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Hui Liu, Shilei Sang, Hui Wang, Xiyi Ren, Yumei Tan, Wei Chen, Zuoyi Liu, Yongxiang Liu
Aspergillus cristatus belongs to the homothallic fungal group that undergoes a sexual stage without asexual conidiation under hypotonic conditions, while hypertonic medium induces initiation of the asexual stage and completely blocks sexual development. However, the veA deletion mutant only produces conidia in hypotonic medium after a 24 h culture, but both asexual and sexual spores are observed after 72 h. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of how VeA regulates asexual and sexual spore development in A. cristatus , two dimensional electrophoresis combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time of flight mass spectrometry analysis were applied to identify 173 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) by comparing the agamotype (24 h) and teleomorph (72 h) with wild-type A...
May 17, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Anne K Dunn
Alternative oxidase (Aox) is a non-energy conserving respiratory oxidase found in certain eukaryotes and bacteria, whose role in physiology is not entirely clear. Using the genetically tractable bacterium Vibrio fischeri as a model organism, we have identified a role for Aox to reduce levels of stress in cells exposed to oxygen and nitric oxide (NO). In V. fischeri lacking the NO-detoxifying enzyme flavohemoglobin (Hmp), deletion of aox in cells grown in the presence of oxygen and NO results in alterations to the transcriptome that include increases in transcripts mapping to stress-related genes...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
G A Nagana Gowda
Coenzymes of cellular redox reactions and cellular energy, as well as antioxidants mediate biochemical reactions fundamental to the functioning of all living cells. Conventional analysis methods lack the opportunity to evaluate these important redox and energy coenzymes and antioxidants in a single step. Major coenzymes include redox coenzymes: NAD⁺ (oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), NADP⁺ (oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) and NADPH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate); energy coenzymes: ATP (adenosine triphosphate), ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and AMP (adenosine monophosphate); and antioxidants: GSSG (oxidized glutathione) and GSH (reduced glutathione)...
May 14, 2018: Metabolites
Edoardo Bertero, Christoph Maack
In heart failure, alterations of Na+ and Ca2+ handling, energetic deficit, and oxidative stress in cardiac myocytes are important pathophysiological hallmarks. Mitochondria are central to these processes because they are the main source for ATP, but also reactive oxygen species (ROS), and their function is critically controlled by Ca2+ During physiological variations of workload, mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake is required to match energy supply to demand but also to keep the antioxidative capacity in a reduced state to prevent excessive emission of ROS...
May 11, 2018: Circulation Research
M Benjamin Barth, Katja Buchwalder, Akito Y Kawahara, Xin Zhou, Shanlin Liu, Nicolas Krezdorn, Björn Rotter, Ralf Horres, Anna K Hundsdoerfer
Background: The European spurge hawkmoth, Hyles euphorbiae (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae), has been intensively studied as a model organism for insect chemical ecology, cold hardiness and evolution of species delineation. To understand species isolation mechanisms at a molecular level, this study aims at determining genetic factors underlying two adaptive ecological trait candidates, phorbol ester (TPA) detoxification and seasonal cold acclimation. Method: A draft transcriptome of H...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Yawei Chen, Tianwei Tan
In the biosynthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in baker´s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), ATP functions both as a precursor and a driving force. However, few published reports have dealt with the control of ATP concentration using genetic design. In this study we have adopted a new ATP regulation strategy in yeast for enhancing SAM biosynthesis, including altering NADH availability and regulating the oxygen supply. Different ATP regulation systems were designed based on the introduction of water-forming NADH oxidase, Vitreoscilla hemoglobin and phosphite dehydrogenase in combination with overexpression of the gene SAM2...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yu-Feng Zhao, Feng Jiang, Xiang-Yan Liang, Lan-Lan Wei, Yan-Yan Zhao, Qiong Ma, Yun-Sheng Hu, Xing-Li Su
Grifolic acid is a natural compound isolated from the fungus Albatrellus confluens. In the present study, we assessed the effects of grifolic acid on human osteosarcoma cells. We found that grifolic acid dose- and time-dependently induced cell death in the U-2 OS, MG-63, Saos-2, and 143B human osteosarcoma cell lines. Grifolic acid decreased osteosarcoma cell mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP production, and cellular NADH levels, but did not impact mitochondrial membrane potential in isolated mitochondria from human osteosarcoma cells...
