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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731563/improving-fructose-utilization-and-butanol-production-by-clostridium-acetobutylicum-via-extracellular-redox-potential-regulation-and-intracellular-metabolite-analysis
#1
Li-Jie Chen, You-Duo Wu, Chuang Xue, Feng-Wu Bai
Jerusalem artichoke (JA) can grow well in marginal lands with high biomass yield, and thus is a potential energy crop for biorefinery. The major biomass of JA is from tubers, which contain inulin that can be easily hydrolyzed into a mixture of fructose and glucose, but fructose utilization for producing butanol as an advanced biofuel is poor compared to glucose-based ABE fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. In this article, the impact of extracellular redox potential (ORP) on the process was studied using a mixture of fructose and glucose to simulate the hydrolysate of JA tubers...
July 21, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718701/occludin-regulates-glucose-uptake-and-atp-production-in-pericytes-by-influencing-amp-activated-protein-kinase-activity
#2
Victor Castro, Marta Skowronska, Jorge Lombardi, Jane He, Neil Seth, Martina Velichkovska, Michal Toborek
Energetic regulation at the blood-brain barrier is critical for maintaining its integrity, transport capabilities, and brain demands for glucose. However, the underlying mechanisms that regulate these processes are still poorly explored. We recently characterized the protein occludin as a NADH oxidase and demonstrated its influence on the expression and activation of the histone deacetylase SIRT-1. Because SIRT-1 works in concert with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) (AMPK), we investigated the impact of occludin on this metabolic switch...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715469/cofactor-engineering-improved-calb-production-in-pichia-pastoris-through-heterologous-expression-of-nadh-oxidase-and-adenylate-kinase
#3
Charumathi Jayachandran, Balakumaran Palanisamy Athiyaman, Meenakshisundaram Sankaranarayanan
The cofactor engineering strategy can relieve the metabolic stress induced by expression of recombinant protein in cellular metabolism related to cofactor and energy reactions. To study the effect of cofactor regeneration on recombinant protein expression, NADH oxidase (noxE) was engineered in P. pastoris expressing lipase B (GSCALB). Expression of noxE in P. pastoris (GSCALBNOX) increased NAD+ levels by 85% with a concomitant reduction in NADH/NAD+ ratio of 67% compared to GSCALB. The change in the redox level positively influenced the methanol uptake rate and made 34% augment in CALB activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714949/aspartate-%C3%AE-hydroxylase-disrupts-mitochondrial-dna-stability-and-function-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#4
C Tang, Y Hou, H Wang, K Wang, H Xiang, X Wan, Y Xia, J Li, W Wei, S Xu, Z Lei, T M Pawlik, H Wang, M Wu, F Shen
The mechanism of aberrant mitochondrial genome and function in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains largely unknown. Our previous study demonstrated an increased expression of aspartate β-hydroxylase (ASPH) in HCC tissues, which was associated with tumor invasiveness and a worse prognosis. Currently, we unexpectedly observed the presence of ASPH in purified mitochondrial protein fraction. In addition, immunostaining of both exogenously and endogenously expressed ASPH showed a colocalization with mitochondrial biomarkers...
July 17, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704608/the-electron-bifurcating-fixabcx-protein-complex-from-azotobacter-vinelandii-generation-of-low-potential-reducing-equivalents-for-nitrogenase-catalysis
#5
Rhesa Ledbetter, Amaya M Garcia-Costas, Carolyn E Lubner, David W Mulder, Monika Tokmina-Lukaszewska, Jacob H Artz, Angela Patterson, Timothy Magnuson, Zackary J Jay, H Diessel Duan, Jacquelyn Miller, Mary H Plunkett, John P Hoben, Brett M Barney, Ross P Carlson, Anne-Frances Miller, Brian Bothner, Paul W King, John W Peters, Lance C Seefeldt
The biological reduction of dinitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3) by nitrogenase is an energetically demanding reaction that requires low-potential electrons and ATP; however, pathways used to deliver the electrons from central metabolism to the reductants of nitrogenase, ferredoxin or flavodoxin, remain unknown for many diazotrophic microbes. The FixABCX protein complex has been proposed to reduce flavodoxin or ferredoxin using NADH as the electron donor in a process known as electron bifurcation. Herein, the FixABCX complex from Azotobacter vinelandii was purified and demonstrated to catalyze an electron bifurcation reaction: oxidation of NADH (Em= -320 mV) coupled to reduction of flavodoxin semiquinone (Em= -460 mV) and reduction of coenzyme Q (Em= +10 mV)...
