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Haitao Yu, Dian Wang, Liangyu Zou, Zaijun Zhang, Hua Xu, Feiqi Zhu, Xiaohu Ren, Benhong Xu, Jianhui Yuan, Jianjun Liu, Peter S Spencer, Xifei Yang
Excessive copper intake can lead to neurotoxicity, but there is a lack of comprehensive understanding on the potential impact of copper exposure especially at a low-dose on brain. We used 3xTg-AD mice to explore the potential neurotoxicity of chronic, low-dose copper treatment (0.13 ppm copper chloride in drinking water) on behavior and the brain hippocampal mitochondrial and nuclear proteome. Low-dose copper increased the spatial memory impairment of these animals, increased accumulation of intracellular amyloid 1-42 (Aβ1-42), decreased ATP content, increased the positive staining of 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of DNA oxidative damage, and caused apoptosis and a decrease in synaptic proteins...
January 30, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Koji Kido, Hiroyuki Ito, Yudai Yamamoto, Koshi Makita, Tokujiro Uchida
PURPOSE: Propofol infusion syndrome (PRIS) is a lethal condition caused by propofol overdose. Previous studies suggest that pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PRIS involve mitochondrial dysfunction; however, these mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to establish an experimental model of propofol-induced cytotoxicity using cultured human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes to determine the mechanisms behind propofol-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, and to evaluate the protective effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)...
February 2018: Journal of Anesthesia
Yongqiang Zhu, Lidan Ye, Zhaofeng Chen, Weijiang Hu, Yanghui Shi, Jianbo Chen, Chenfei Wang, Yong Li, Weifeng Li, Hongwei Yu
The physiological role of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) as an electron carrier suggests its association with redox potential. Overexpression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase type I (gapA-1) in Rhodobacter sphaeroides elevated the NADH/NAD(+) ratio and meanwhile enhanced the CoQ10 content by 58%, but at the sacrifice of biomass. On the other hand, Vitreoscilla hemoglobin was heterologously expressed to enhance the oxygen uptake ability of the cells, leading to 127% improvement of biomass. Subsequent coexpression of gapA-1 and vgb resulted in a CoQ10 titer of 83...
June 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Christian Bergamini, Noah Moruzzi, Francesco Volta, Laura Faccioli, Jantje Gerdes, Maria Cristina Mondardini, Romana Fato
Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is an anaesthetic widely used for human sedation. Due to its intrinsic antioxidant properties, rapid induction of anaesthesia and fast recovery, it is employed in paediatric anaesthesia and in the intensive care of premature infants. Recent studies have pointed out that exposure to anaesthesia in the early stage of life might be responsible of long-lasting cognitive impairment. The apoptotic neurodegeneration induced by general anaesthetics (GA) involves mitochondrial impairment due to the inhibition of the OXPHOS machinery...
August 2016: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
Mario Contin, Pablo Bonelli, Silvia Lucangioli, Ana Cukierman, Valeria Tripodi
Molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (MIPNPs) with the ability to recognize coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) were synthesised in order to be employed as sorbent in a dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (DMSPE) for the determination of CoQ10 in a liver extract. CoQ10 is a redox-active, lipophilic substance integrated in the mitochondrial respiratory chain which acts as an electron carrier, shuttling electrons from complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) and II (succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) to complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase), for the production of cellular energy...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Jesus Castro-Marrero, Naia Sáez-Francàs, María Jose Segundo, Natalia Calvo, Mónica Faro, Luisa Aliste, Tomás Fernández de Sevilla, Jose Alegre
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is a complex condition, characterized by severe disabling fatigue with no known cause, no established diagnostic tests, and no universally effective treatment. Several studies have proposed symptomatic treatment with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) supplementation. The primary endpoint was to assess the effect of CoQ10 plus NADH supplementation on age-predicted maximum heart rate (max HR) during a cycle ergometer test...
