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Epidemiologic Methods

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550494/cost-effectiveness-of-combined-serum-anti-helicobacter-pylori-igg-antibody-and-serum-pepsinogen-concentrations-for-screening-for-gastric-cancer-risk-in-japan
#1
Shota Saito, Motoi Azumi, Yusuke Muneoka, Katsuhiko Nishino, Takashi Ishikawa, Yuichi Sato, Shuji Terai, Kouhei Akazawa
BACKGROUND: A combination of assays for the presence of serum anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG antibody (HPA) and serum pepsinogen (PG) concentrations can be used to screen for gastric cancer risk. In Japan, this "ABC method" is considered an effective means of stratifying gastric cancer risk. This study aimed to ascertain its cost-effectiveness for assessing gastric cancer risk. METHODS: A Markov model was constructed to compare the cost-effectiveness of two strategies for gastric cancer-risk screening over a 30-year period: the ABC method, which uses a combination of assessing the presence of HPA and measuring serum PG concentrations and scheduling endoscopies accordingly, and annual endoscopic screening...
May 26, 2017: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548188/-epidemiology-of-premature-deaths-in-chile-between-2001-and-2010
#2
Roberto Bächler, Gloria Icaza, Alex Soto, Loreto Núñez, Carolina Orellana, Rolando Monsalve, Marcela Riquelme
BACKGROUND: Years of potential life lost (YPLL) is a parameter that allows to analyze premature deaths. AIM: To study the causes, differences by gender, geographic variations and the trend of premature deaths in the last decade in Chile. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using death databases published by the Ministry of Health, YPLL were calculated for the decade 2001-2010, using the method proposed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development...
March 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547949/association-between-stereotactic-radiotherapy-and-death-from-brain-metastases-of-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-a-gliwice-data-re-analysis-with-penalization
#3
Andrzej Tukiendorf, Jerzy Wydmański, Edyta Wolny-Rokicka
Background: Clinical datasets for epithelial ovarian cancer brain metastatic patients are usually small in size. When adequate case numbers are lacking, resulting estimates of regression coefficients may demonstrate bias. One of the direct approaches to reduce such sparse-data bias is based on penalized estimation. Methods: A re- analysis of formerly reported hazard ratios in diagnosed patients was performed using penalized Cox regression with a popular SAS package providing additional software codes for a statistical computational procedure...
April 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546868/evaluation-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-stabilization-protocols-in-23-french-farrow-to-finish-farms-located-in-a-high-density-swine-area
#4
Pauline Berton, Valérie Normand, Guy-Pierre Martineau, Franck Bouchet, Arnaud Lebret, Agnès Waret-Szkuta
BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is responsible for reproductive disorders in sows and respiratory problems in pigs, and has a major economic impact. Controlling PRRSV is therefore a priority for the swine industry. Stabilization of a herd, defined as the production of PRRSV-negative pigs at weaning from seropositive sows, is a common method of control, and different protocols have been described in the literature to achieve this stabilization. CONTEXT AND PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate wether the combination of mass vaccination of sows and their piglets with a Genotype I modified live virus (MLV) vaccine, with temporal closure to the introduction of replacement animals and unidirectional pig and human flow can result in the production of PRRSV-negative pigs at weaning...
2017: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546848/estimation-of-maximal-oxygen-consumption-and-heart-rate-recovery-using-the-tecumseh-sub-maximal-step-test-and-their-relationship-to-cardiovascular-risk-factors
#5
Alun D Hughes, Nish Chaturvedi
BACKGROUND: Maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max) is associated with lower cardiovascular and total mortality. Step tests can be used to provide an estimate of (VO2max) in epidemiological or home-based studies. We compared different methods of estimation of VO2max and heart rate recovery and evaluated the relationship of these estimates with cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: Data were analysed from 2286 participants in the Tecumseh Community Health Study (>16y and <70y) who performed a step test...
June 2017: Artery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545843/diabetes-and-lifetime-risk-of-coronary-heart-disease
#6
Tanvir Chowdhury Turin, Tomonori Okamura, Nahid Rumana, Arfan Raheen Afzal, Makoto Watanabe, Aya Higashiyama, Yoko M Nakao, Michikazu Nakai, Misa Takegami, Kunihiro Nishimura, Yoshihiro Kokubo, Akira Okayama, Yoshihiro Miyamoto
INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological estimate lifetime risk (LTR) is a measure that expresses the probability of disease in the remaining lifetime for individuals of a specific index age. These estimates can be useful for general audience targeted knowledge translation activities against diabetes. There are only a few reports on lifetime of impact of diabetes on coronary heart disease (CHD) events. METHODS: The Suita Study, a cohort study of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), was established in 1989...