July 13, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655753/the-thermodynamic-basis-of-glucose-stimulated-insulin-release-a-model-of-the-core-mechanism
#6
David F Wilson, Abigail T J Cember, Franz M Matschinsky
A model for glucose sensing by pancreatic β-cells is developed and compared with the available experimental data. The model brings together mathematical representations for the activities of the glucose sensor, glucokinase, and oxidative phosphorylation. Glucokinase produces glucose 6-phosphate (G-6-P) in an irreversible reaction that determines glycolytic flux. The primary products of glycolysis are NADH and pyruvate. The NADH is reoxidized and the reducing equivalents transferred to oxidative phosphorylation by the glycerol phosphate shuttle, and some of the pyruvate is oxidized by pyruvate dehydrogenase and enters the citric acid cycle...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642839/the-mitochondrial-complex-i-ty-of-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Félix A Urra, Felipe Muñoz, Alenka Lovy, César Cárdenas
Recent evidence highlights that the cancer cell energy requirements vary greatly from normal cells and that cancer cells exhibit different metabolic phenotypes with variable participation of both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) is the largest complex of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and contributes about 40% of the proton motive force required for mitochondrial ATP synthesis. In addition, Complex I plays an essential role in biosynthesis and redox control during proliferation, resistance to cell death, and metastasis of cancer cells...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631845/mild-metabolic-perturbations-alter-succinylation-of-mitochondrial-proteins
#8
Huanlian Chen, Hui Xu, Samuel Potash, Anatoly Starkov, Vsevolod V Belousov, Dmitry S Bilan, Travis T Denton, Gary E Gibson
Succinylation of proteins is widespread, modifies both the charge and size of the molecules, and can alter their function. For example, liver mitochondrial proteins have 1,190 unique succinylation sites representing multiple metabolic pathways. Succinylation is sensitive to both increases and decreases of the NAD(+) -dependent desuccinylase, SIRT5. Although the succinyl group for succinylation is derived from metabolism, the effects of systematic variation of metabolism on mitochondrial succinylation are not known...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615457/deconvoluting-amp-dependent-kinase-ampk-adenine-nucleotide-binding-and-sensing
#9
Xin Gu, Yan Yan, Scott J Novick, Amanda Kovich, Devrishi Goswami, Jiyuan Ke, M H Eileen Tan, Lili Wang, Xiaodan Li, Parker de Waal, Martin R Webb, Patrick R Griffin, H Eric Xu, Karsten Melcher
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central cellular energy sensor that adapts metabolism and growth to the energy state of the cell. AMPK senses the ratio of adenine nucleotides (adenylate energy charge) by competitive binding of AMP, ADP, and ATP to three sites (CBS1, CBS3, and CBS4) in its γ-subunit. Since these three binding sites are functionally interconnected, it remains unclear how nucleotides bind to individual sites, which nucleotides occupy each site under physiological conditions, and how binding to one site affects binding to the other sites...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605655/aluminum-chloride-caused-liver-dysfunction-and-mitochondrial-energy-metabolism-disorder-in-rat
#10
Feibo Xu, Yanfen Liu, Hansong Zhao, Kaiyuan Yu, Miao Song, Yanzhu Zhu, Yanfei Li
Aluminum (Al) is known to exert hepatotoxicity. However, the mechanisms mostly are unclear. Liver is a metabolism organ that maintains the energy level and structural stability of body, mitochondria are the main sites of energy metabolism, thus, we hypothesized that mitochondrial energy metabolism disorder contributes to liver dysfunction in aluminum chloride (AlCl3) treatment rat. To verify the hypothesis, forty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated and orally exposed to 0, 64mg/kg, 128mg/kg and 256mg/kg body weight AlCl3 in drinking water for 120days, respectively...