August 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Moon Hee Jeong, Jin Hwan Kim, Kang-Sik Seo, Tae Hwan Kwak, Woo Jin Park
Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is a mitochondrial disease caused by mutations in the mitochondrial genome. This study investigated the efficacy of β-lapachone (β-lap), a natural quinone compound, in rescuing mitochondrial dysfunction in MELAS cybrid cells. β-Lap significantly restored energy production and mitochondrial membrane potential as well as normalized the elevated ROS level in MELAS cybrid cells. Additionally, β-lap reduced lactic acidosis and restored glucose uptake in the MELAS cybrid cells...
November 21, 2014: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jesús Castro-Marrero, Mario D Cordero, María José Segundo, Naia Sáez-Francàs, Natalia Calvo, Lourdes Román-Malo, Luisa Aliste, Tomás Fernández de Sevilla, José Alegre
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a chronic and extremely debilitating illness characterized by prolonged fatigue and multiple symptoms with unknown cause, diagnostic test, or universally effective treatment. Inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and CoQ10 deficiency have been well documented in CFS. We conducted an 8-week, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the benefits of oral CoQ10 (200 mg/day) plus NADH (20 mg/day) supplementation on fatigue and biochemical parameters in 73 Spanish CFS patients...
March 10, 2015: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Rajat Sandhir, Neha Sethi, Aanchal Aggarwal, Alka Khera
The mechanisms associated with cognitive decline in post-menopausal state driven by loss of ovarian function and reduced estrogen levels are not well understood. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of mitochondrial dysfunctions in cognitive impairment in post-menopausal state and to evaluate the protective effect of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). A significant decline in cognitive functions was observed in mice after four weeks of ovariectomy as assessed by morris water maze and elevated plus maze...
July 2014: Neurochemistry International
Garth L Nicolson
Loss of function in mitochondria, the key organelle responsible for cellular energy production, can result in the excess fatigue and other symptoms that are common complaints in almost every chronic disease. At the molecular level, a reduction in mitochondrial function occurs as a result of the following changes: (1) a loss of maintenance of the electrical and chemical transmembrane potential of the inner mitochondrial membrane, (2) alterations in the function of the electron transport chain, or (3) a reduction in the transport of critical metabolites into mitochondria...
2014: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
Garth L Nicolson
Loss of function in mitochondria, the key organelle responsible for cellular energy production, can result in the excess fatigue and other symptoms that are common complaints in almost every chronic disease. At the molecular level, a reduction in mitochondrial function occurs as a result of the following changes: (1) a loss of maintenance of the electrical and chemical transmembrane potential of the inner mitochondrial membrane, (2) alterations in the function of the electron transport chain, or (3) a reduction in the transport of critical metabolites into mitochondria...
August 15, 2013: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
G López-Lluch, M Rios, M A Lane, P Navas, R de Cabo
Caloric restriction (CR) is known as the only non-genetic method proven to slow the rate of aging and extend lifespan in animals. Free radicals production emerges from normal metabolic activity and generates the accumulation of oxidized macromolecules, one of the main characteristics of aging. Due to its central role in cell bioenergetics, a great interest has been paid to CR-induced modifications in mitochondria, where CR has been suggested to decrease reactive oxygen species production. The plasma membrane contains a trans-membrane redox system (PMRS) that provides electrons to recycle lipophilic antioxidants, such as α-tocopherol and coenzyme Q (CoQ), and to modulate cytosolic redox homeostasis...
June 2005: Age (2005-)
Fernando Gomes, Erich B Tahara, Cleverson Busso, Alicia J Kowaltowski, Mario H Barros
Saccharomyces cerevisiae has three distinct inner mitochondrial membrane NADH dehydrogenases mediating the transfer of electrons from NADH to CoQ (coenzyme Q): Nde1p, Nde2p and Ndi1p. The active site of Ndi1p faces the matrix side, whereas the enzymatic activities of Nde1p and Nde2p are restricted to the intermembrane space side, where they are responsible for cytosolic NADH oxidation. In the present study we genetically manipulated yeast strains in order to alter the redox state of CoQ and NADH dehydrogenases to evaluate the consequences on mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) maintenance...
February 1, 2013: Biochemical Journal
Nina Mikirova, Joseph Casciari, Ronald Hunninghake
CONTEXT: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating fatigue illness that has unknown etiology and lacks an objective diagnostic marker. OBJECTIVE: To examine the metabolic component of CFS to determine if practitioners can use serum NAD(P)H concentration measurements to monitor metabolism and fatigue status in patients with CFS. DESIGN: The research team conducted a case-control study, comparing a group of patients who were diagnosed with CFS with a control group of healthy subjects...
