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Occupational lung disease

Keith C Meyer, Basant Sharma, Brent Kaufmann, Amanda Kupper, Michael Hodgson
Despite reports of pulmonary toxicity due to styrene, guidelines on acceptable styrene exposure levels have been based on risk of cancer and central nervous system and liver toxicity and not on respiratory effects. Many reports have linked exposure to styrene vapor in occupational settings to various forms of non-malignant pulmonary disorders including bronchiolitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and occupational asthma. We report two cases in which the same tasks performed in a single workplace resulted in exposure to styrene vapor with subsequent development of acute respiratory symptoms associated with impaired gas exchange and imaging and histopathologic findings consistent with bronchiolitis and organizing pneumonia...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Joo Hyun Sung, Chang Sun Sim, Minsu Ock, Inbo Oh, Kyoung Sook Jeong, Cheolin Yoo
In Korea, lung cancer is a common cancer, and has the highest mortality rate in both males and females. Approximately 80% of lung cancer is due to smoking, and the remaining cases are known to be due to genetic factors, history of respiratory disease, infection, diet, and occupational and environmental factors. Since the occupational and environmental hazards may differ from region to region, the lung cancer risk may differ too. To identify this, we selected seven metropolitan cities, and compared occupational and environmental hazards...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Alexander P Keil, David B Richardson, Daniel Westreich, Kyle Steenland
BACKGROUND: Respiratory exposure to silica is associated with the risk of death due to malignant and non-malignant disease. 2.3 million U.S. workers are exposed to silica. Occupational exposure limits for silica are derived from a number of lines of evidence, including observational studies. Observational studies may be subject to healthy worker survivor bias, which could result in underestimates of silica's impact on worker mortality and, in turn, bias risk estimates for occupational exposure limits...
June 4, 2018: Epidemiology
Lewis Xiao, Anil Kookana, Robert McClure, Subash Heraganahally
Non-caseating granulomatous pulmonary conditions resembling sarcoidosis secondary to industrial/occupation exposure to magnetite iron ore dusts have been rarely documented in the literature. This is a case report of a 58-year-old blast crew member involved in iron ore/magnetite mining who presented with a 12-month history of chronic dry cough. High-resolution computed tomography revealed bilateral interstitial opacities. Lung biopsy demonstrated sarcoid-like granulomatous inflammation. Oral corticosteroid treatment improved the cough...
August 2018: Respirology Case Reports
David Shitrit, Yochai Adir, Avital Avriel, Daniel King, Gali Epstein Shochet, Alexander Guber, Sonia Schnaer, Michael Kassirer, Paul D Blanc, Amir Abramovich
BACKGROUND: Silicosis is an occupational lung disease resulting from inhalation of respirable crystalline silica. Recently, an international silicosis epidemic has been noted among artificial stone workers. OBJECTIVE: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is currently used for patients with unexplained lymphadenopathy. Since silicosis may present with prominent lymphadenopathy, the diagnostic yield of EBUS-TBNA in diagnosing silicosis was evaluated...
May 29, 2018: Lung
Elga Bandeira, Helena Oliveira, Johnatas D Silva, Rubem F S Menna-Barreto, Christina M Takyia, Jung S Suk, Kenneth W Witwer, Michael E Paulaitis, Justin Hanes, Patricia R M Rocco, Marcelo M Morales
BACKGROUND: Silicosis is an occupational disease that affects workers who inhale silica particles, leading to extensive lung fibrosis and ultimately causing respiratory failure. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been shown to exert therapeutic effects in lung diseases and represent an alternative treatment for silicosis. Recently, it has been suggested that similar effects can be achieved by the therapeutic use of extracellular vesicles (EVs) obtained from MSCs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adipose-tissue-derived MSCs (AD-MSCs) or their EVs in a model of silicosis...
May 29, 2018: Respiratory Research
Øyvind Omland, Harald William Meyer, Helle Lodberg Lauridsen, Jakob Hjort Bønløkke, David Lee Sherson
Asbestosis is interstitial lung fibrosis due to inhalation of asbestos fibres. Up to the ban of import in 1986, 0.7 mil tons had been used in Denmark. The diagnosis of asbestosis is a challenge because of long latency time and very few national occupational asbestos measurements. The cornerstone of exposure assessment is a thorough occupational history, investigation of asbestos content in products used, search for possible and relevant measurements of asbestos fibres in the air, and results of lung biopsies, if present...