April 25, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Abir U Igamberdiev, Robert D Hill
Ca2+ can be released from cell compartments to the cytosol during stress conditions. We discuss here the causes of Ca2+ release under conditions of ATP concentration decline that result in the suppression of ATPases and activation of calcium ion channels. The main signaling and metabolic consequences of Ca2+ release are considered for stressed plant cells. The signaling function includes generation and spreading of calcium waves, while the metabolic function results in the activation of particular enzymes and genes...
April 23, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Gefei Liu, Yali Qiao, Yanjiao Zhang, Cong Leng, Jiahui Sun, Hongyu Chen, Yan Zhang, Aili Li, Zhen Feng
This study aimed to evaluate the profiles of Streptococcus thermophilus nutrient requirements to guide the design of media for high cell density culturing. The growth kinetics, physiological state, and nutrient requirement profiles of S. thermophilus were analyzed in chemically defined media. The results showed that the intracellular ATP concentration, H+ -ATPase activity, NADH/NAD+ , and NH3 concentrations varied with intracellular pH. The nutrient components with the highest amounts required were Leu and Asp; ascorbic acid and p-amino benzoic acid; K+ and PO4 3- ; and guanine and uracil...
April 22, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Jian-Hua Zhang, Xin Zeng, Xu-Sheng Chen, Zhong-Gui Mao
The glucose-glycerol mixed carbon source remarkably reduced the batch fermentation time of ε-poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) production, leading to higher productivity of both biomass and ε-PL, which was of great significance in industrial microbial fermentation. Our previous study confirmed the positive influence of fast cell growth on the ε-PL biosynthesis, while the direct influence of mixed carbon source on ε-PL production was still unknown. In this work, chemostat culture was employed to study the capacity of ε-PL biosynthesis in different carbon sources at a same dilution rate of 0...
April 21, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Krisztina Mikulás, Péter Hermann, István Gera, Timea Komlódi, Gergő Horváth, Attila Ambrus, László Tretter
OBJECTIVES: Earlier studies demonstrated that dental resin monomers lower cellular viability and provoke oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation has a key role in triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) induced adverse reactions. In the present study the effects of TEGDMA on mitochondrial functions were investigated to identify a direct molecular target for cytotoxicity. METHODS: Mitochondria were isolated from guinea pig brain. The most important bioenergetic parameters, oxygen consumption, membrane potential (ΔΨm ), and ATP production were assessed...
April 16, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Adolf M Sandbichler, Bianca Jansen, Bettina A Peer, Monika Paulitsch, Bernd Pelster, Margit Egg
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Reduced oxygen availability, hypoxia, is frequently encountered by organisms, tissues and cells, in aquatic environments as well as in high altitude or under pathological conditions such as infarct, stroke or cancer. The hypoxic signaling pathway was found to be mutually intertwined with circadian timekeeping in vertebrates and, as reported recently, also in mammals. However, the impact of hypoxia on intracellular metabolic oscillations is still unknown. METHODS: For determination of metabolites we used Multilabel Reader based fluorescence and luminescence assays, circadian levels of Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 alpha and oxidized peroxiredoxins were semi quantified by Western blotting and ratiometric quantification of cytosolic and mitochondrial H2O2 was achieved with stable transfections of a redox sensitive green fluorescent protein sensor into zebrafish fibroblasts...
April 16, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Kenny A Bogaert, Sheeba S Manoharan-Basil, Emilie Perez, Raphael D Levine, Francoise Remacle, Claire Remacle
The usual cultivation mode of the green microalga Chlamydomonas is liquid medium and light. However, the microalga can also be grown on agar plates and in darkness. Our aim is to analyze and compare gene expression of cells cultivated in these different conditions. For that purpose, RNA-seq data are obtained from Chlamydomonas samples of two different labs grown in four environmental conditions (agar@light, agar@dark, liquid@light, liquid@dark). The RNA seq data are analyzed by surprisal analysis, which allows the simultaneous meta-analysis of all the samples...