January 2012: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
Makoto Kawamukai
CoQ (coenzyme Q), an isoprenylated benzoquinone, is a well-known component of the electron-transfer system in eukaryotes. The main role of CoQ is to transfer electrons from NADH dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase to CoQ:cytochrome c reductase in the respiratory chain. However, recent evidence indicates that an involvement in respiration is not the only role of CoQ. The second apparent role of CoQ is its anti-oxidation property, and other novel roles for CoQ, such as in disulfide-bond formation, sulfide oxidation and pyrimidine metabolism, have been reported...
August 2009: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Dorothy M Morré, D James Morré, Wingfield Rehmus, Dale Kern
Our work has identified an aging-related ECTO-NOX activity (arNOX), a hydroquinone oxidase which is cell surface located and generates superoxide. This activity increases with increasing age beginning >30 y. Because of its cell surface location and ability to generate superoxide, the arNOX proteins may serve to propagate an aging cascade both to adjacent cells and to oxidize circulating lipoproteins as significant factors determining atherogenic risk. The generation of superoxide by arNOX proteins is inhibited by Coenzyme Q10 as one basis for an anti-aging benefit of CoQ10 supplementation in human subjects...
2008: BioFactors
Takayuki Takahashi, Masaaki Okuno, Tadashi Okamoto, Takeo Kishi
We purified an NADPH-dependent coenzyme Q reductase (NADPH-CoQ reductase) in rat liver cytosol and compared its enzymatic properties with those of the other CoQ10 reductases such as NADPH: quinone acceptor oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), lipoamide dehydrogenase, thioredoxine reductase and glutathione reductase. NADPH-CoQ reductase was the only enzyme that preferred NADPH to NADH as an electron donor and was also different from the other CoQ10 reductases in the sensitivities to its inhibitors and stimulators. Especially, Zn2+ was the most powerful inhibitor for NADPH-CoQ reductase, but CoQ10 reduction by the other CoQ10 reductases could not be inhibited by Zn2+...
2008: BioFactors
Tomoko Ohnishi, S Tsuyoshi Ohnishi, Kyoko Shinzawa-Ito, Shinya Yoshikawa
Coenzyme Q10 (which is also designated as CoQ10, ubiquinone-10, UQ10, CoQ, UQ or simply as Q) plays an important role in energy metabolism. For NADH-Q oxidoreductase (complex I), Ohnishi and Salerno proposed a hypothesis that the proton pump is operated by the redox-driven conformational change of a Q-binding protein, and that the bound form of semiquinone (SQ) serves as its gate [FEBS Letters 579 (2005) 45-55]. This was based on the following experimental results: (i) EPR signals of the fast-relaxing SQ anion (designated as QNf(...
2008: BioFactors
Parris M Kidd
Degenerative brain disorders (neurodegeneration) can be frustrating for both conventional and alternative practitioners. A more comprehensive, integrative approach is urgently needed. One emerging focus for intervention is brain energetics. Specifically, mitochondrial insufficiency contributes to the etiopathology of many such disorders. Electron leakages inherent to mitochondrial energetics generate reactive oxygen free radical species that may place the ultimate limit on lifespan. Exogenous toxins, such as mercury and other environmental contaminants, exacerbate mitochondrial electron leakage, hastening their demise and that of their host cells...
December 2005: Alternative Medicine Review: a Journal of Clinical Therapeutic
A L Geng, Y M Guo
1. One hundred and sixty 1-d-old Arbor Acre male broiler chicks were fed with maize-soybean based diets for 6 weeks in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment. The factors were CoQ10 supplementation (0 or 40 mg/kg) and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge (LPS or saline). 2. CoQ10 was supplemented from d 1. From d 18, the chickens received three weekly i.p. injections of LPS (1.0 mg/kg BW) or an equivalent amount of sterile saline as control. From d 10 on, all chickens were exposed to low ambient temperature (12 to 15 degrees C) to induce ascites...
October 2005: British Poultry Science
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