May 28, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Arsalan Khaledifar, Morteza Hashemzadeh, Kamal Solati, Hosseion Poustchi, Valentina Bollati, Ali Ahmadi, Soleiman Kheiri, Keihan Ghatreh Samani, Mehdi Banitalebi, Morteza Sedehi, Reza Malekzadeh
BACKGROUND: Prospective cohort studies are considered ideal choices to study multiple outcomes and risk factors for Non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Our aim is to set-up the protocol and analyze risk factors, incidence rates, prevalence, trends, and the models of environmental and genetic determinants of NCDs and their outcomes as well as interaction among such determinants. METHODS: Shahrekord cohort study (SCS) that is a population-based prospective, study on a cohort consisting of people aged 35-70 years started in November 2015 in Iran...
May 25, 2018: BMC Public Health
Emanuela Dreassi
Lung cancer mortality in Tuscany (Italy) for males, from 1971 and 2010, is investigated. A hierarchical Bayesian model for space-time disease mapping is introduced. Such a model belongs to the class of shared random effect models and exploits the birth-cohort as the relevant time dimension. It allows for highlighting common and specific patterns of risk for each birth-cohort. The results show that different birth-cohorts exhibit quite different spatial patterns, even if the socioeconomic status is taken into account...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Yunting Zheng, Ying Ji, Hongbo Dong, Chun Chang
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have provided inconsistent findings on smoking among migrants, and very limited data exist on their second-hand smoke exposure. This study aims to investigate internal migrants' smoking prevalence, second-hand smoke exposure among non-smokers, and knowledge of the health hazards of smoking in 12 major migrant provinces in China in 2013. METHODS: Data from the 2013 Migrant Dynamics Monitoring Survey in China published by the National Commission of Health and Family Planning was used in this study...
May 24, 2018: BMC Public Health
Kirsty Meldrum, Sarah B Robertson, Isabella Römer, Tim Marczylo, Lareb S N Dean, Andrew Rogers, Timothy W Gant, Rachel Smith, Terry D Tetley, Martin O Leonard
BACKGROUND: Nanomaterial inhalation represents a potential hazard for respiratory conditions such as asthma. Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) have the ability to modify disease outcome but have not been investigated for their effect on models of asthma and inflammatory lung disease. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of CeO2 NPs in a house dust mite (HDM) induced murine model of asthma. RESULTS: Repeated intranasal instillation of CeO2 NPs in the presence of HDM caused the induction of a type II inflammatory response, characterised by increased bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophils, mast cells, total plasma IgE and goblet cell metaplasia...
May 23, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Taizou Hirano, Tadahisa Numakura, Hiroshi Moriyama, Ryoko Saito, Yutaka Shishikura, Jun Shiihara, Hisatoshi Sugiura, Masakazu Ichinose
BACKGROUND: Occupational lung diseases, such as pneumoconiosis, are one of the health problems of dental workers that have been receiving increasing interest. Pulmonary amyloidosis is a heterogenous group of diseases, and can be classified into primary (idiopathic) and secondary (associated with various inflammatory diseases, hereditary, or neoplastic). To date, the development of pulmonary amyloidosis in dental workers has not been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: A 58-year-old Japanese female presented with chest discomfort and low-grade fever that has persisted for 2 months...
May 22, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
H-J Woitowitz, X Baur
Although there is no dispute among independent scientists about the carcinogenic and fibrogenic effects of chrysotile, the asbestos industry has been continuously and successfully acting to cast doubts on its harm. Another approach including asbestos insurance entities is to refuse compensation by raising the bar and fight criminal prosecution for asbestos-related diseases by the help of paid scientists. A recent publication on asbestos fibre burden in human lungs fits well in this context. The claim that chrysotile fibres are biopersistent in human lung is not based on the data provided by these authors, and, additionally, exhibits serious inconsistencies and obvious mismeasurements and significant methodological problems...