2018: PloS One
Kanu Shil, Sudipta Pal
Background: Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], an environmental pollutant that originates mostly from anthropogenic sources, is a serious threat to human health. After entering into cells, Cr(VI) is capable of producing excessive free radicals and causing tissue damage. The present study aims to reveal the toxic manifestation of Cr(VI) on the metabolic activity of renal tissue. Methods: Male Swiss albino mice were treated orally with potassium dichromate (K2 Cr2 O7 ) at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight for a period of 30 days...
April 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
Jane A Armstrong, Nicole J Cash, Yulin Ouyang, Jack C Morton, Michael Chvanov, Diane Latawiec, Muhammad Awais, Alexei V Tepikin, Robert Sutton, David N Criddle
Mitochondrial dysfunction lies at the core of acute pancreatitis (AP). Diverse AP stimuli induce Ca2+ -dependent formation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), a solute channel modulated by cyclophilin D (CypD), whose formation causes ATP depletion and necrosis. Oxidative stress reportedly triggers MPTP formation and is elevated in clinical AP, but how reactive oxygen species influence cell death is unclear. Here, we assessed potential MPTP involvement in oxidant-induced effects on pancreatic acinar cell bioenergetics and fate...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
T O Ajiboye, E Skiebe, G Wilharm
Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is important in the regulation of bacterial iron metabolism and uptake of Fe from the environment. We evaluated the contribution of fur to the sensitivity and oxidative response of A. baumannii to antibiotics. Deletion of fur increased the sensitivity of A. baumannii AB5075 to colistin, gentamicin, rifampicin and tigecycline. Furthermore, activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in Δfur mutant decreased significantly compared to the parental strain. Conversely, •O2 - and H2 O2 accumulate in colistin, gentamicin, rifampicin or tigecycline-treated Δfur mutant compared to the parental strain...
March 31, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Jin-Lan Zhang, Gen-Hong Mao, Xiao-Hui Huang, Hong-Yang Chang, Yi Zheng, Xue Cao
The objective of this study was to explore the association of sperm mitochondrial ND2 (MT-ND2) gene variants with total fertilization failure (TFF). A retrospective comparative study of 246 cases of fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles or half-intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles in the Han Chinese population was performed from July 2011 to May 2017. A total of 59 cases undergoing TFF, and 187 control cases with normal fertilization (fertilization rates >50%) were included. The sperm mitochondrial genovariation was determined using nested sequencing...
March 26, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Oscar Gutiérrez-Sanz, Enrico Forbrig, Ana P Batista, Manuela M Pereira, Johannes Salewski, Maria A Mroginski, Robert Götz, Antonio L De Lacey, Jacek Kozuch, Ingo Zebger
Respiratory complex I (CpI) is a key player in the way organisms obtain energy, being an energy transducer, which couples nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)/quinone oxidoreduction with proton translocation by a mechanism that remains elusive so far. In this work, we monitored the function of CpI in a biomimetic, supported lipid membrane system assembled on a 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) self-assembled monolayer by surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy. 4-ATP serves not only as a linker molecule to a nanostructured gold surface but also as pH sensor, as indicated by concomitant density functional theory calculations...
May 22, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Diana Fang, Eduardo N Maldonado
Cancer metabolism is emerging as a chemotherapeutic target. Enhanced glycolysis and suppression of mitochondrial metabolism characterize the Warburg phenotype in cancer cells. The flux of respiratory substrates, ADP, and Pi into mitochondria and the release of mitochondrial ATP to the cytosol occur through voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) located in the mitochondrial outer membrane. Catabolism of respiratory substrates in the Krebs cycle generates NADH and FADH2 that enter the electron transport chain (ETC) to generate a proton motive force that maintains mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ) and is utilized to generate ATP...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Gosse B Overal, Bas Teusink, Frank J Bruggeman, Josephus Hulshof, Robert Planqué
Yeast glycolysis has been the focus of research for decades, yet a number of dynamical aspects of yeast glycolysis remain poorly understood at present. If nutrients are scarce, yeast will provide its catabolic and energetic needs with other pathways, but the enzymes catalysing upper glycolytic fluxes are still expressed. We conjecture that this overexpression facilitates the rapid transition to glycolysis in case of a sudden increase in nutrient concentration. However, if starved yeast is presented with abundant glucose, it can enter into an imbalanced state where glycolytic intermediates keep accumulating, leading to arrested growth and cell death...
May 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
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