression of a set of biological samples is crucial for comprehending the dynamics of the underlying molecular interactions. It is often also a basic step in data denoising and synchronization. Finally, identifying the progression order is crucial for problems like cell lineage identification, disease progression, tumor classification, and epidemiology and thus impacts the spectrum of disciplines spanning basic biology, drug discovery, and public health. Current methods that attempt solving this problem face difficulty when it is necessary to factor-in complex relationships within the data such as grouping, partial ordering or bifurcating or multifurcating progressions...
February 9, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203427/potency-of-parenteral-antimicrobials-including-ceftolozane-tazobactam-against-nosocomial-respiratory-tract-pathogens-considerations-for-empiric-and-directed-therapy
#12
Christina A Sutherland, David P Nicolau
BACKGROUND: Empiric therapy decisions are predicated on knowledge of both the epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of the probable infecting pathogen(s). The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbial distribution and phenotypic profiles of nosocomial respiratory isolates collected from multiple US hospitals and assess the clinical utility of various monotherapy and combination regimens. METHODS: Hospitals provided consecutive non-duplicate adult inpatients Gram-negative nosocomial respiratory isolates from cultures received ≥48 h after hospital admission...
January 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203079/role-of-prediabetes-in-stroke
#13
REVIEW
Milija D Mijajlović, Vuk M Aleksić, Nadežda M Šternić, Mihailo M Mirković, Natan M Bornstein
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and probably the greatest cause of adult disability worldwide. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a state of accelerated aging of blood vessels. Patients with diabetes have increased risk of stroke. Hyperglycemia represents a risk factor for poor outcome following stroke, and probably is just a marker of poor outcome rather than a cause. Lowering of blood glucose levels has not been shown to improve prognosis. Also, prevention of stroke risk among patients with DM is not improved with therapy for reduction of glucose levels...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202797/the-epiquant-framework-for-computing-the-epidemiological-concordance-of-microbial-subtyping-data
#14
Benjamin M Hetman, Steven K Mutschall, James E Thomas, Victor P J Gannon, Clifford G Clark, Frank Pollari, Eduardo N Taboada
A fundamental assumption in the use and interpretation of microbial subtyping results for public health investigations is that isolates that appear to be related based on molecular subtyping data are expected to share commonalities with respect to their origin, history and distribution. Critically, no approach currently exists for systematically assessing the underlying epidemiology of subtyping results. Our aim was to develop a method for directly quantifying the similarity between bacterial isolates using basic sampling metadata and to develop a framework for computing the epidemiologic concordance of microbial typing results...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202637/supplemental-selenium-may-decrease-ovarian-cancer-risk-in-african-american-women
#15
Paul D Terry, Bo Qin, Fabian Camacho, Patricia G Moorman, Anthony J Alberg, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan, Melissa Bondy, Michele L Cote, Ellen Funkhouser, Kristin A Guertin, Edward S Peters, Ann G Schwartz, Joellen M Schildkraut, Elisa V Bandera
Background: To our knowledge, no previous study has evaluated the associations of antioxidant intake with the risk of ovarian cancer in African-American women, who are known to have high mortality from the disease.Objective: We sought to evaluate these associations among 406 ovarian cancer cases and 632 age- and site-matched controls of African-American descent recruited from AACES (African American Cancer Epidemiology Study), a population-based, case-control study in 11 geographical areas within the United States...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202078/examples-of-sex-gender-sensitivity-in-epidemiological-research-results-of-an-evaluation-of-original-articles-published-in-jech-2006-2014
#16
Ingeborg Jahn, Claudia Börnhorst, Frauke Günther, Tilman Brand
BACKGROUND: During the last decades, sex and gender biases have been identified in various areas of biomedical and public health research, leading to compromised validity of research findings. As a response, methodological requirements were developed but these are rarely translated into research practice. The aim of this study is to provide good practice examples of sex/gender sensitive health research. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of research articles published in JECH between 2006 and 2014...
February 15, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202065/alternative-transmission-routes-in-the-malaria-elimination-era-an-overview-of-transfusion-transmitted-malaria-in-the-americas
#17
Regina M Alho, Kim Vinícius Amaral Machado, Fernando F A Val, Nelson A Fraiji, Marcia A A Alexandre, Gisely C Melo, Judith Recht, André M Siqueira, Wuelton M Monteiro, Marcus V G Lacerda
BACKGROUND: Transfusion-transmitted (TT) malaria is an alternative infection route that has gained little attention from authorities, despite representing a life-threatening condition. There has been no systematic review of this health problem in American countries. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of TT malaria in the Americas and identify factors associated with lethality based on the studies published in the literature. METHODS: Potentially relevant papers in all languages were retrieved from MEDLINE and LILACS...
February 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202055/harmonizing-methods-for-wildlife-abundance-estimation-and-pathogen-detection-in-europe-a-questionnaire-survey-on-three-selected-host-pathogen-combinations
#18
Jana Sonnenburg, Marie-Pierre Ryser-Degiorgis, Thijs Kuiken, Ezio Ferroglio, Rainer G Ulrich, Franz J Conraths, Christian Gortázar, Christoph Staubach
BACKGROUND: The need for wildlife health surveillance as part of disease control in wildlife, domestic animals and humans on the global level is widely recognized. However, the objectives, methods and intensity of existing wildlife health surveillance programs vary greatly among European countries, resulting in a patchwork of data that are difficult to merge and compare. This survey aimed at evaluating the need and potential for data harmonization in wildlife health in Europe. The specific objective was to collect information on methods currently used to estimate host abundance and pathogen prevalence...
February 16, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199962/incorporation-of-the-number-of-positive-lymph-nodes-leads-to-better-prognostic-discrimination-of-node-positive-early-stage-cervical-cancer
#19
Juan Zhou, San-Gang Wu, Jia-Yuan Sun, Xu-Lin Liao, Feng-Yan Li, Huan-Xin Lin, Li-Chao Yang, Zhen-Yu He
To determine the prognostic value of the number of positive lymph nodes (LNs) in cervical cancer and further stratify patients with positive LNs into multiple risk groups based on analysis of Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program. Patients with cervical cancer who undergo hysterectomy and had pathologically-confirmed positive LNs after lymphadenectomy were identified using the SEER database (1988-2012). Kaplan-Meier survival methods and Cox proportional hazards regression were performed. We included 2,222 patients with the median number of removed LNs and positive LNs was 22 and 2, respectively...
February 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198911/dioctophyme-renale-prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-parasitism-in-dogs-of-s%C3%A3-o-crist%C3%A3-v%C3%A3-o-district-tr%C3%A3%C2%AAs-barras-county-santa-catarina-state-brazil
#20
Daniela Pedrassani, Adjair Antonio do Nascimento, Marcos Rogério André, Rosangela Zacarias Machado
Dioctophyme renale is a nematode that can be found parasitizing the kidney, peritoneal cavity and, rarely, other organs of canids and mustelids. This disease has high occurrence in the municipality of Três Barras, state of Santa Catarina, thus making this an interesting area to study the epidemiological aspects of infection by D. renale in dogs. Among 197 dogs, 14.2% showed the parasite eggs in urine and 16.4% showed IgG antibodies anti-D. renale in serum samples according to the indirect ELISA method; among seropositive dogs, 15 (37...
February 9, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
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