May 22, 2017: Primary Care Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545598/indonesian-dengue-burden-estimates-review-of-evidence-by-an-expert-panel
#7
T Y M Wahyono, J Nealon, S Beucher, A Prayitno, A Moureau, S Nawawi, H Thabrany, M Nadjib
Routine, passive surveillance systems tend to underestimate the burden of communicable diseases such as dengue. When empirical methods are unavailable, complimentary opinion-based or extrapolative methods have been employed. Here, an expert Delphi panel estimated the proportion of dengue captured by the Indonesian surveillance system, and associated health system parameters. Following presentation of medical and epidemiological data and subsequent discussions, the panel made iterative estimates from which expansion factors (EF), the ratio of total:reported cases, were calculated...
May 26, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545561/sources-of-variability-in-the-measurement-of-ascaris-lumbricoides-infection-intensity-by-kato-katz-and-qpcr
#8
Alice V Easton, Rita G Oliveira, Martin Walker, Elise M O'Connell, Sammy M Njenga, Charles S Mwandawiro, Joanne P Webster, Thomas B Nutman, Roy M Anderson
BACKGROUND: Understanding and quantifying the sources and implications of error in the measurement of helminth egg intensity using Kato-Katz (KK) and the newly emerging "gold standard" quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technique is necessary for the appropriate design of epidemiological studies, including impact assessments for deworming programs. METHODS: Repeated measurements of Ascaris lumbricoides infection intensity were made from samples collected in western Kenya using the qPCR and KK techniques...
May 25, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545411/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-isolates-from-hefei-2014-2015-genetic-characteristics-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#9
Fa-Xing Jiang, Qian Lan, Wen-Jing Le, Xiao-Hong Su
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and genetic determinants of resistance of N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Hefei, China, were characterized adding a breadth of information to the molecular epidemiology of gonococcal resistance in China. METHODS: 126 N. gonorrhoeae isolates from a hospital clinic in Hefei, were collected between January, 2014, and November, 2015. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of N. gonorrhoeae isolates for seven antimicrobials were determined by the agar dilution method...
May 25, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545200/descriptive-epidemiology-of-female-breast-cancer-in-delhi-india
#10
Nalliah Manoharan, Omana Nair, N K Shukla, Goura Kishor Rath
Background: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in females worldwide. The Population Based Cancer Registry data of Delhi were here used to describe the epidemiology and trends in breast cancer incidence in Delhi. Methods: Crude rate, age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) and age-specific incidence rates were calculated using the data collected by Delhi PBCR for the year 2012. The time trend of breast cancer incidence was evaluated by joinpoint regression using the PBCR data from 1988-2012...
April 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545198/assessing-breast-cancer-awareness-in-thai-women-validation-of-the-breast-cancer-awareness-scale-b-cas
#11
Nitchamon Rakkapao, Supannee Promthet, Malcolm Anthony Moore, Solikhah Solikhah, Cameron Hurst
Background: Raising breast cancer awareness is a well-established first line strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality. A properly validated instrument is needed to gain a better understanding of breast cancer awareness. Objective: The objective of this study was to develop and validate an instrument to assess breast cancer awareness in Thai women. Methods: In this study, we develop and evaluate the validity of the Breast Cancer Awareness Scale (B-CAS). Construct validity was evaluated by using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, and criterion validity was investigated using ROC curves to examine the associations between B-CAS subscales and breast self-examination...
April 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545083/simultaneous-inference-of-phylogenetic-and-transmission-trees-in-infectious-disease-outbreaks
#12
Don Klinkenberg, Jantien A Backer, Xavier Didelot, Caroline Colijn, Jacco Wallinga
Whole-genome sequencing of pathogens from host samples becomes more and more routine during infectious disease outbreaks. These data provide information on possible transmission events which can be used for further epidemiologic analyses, such as identification of risk factors for infectivity and transmission. However, the relationship between transmission events and sequence data is obscured by uncertainty arising from four largely unobserved processes: transmission, case observation, within-host pathogen dynamics and mutation...
May 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544318/neurologic-clinical-signs-in-cattle-with-astrovirus-associated-encephalitis
#13
R Deiss, S Selimovic-Hamza, T Seuberlich, M Meylan
BACKGROUND: Evidence of neurotropic astroviruses has been established using novel genetic methods in cattle suffering from viral encephalitis of previously unknown origin. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical signs observed in cattle with astrovirus-associated encephalitis. ANIMALS: Eight cattle (4 cows, 3 heifers, and 1 bull of 4 different breeds) admitted to the Clinic for Ruminants for neurologic disease and 1 cow investigated in the field...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543847/validation-of-sensewear-armband-in-children-adolescents-and-adults
#14
Guillermo Antonio Lopez, Jan Christian Brønd, Lars Bo Andersen, Magnus Dencker, Daniel Arvidsson
BACKGROUND: SenseWear Armband (SW) is a multisensor monitor to assess physical activity and energy expenditure. Its prediction algorithms have been updated periodically. PURPOSE: To validate SW in children, adolescents and adults. METHODS: The most recent SW algorithm 5.2 (SW5.2) and the previous version 2.2 (SW2.2) were evaluated for estimation of energy expenditure during semi-structured activities in 35 children, 31 adolescents and 36 adults with indirect calorimetry as reference...