September 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601083/disruption-of-functional-activity-of-mitochondria-during-mtt-assay-of-viability-of-cultured-neurons
#11
A M Surin, R R Sharipov, I A Krasil'nikova, D P Boyarkin, O Yu Lisina, L R Gorbacheva, A V Avetisyan, V G Pinelis
The MTT assay based on the reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium in the cell cytoplasm to a strongly light absorbing formazan is among the most commonly used methods for determination of cell viability and activity of NAD-dependent oxidoreductases. In the present study, the effects of MTT (0.1 mg/ml) on mitochondrial potential (ΔΨm), intracellular NADH, and respiration of cultured rat cerebellum neurons and isolated rat liver mitochondria were investigated. MTT caused rapid quenching of NADH autofluorescence, fluorescence of MitoTracker Green (MTG) and ΔΨm-sensitive probes Rh123 (rhodamine 123) and TMRM (tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester)...
June 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582861/post-translational-oxidative-modifications-of-mitochondrial-complex-i-nadh-ubiquinone-oxidoreductase-implications-for-pathogenesis-and-therapeutics-in-human-diseases
#12
M M Srinivas Bharath
Mitochondrial complex I (NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase; CI) is central to the electron transfer chain (ETC), oxidative phosphorylation, and ATP production in eukaryotes. CI is a multi-subunit complex with a complicated yet organized structure that optimally connects electron transfer with proton translocation and forms higher-order supercomplexes with other ETC complexes. Efforts to understand the molecular genetics, expression profile of subunits, and structure-function relationship of CI have increased over the years due to the direct role of the complex in human diseases...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580284/nnt-reverse-mode-of-operation-mediates-glucose-control-of-mitochondrial-nadph-and-glutathione-redox-state-in-mouse-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#13
Laila R B Santos, Carole Muller, Arnaldo H de Souza, Hilton K Takahashi, Peter Spégel, Ian R Sweet, Heeyoung Chae, Hindrik Mulder, Jean-Christophe Jonas
OBJECTIVE: The glucose stimulation of insulin secretion (GSIS) by pancreatic β-cells critically depends on increased production of metabolic coupling factors, including NADPH. Nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) typically produces NADPH at the expense of NADH and ΔpH in energized mitochondria. Its spontaneous inactivation in C57BL/6J mice was previously shown to alter ATP production, Ca(2+) influx, and GSIS, thereby leading to glucose intolerance. Here, we tested the role of NNT in the glucose regulation of mitochondrial NADPH and glutathione redox state and reinvestigated its role in GSIS coupling events in mouse pancreatic islets...
June 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553620/comparative-genomics-of-mycoplasma-bovis-strains-reveals-that-decreased-virulence-with-increasing-passages-might-correlate-with-potential-virulence-related-factors
#14
Muhammad A Rasheed, Jingjing Qi, Xifang Zhu, He Chenfei, Harish Menghwar, Farhan A Khan, Gang Zhao, Muhammad Zubair, Changmin Hu, Yingyu Chen, Huanchun Chen, Aizhen Guo
Mycoplasma bovis is an important cause of bovine respiratory disease worldwide. To understand its virulence mechanisms, we sequenced three attenuated M. bovis strains, P115, P150, and P180, which were passaged in vitro 115, 150, and 180 times, respectively, and exhibited progressively decreasing virulence. Comparative genomics was performed among the wild-type M. bovis HB0801 (P1) strain and the P115, P150, and P180 strains, and one 14.2-kb deleted region covering 14 genes was detected in the passaged strains...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512016/mechanism-of-action-of-amp-jsa9-a-li-f-type-antimicrobial-peptide-produced-by-paenibacillus-polymyxa-jsa-9-against-fusarium-moniliforme
#15
Jinzhi Han, Fang Wang, Peng Gao, Zhi Ma, Shengming Zhao, Zhaoxin Lu, Fengxia Lv, Xiaomei Bie
LI-F type peptides (AMP-jsa9) are a group of cyclic lipodepsipeptides that exhibit broad antimicrobial spectrum against Gram-positive bacteria and filamentous fungi. We sought to assess the toxicity of AMP-jsa9 and the mechanism of AMP-jsa9 action against Fusarium moniliforme. AMP-jsa9 exhibited weak hemolytic activity and weak cytotoxicity at antimicrobial concentrations (32μg/ml). Confocal laser microscopy, SEM, and TEM indicated that AMP-jsa9 primarily targets the cell wall, plasma membrane, and cytoskeleton, increases membranepermeability, and enhances cytoplasm leakage (e...
