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Occupational lung disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906856/radiation-exposure-and-lung-disease-in-today-s-nuclear-world
#1
Steven D Deas, Nikhil Huprikar, Andrew Skabelund
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ionizing radiation poses important health risks. The per capita annual dose rate has increased in the United States and there is increasing concern for the risks posed by low-dose occupational exposure among workers in nuclear industries and healthcare. Recent nuclear accidents and concern for terrorism have heightened concern for catastrophic, high-dose ionizing radiation exposure. This review will highlight recent research into the risks to lung health posed by ionizing radiation exposure and into potential treatments...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895274/disease-severity-prediction-by-spirometry-in-adults-with-visceral-leishmaniasis-from-minas-gerais-brazil
#2
Isabel A Maia, Frank S Bezerra, André Luis Pereira de Albuquerque, Heitor F Andrade, Valdir S Amato
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is associated with interstitial pneumonitis according to histology and radiology reports. However, studies to address the functional impact on respiratory function in patients are lacking. We assessed pulmonary function using noninvasive spirometry in a cross-sectional study of hospitalized adult VL patients from Minas Gerais, Brazil, without unrelated lung conditions or acute infections. Lung conditions were graded as normal, restrictive, obstructive, or mixed patterns, according to Brazilian consensus standards for spirometry...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894297/pulmonary-hypertension-and-vascular-remodeling-in-mice-exposed-to-crystalline-silica
#3
Igor N Zelko, Jianxin Zhu, Jeffrey D Ritzenthaler, Jesse Roman
BACKGROUND: Occupational and environmental exposure to crystalline silica may lead to the development of silicosis, which is characterized by inflammation and progressive fibrosis. A substantial number of patients diagnosed with silicosis develop pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension associated with silicosis and with related restrictive lung diseases significantly reduces survival in affected subjects. An animal model of silicosis has been described previously however, the magnitude of vascular remodeling and hemodynamic effects of inhaled silica are largely unknown...
November 28, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875341/occupational-asthma-diagnostic-challenges-and-management-dilemmas
#4
Vrinda Trivedi, Dinesh R Apala, Vivek N Iyer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Work-related asthma encompasses both sensitizer-induced and irritant-induced occupational asthma as well as work-exacerbated asthma. This review summarizes current diagnostic and management strategies for occupational asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: Occupational asthma is the most common occupational lung disease in the industrialized world. Over 400 agents have been described to cause occupational asthma. Specific inhalation challenge is often considered the reference method for diagnosis of occupational asthma but specific inhalation challenge as well as other diagnostic tests all generate false positive or false negative results...
November 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867578/relationships-between-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-lung-cancer-biological-insights
#5
REVIEW
Esther Barreiro, Víctor Bustamante, Víctor Curull, Joaquim Gea, José Luis López-Campos, Xavier Muñoz
Lung cancer (LC) has become one of the leading causes of preventable death in the last few decades. Cigarette smoking (CS) stays as the main etiologic factor of LC despite that many other causes such as occupational exposures, air pollution, asbestos, or radiation have also been implicated. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which also represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries, exhibit a significantly greater risk of LC. The study of the underlying biological mechanisms that may predispose patients with chronic respiratory diseases to a higher incidence of LC has also gained much attention in the last few years...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853040/an-epidemiological-profile-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-community-based-study-in-delhi
#6
B Sinha, R Singla, R Chowdhury
BACKGROUND: Different definitions used for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) preclude getting reliable prevalence estimates. Study objective was to find the prevalence of COPD as per standard Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease definition, risk factors associated, and treatment seeking in adults >30 years. METHODOLOGY: Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Delhi, among 1200 adults, selected by systematic random sampling...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822340/stem-progenitor-cells-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-new-insights-for-clinical-applications
#7
REVIEW
Miruna Mihaela Micheu, Ana-Maria Rosca, Oana-Claudia Deleanu
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a widespread disorder, characterized by recurrent upper airway obstruction during sleep, mostly as a result of complete or partial pharyngeal obstruction. Due to the occurrence of frequent and regular hypoxic events, patients with OSAS are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, metabolic disorders, occupational errors, motor vehicle accidents and even death. Thus, OSAS has severe consequences and represents a significant economic burden. However, some of the consequences, as well as their costs can be reduced with appropriate detection and treatment...
October 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816692/il-6-a-central-acute-phase-mediator-as-an-early-biomarker-for-exposure-to-zinc-based-metal-fumes
#8
R Baumann, S Joraslafsky, A Markert, I Rack, S Davatgarbenam, V Kossack, B Gerhards, T Kraus, P Brand, M Gube
AIMS: Systemic C-reactive protein (CRP) increases 1day after short-term inhalation of welding fumes containing zinc and/or copper. The aim of the current study was to find further, possibly earlier systemic biomarkers after inhalation of different welding fumes containing zinc and traces of aluminum, with or without copper, as these metal combinations become more common in modern joining technology. METHODS: The study group consisted of 15 non-smoking male volunteers with healthy lung function data and without any occupational metal fume exposure...