May 24, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542318/predicting-congenital-heart-defects-a-comparison-of-three-data-mining-methods
#15
Yanhong Luo, Zhi Li, Husheng Guo, Hongyan Cao, Chunying Song, Xingping Guo, Yanbo Zhang
Congenital heart defects (CHD) is one of the most common birth defects in China. Many studies have examined risk factors for CHD, but their predictive abilities have not been evaluated. In particular, few studies have attempted to predict risks of CHD from, necessarily unbalanced, population-based cross-sectional data. Therefore, we developed and validated machine learning models for predicting, before and during pregnancy, women's risks of bearing children with CHD. We compared the results of these models in a large-scale, comprehensive population-based retrospective cross-sectional epidemiological survey of birth defects in six counties in Shanxi Province, China, covering 2006 to 2008...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542260/hookworm-infection-is-associated-with-decreased-cd4-t-cell-counts-in-hiv-infected-adult-ugandans
#16
Bozena M Morawski, Miya Yunus, Emmanuel Kerukadho, Grace Turyasingura, Logose Barbra, Andrew Mijumbi Ojok, Andrew DiNardo, Stefanie Sowinski, David R Boulware, Rojelio Mejia
Most studies evaluating epidemiologic relationships between helminths and HIV have been conducted in the pre-ART era, and evidence of the impact of helminth infections on HIV disease progression remains conflicting. Less is known about helminth infection and clinical outcomes in HIV-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). We sampled HIV-infected adults for eight gastrointestinal parasites and correlated parasitic infection with demographic predictors, and clinical and immunologic outcomes. Contrasting with previous studies, we measured parasitic infection with a quantitative, highly sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method...
May 25, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540343/psychosocial-well-being-associated-with-activity-of-daily-living-stages-among-community-dwelling-older-adults
#17
Ling Na, Joel E Streim
Objectives: Activity of daily living (ADL) stages demonstrated ordered associations with risk of chronic conditions, hospitalization, nursing home use, and mortality among community-living elderly. This article explores the association of stages with psychosocial well-being. We hypothesized that higher ADL stages (greater ADL limitation) are associated with more restricted social networks, less perceived social support, greater social isolation, and poorer mental health. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (N = 3,002) were analyzed in regression models and latent factor models...
January 2017: Gerontology & Geriatric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540152/epidemiological-clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-patients-with-post-traumatic-osteomyelitis-of-limb-fractures-in-southwest-china-a-hospital-based-study
#18
Jiachen Peng, Youliang Ren, Wenbin He, Zhengdao Li, Jin Yang, Yi Liu, Zhonghui Zheng, Stephen L Kates, Edward M Schwarz, Chao Xie, Youjia Xu
Objective To determine the epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics, of patients with post-traumatic osteomyelitis of extremity fractures, and provide evidence-based guidelines for early diagnosis and treatment, including empiric antibiotic therapy. Methods Human subject research was performed using institutional review board approved protocols. A retrospective chart review was conducted on 5,368 patients diagnosed with extremity traumatic fractures from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2015, to identify osteomyelitis patients...
2017: J Bone Jt Infect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539503/mycoplasma-pneumoniae-from-the-respiratory-tract-and-beyond
#19
REVIEW
Ken B Waites, Li Xiao, Yang Liu, Mitchell F Balish, T Prescott Atkinson
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an important cause of respiratory tract infections in children as well as adults that can range in severity from mild to life-threatening. Over the past several years there has been much new information published concerning infections caused by this organism. New molecular-based tests for M. pneumoniae detection are now commercially available in the United States, and advances in molecular typing systems have enhanced understanding of the epidemiology of infections. More strains have had their entire genome sequences published, providing additional insights into pathogenic mechanisms...
July 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539415/vitamin-d-supplementation-trials-aimed-at-reducing-mortality-have-much-higher-power-when-focusing-on-people-with-low-serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-concentrations
#20
Hermann Brenner, Lina Jansen, Kai-Uwe Saum, Bernd Holleczek, Ben Schöttker
Background: Evidence of an inverse association between serum vitamin D and mortality from epidemiological studies has prompted efforts to reduce mortality by vitamin D supplementation, either in targeted interventions for people with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency, or in untargeted interventions regardless of baseline vitamin D status.Objective: We aimed to assess the expected impact of the 2 different approaches on effect sizes and power of intervention studies.Methods: Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were measured in 9579 participants aged 50-75 y in the German Epidemiologische Studie zu Chancen der Verhütung, Früherkennung und optimierten Therapie chronischer Erkrankungen in der älteren Bevölkerung (ESTHER) study who were followed for mortality for a median of 12...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
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