May 13, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503408/trifluoperazine-inhibits-acetaminophen-induced-hepatotoxicity-and-hepatic-reactive-nitrogen-formation-in-mice-and-in-freshly-isolated-hepatocytes
#16
Sudip Banerjee, Stepan B Melnyk, Kimberly J Krager, Nukhet Aykin-Burns, Sandra S McCullough, Laura P James, Jack A Hinson
The hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen (APAP) occurs by initial metabolism to N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine which depletes GSH and forms APAP-protein adducts. Subsequently, the reactive nitrogen species peroxynitrite is formed from nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide leading to 3-nitrotyrosine in proteins. Toxicity occurs with inhibited mitochondrial function. We previously reported that in hepatocytes the nNOS (NOS1) inhibitor NANT inhibited APAP toxicity, reactive nitrogen and oxygen species formation, and mitochondrial dysfunction...
2017: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472892/type-ii-nadh-dehydrogenase-ndh-2-a-promising-therapeutic-target-for-antitubercular-and-antibacterial-drug-discovery
#17
REVIEW
Satheeshkumar Sellamuthu, Meenakshi Singh, Ashok Kumar, Sushil Kumar Singh
Tuberculosis (TB) is highly dangerous due to the development of resistance to first-line drugs. Moreover, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has also developed resistance to newly approved antitubercular drug bedaquiline. This necessitates the search for drugs acting on newer molecular targets. The energy metabolism of mycobacteria is the prime focus for the discovery of novel antitubercular drugs. Targeting type-2 NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-2) involved in the production of respiratory ATP could, therefore, be effective in treating the disease...
June 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461090/nad-dependent-deacetylase-sirtuin-5-rescues-the-innate-inflammatory-response-of-endotoxin-tolerant-macrophages-by-promoting-acetylation-of-p65
#18
Kewei Qin, Chaofeng Han, Hua Zhang, Tianliang Li, Nan Li, Xuetao Cao
The induction and persistence of a hypo-inflammatory and immunosuppressive state in severe sepsis is commonly associated with increased risks of secondary infections and mortality. Toll-like receptor (TLR)-triggered inflammatory response of macrophages/monocytes plays an important role in determining the outcome of hyper-inflammation during the acute phase and the hypo-inflammation during immunosuppressive phase of sepsis. However, the mechanisms for controlling hypo-inflammatory response in endotoxin tolerant macrophages remain to be fully understood...
July 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450002/energy-status-regulates-disease-development-and-respiratory-metabolism-of-lasiodiplodia-theobromae-pat-griff-maubl-infected-longan-fruit
#19
Shen Zhang, Hetong Lin, Yifen Lin, Yixiong Lin, Yen-Con Hung, Yihui Chen, Hui Wang, John Shi
Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Pat.) Griff. & Maubl. is a major pathogen causing decay of harvested longan fruit. The roles of energy status regulated by 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in disease development regarding respiratory metabolism of L. theobromae-inoculated "Fuyan" longan fruit were studied. Compared with L. theobromae-inoculated longans, DNP treatment could promote the index of fruit disease, accelerate the decrease in energy charge, increase respiration rate and the activities of respiratory terminal oxidases like CCO, AAO and PPO, elevate contents of NAD and NADH, but decrease NAD kinase activity, as well as contents of NADP and NADPH; however, exogenous ATP supply acted contrarily...
September 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429857/ndufa4l2-protects-against-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-by-inhibiting-complex-i
#20
Jianhua Li, Caiyan Bai, Junxia Guo, Wanqian Liang, Jingning Long
Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury may cause the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes as well as mitochondrial dysfunction. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether NADH dehydrogenase 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 4-like 2 (NDUFA4L2) on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and the underlying molecular mechanism. The hypoxia-reperfusion (H/R) model was established in vitro using H9c2 cells to simulate I/R injury. NDUFA4L2 and complex I expression levels were detected using RT-PCR and western blot...
April 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
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