May 18, 2018: Pneumologie
Ashley S Reynolds, Tanya H Pierre, Rebecca McCall, Ji Wu, Worlanyo E Gato
Tin dioxide nanofibers (SnDNFs) are small fibers that have many applications. Tin dioxide nanofibers can be used in cosmetics, solar cells, toxic gas release sensors, and air pollution control. To date there have been few studies on the cytotoxicity of SnDNFs. The goal of this research is to determine if electrospun SnDNFs are toxic in a lung cancer cell line (A549). Considering the nano-scale size of the fibers, they can easily be inhaled and enter the pulmonary system and cause toxic effects in the lung. Occupational exposure to SnDNFs has been linked to pulmonary disease, making the A549 cell line important in this study...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Dana Loomis, Neela Guha, Amy L Hall, Kurt Straif
The recognition of occupational carcinogens is important for primary prevention, compensation and surveillance of exposed workers, as well as identifying causes of cancer in the general population. This study updates previously published lists of known occupational carcinogens while providing additional information on cancer type, exposure scenarios and routes, and discussing trends in the identification of carcinogens over time. Data were extracted from International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs covering the years 1971-2017, using specific criteria to ensure occupational relevance and provide high confidence in the causality of observed exposure-disease associations...
May 16, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Metin Akgün, Begüm Ergan
Silicosis is an ancient but still life-threatening occupational lung disease because of its incurable nature. Although its risks are known in many occupational settings and effective control strategies are well established, new cases, even epidemics, continue to occur in different sectors of Turkey. Before taking action, defining the magnitude of the problem is essential. In this concise review, we aimed to present the current situation of silicosis in Turkey. According to the data available to date, silicosis continues to be a major health problem in different sectors...
April 2018: Turkish Thoracic Journal
Mehrdad Arjomandi, Siyang Zeng, Jeroen Geerts, Rachel K Stiner, Bruce Bos, Ian van Koeverden, Jason Keene, Brett Elicker, Paul D Blanc, Warren M Gold
Introduction: Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is associated with occult obstructive lung disease as evident by abnormal airflow indices representing small airway disease despite having preserved spirometry (normal forced expiratory volume in 1 s-to-forced vital capacity ratio, FEV1 /FVC). The significance of lung volumes that reflect air trapping in the presence of preserved spirometry is unclear. Methods: To investigate whether lung volumes representing air trapping could determine susceptibility to respiratory morbidity in people with SHS exposure but without spirometric chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, we examined a cohort of 256 subjects with prolonged occupational SHS exposure and preserved spirometry...
2018: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
Jessica M Mayeux, Gabriela M Escalante, Joseph M Christy, Rahul D Pawar, Dwight H Kono, Kenneth M Pollard
Epidemiological studies have confidently linked occupational crystalline silica exposure to autoimmunity, but pathogenic mechanisms and role of genetic predisposition remain poorly defined. Although studies of single inbred strains have yielded insights, understanding the relationships between lung pathology, silica-induced autoimmunity, and genetic predisposition will require examination of a broad spectrum of responses and susceptibilities. We defined the characteristics of silicosis and autoimmunity and their relationships using the genetically heterogeneous diversity outbred (DO) mouse population and determined the suitability of this model for investigating silica-induced autoimmunity...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Tapani Tuomi, Markku Linnainmaa, Sirpa Pennanen
To reduce the incidence of occupational diseases related to exposure to respirable silica at work, the main industries in the EU associated with respirable silica agreed on measures to improve working conditions through the application of good practices. These practices were included in “The Agreement on Workers Health Protection through the Good Handling and Use of Crystalline Silica and Products Containing it” (NEPSI agreement), signed in April 2006. In Finland, we have previously seen a decline in exposure to respirable quartz in relevant industries upon the treaty coming into effect, during the years 2006⁻2013...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Yu-Tong He, Ya-Chen Zhang, Gao-Feng Shi, Qi Wang, Qian Xu, Di Liang, Yu Du, Dao-Juan Li, Jing Jin, Bao-En Shan
OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary nodules have become common incidental findings with the widespread use of computed tomography (CT) technology. Such nodules have the potential to become early lung cancer lesions, so understanding more about factors that may be associated with them is important. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present work was based on a large prospective cohort comprising 32,438 participants in Hebei Province (China) between January 2014 and March 2016. Participants aged 40-75 years completed a questionnaire, underwent low-dose CT (LDCT), and were followed up to March 2017...
June 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
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