December 12, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815873/single-cell-analysis-of-phagocytosis-phagosome-maturation-phagolysosomal-leakage-and-cell-death-following-exposure-of-macrophages-to-silica-particles
#9
Gaurav N Joshi, Renée M Gilberti, David A Knecht
Chronic inhalation of silica in various occupational settings results in the development of silicosis, a disease characterized by lung fibrosis. Uptake of silica particles by alveolar macrophages results in cell death and this is one of the contributing factors to the development of silicosis. We have characterized the uncoated or protein-coated (non-opsonized) and Fc receptor-mediated (antibody-opsonized) routes of silica phagocytosis and toxicity. Numerous microscopy techniques and fluorescent probes are outlined in this chapter to carefully measure particle uptake, by macrophages, phagosome maturation, phagosomal reactive oxygen species generation, phagolysosomal leakage, and cell death...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806115/leveraging-big-data-for-exploring-occupational-diseases-related-interest-at-the-level-of-scientific-community-media-coverage-and-novel-data-streams-the-example-of-silicosis-as-a-pilot-study
#10
Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Guglielmo Dini, Alessandra Toletone, Francesco Brigo, Paolo Durando
OBJECTIVE: Silicosis is an untreatable but preventable occupational disease, caused by exposure to silica. It can progressively evolve to lung impairment, respiratory failure and death, even after exposure has ceased. However, little is known about occupational diseases-related interest at the level of scientific community, media coverage and web behavior. This article aims at filling in this gap of knowledge, taking the silicosis as a case study. METHODS: We investigated silicosis-related web-activities using Google Trends (GT) for capturing the Internet behavior worldwide in the years 2004-2015...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799760/new-evidence-of-increased-risk-of-rhinitis-in-subjects-with-copd-a-longitudinal-population-study
#11
Joel Bergqvist, Anders Andersson, Anna-Carin Olin, Nicola Murgia, Linus Schiöler, Mogens Bove, Johan Hellgren
BACKGROUND: The aim of this population-based study was to investigate the risk of developing noninfectious rhinitis (NIR) in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a longitudinal population-based study comprising 3,612 randomly selected subjects from Gothenburg, Sweden, aged 25-75 years. Lung function was measured at baseline with spirometry and the included subjects answered a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775689/earthworm-extract-attenuates-silica-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-through-nrf2-dependent-mechanisms
#12
Jingjin Yang, Ting Wang, Yan Li, Wenxi Yao, Xiaoming Ji, Qiuyun Wu, Lei Han, Ruhui Han, Weiwen Yan, Jiali Yuan, Chunhui Ni
Silicosis is an occupational pulmonary fibrosis caused by inhalation of silica (SiO2) and there are no ideal drugs to treat this disease. Earthworm extract (EE), a natural nutrient, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-apoptosis effects. The purpose of the current study was to test the protective effects of EE against SiO2-induced pulmonary fibrosis and to explore the underlying mechanisms using both in vivo and in vitro models. We found that treatment with EE significantly reduced lung inflammation and fibrosis and improved lung structure and function in SiO2-instilled mice...
October 24, 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754970/markers-of-lipid-oxidative-damage-among-office-workers-exposed-intermittently-to-air-pollutants-including-nanotio2-particles
#13
Daniela Pelclova, Vladimir Zdimal, Petr Kacer, Martin Komarc, Zdenka Fenclova, Stepanka Vlckova, Nadezda Zikova, Jaroslav Schwarz, Otakar Makes, Tomas Navratil, Sergey Zakharov, Dhimiter Bello
Nanoscale titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2) is a commercially important nanomaterial used in numerous applications. Experimental studies with nanotitania have documented lung injury and inflammation, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity. Production workers in TiO2 manufacturing with a high proportion of nanoparticles and a mixture of other air pollutants, such as gases and organic aerosols, had increased markers of oxidative stress, including DNA and protein damage, as well as lipid peroxidation in their exhaled breath condensate (EBC) compared to unexposed controls...
October 18, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719977/imaging-of-occupational-lung-disease
#14
Jay Champlin, Rachael Edwards, Sudhakar Pipavath
Occupational lung diseases span a variety of pulmonary disorders caused by inhalation of dusts or chemical antigens in a vocational setting. Included in these are the classic mineral pneumoconioses of silicosis, coal worker's pneumoconiosis, and asbestos-related diseases as well as many immune-mediated and airway-centric diseases, and new and emerging disorders. Although some of these have characteristic imaging appearances, a multidisciplinary approach with focus on occupational exposure history is essential to proper diagnosis...
November 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699808/a-review-of-mortality-associated-with-elongate-mineral-particle-emp-exposure-in-occupational-epidemiology-studies-of-gold-talc-and-taconite-mining
#15
REVIEW
Jeffrey H Mandel, Bruce H Alexander, Gurumurthy Ramachandran
BACKGROUND: Mining of gold, taconite, and talc may involve exposure to elongate mineral particles (EMP). The involved EMPs are typically non-asbestiform, include dimensions that regulatory definitions exclude, and have been less studied. METHODS: A review of the literature was undertaken for this exposure and occupational epidemiological studies that occur in gold, talc, and taconite mining. RESULTS: Quantitative EMP exposure information in these industries is incomplete...
December 2016: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696281/exposure-potential-and-health-impacts-of-indium-and-gallium-metals-critical-to-emerging-electronics-and-energy-technologies
#16
REVIEW
Sarah Jane O White, James P Shine
The rapid growth of new electronics and energy technologies requires the use of rare elements of the periodic table. For many of these elements, little is known about their environmental behavior or human health impacts. This is true for indium and gallium, two technology critical elements. Increased environmental concentrations of both indium and gallium create the potential for increased environmental exposure, though little is known about the extent of this exposure. Evidence is mounting that indium and gallium can have substantial toxicity, including in occupational settings where indium lung disease has been recognized as a potentially fatal disease caused by the inhalation of indium particles...
December 2016: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660443/epigenetic-modulation-upon-exposure-of-lung-fibroblasts-to-tio2-and-zno-nanoparticles-alterations-in-dna-methylation
#17
Nayana A Patil, W N Gade, Deepti D Deobagkar
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) are promising candidates for numerous applications in consumer products. This will lead to increased human exposure, thus posing a threat to human health. Both these types of NPs have been studied for their cell toxicity, immunotoxicity, and genotoxicity. However, effects of these NPs on epigenetic modulations have not been studied. Epigenetics is an important link in the genotype and phenotype modulation and misregulation can often lead to lifestyle diseases...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660222/expression-of-peroxiredoxins-and-pulmonary-surfactant-protein-a-induced-by-silica-in-rat-lung-tissue
#18
Nan Liu, Ling Xue, Yi Guan, Qing Zhao Li, Fu Yuan Cao, Shu Lan Pang, Wei Jun Guan
Silicosis is one of the most serious occupational diseases in China and dates back to centuries ago. In this study, we successfully established a rat model of silicosis by intratracheal silica injection for 28 days and determined hydroxyproline levels to evaluate collagen metabolism in lung homogenates. Oxidative stress status was evaluated by detecting catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Expression levels of peroxiredoxins (Prx I and Prx VI) were detected by Western blotting. Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) levels in rat serum and lung tissue were analyzed by ELISA, and SP-A and Prx expression levels in lung tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry...
August 2016: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641337/ino80-is-required-for-oncogenic-transcription-and-tumor-growth-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#19
S Zhang, B Zhou, L Wang, P Li, B D Bennett, R Snyder, S Garantziotis, D C Fargo, A D Cox, L Chen, G Hu
Epigenetic regulators are attractive targets for the development of new cancer therapies. Among them, the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes control the chromatin architecture and have important roles in gene regulation. They are often found to be mutated and de-regulated in cancers, but how they influence the cancer gene expression program during cancer initiation and progression is not fully understood. Here we show that the INO80 chromatin remodeling complex is required for oncogenic transcription and tumor growth in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
September 19, 2016: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634166/motor-trajectories-from-birth-to-5-years-of-children-born-at-less-than-30-weeks-gestation-early-predictors-and-functional-implications-protocol-for-a-prospective-cohort-study
#20
Alicia J Spittle, Jennifer L McGinley, Deanne Thompson, Ross Clark, Tara L FitzGerald, Benjamin F Mentiplay, Katherine J Lee, Joy E Olsen, Alice Burnett, Karli Treyvaud, Elisha Josev, Bonnie Alexander, Claire E Kelly, Lex W Doyle, Peter J Anderson, Jeanie Ly Cheong
INTRODUCTION: Motor impairments are one of the most frequently reported adverse neurodevelopmental consequences in children born < 30 weeks' gestation. Up to 15% of children born at < 30 weeks have cerebral palsy and an additional 50% have mild to severe motor impairment at school age. The first 5 years of life are critical for the development of fundamental motor skills. These skills form the basis for more complex skills that are required to competently and confidently participate in schooling, sporting and recreational activities...
October 2016: Journal of Physiotherapy
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