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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436820/srna-mediated-activation-of-gene-expression-by-inhibition-of-5-3-exonucleolytic-mrna-degradation
#1
Sylvain Durand, Frédérique Braun, Anne-Catherine Helfer, Pascale Romby, Ciarán Condon
Post-transcriptional control by small regulatory RNA (sRNA) is critical for rapid adaptive processes. sRNAs can directly modulate mRNA degradation in Proteobacteria without interfering with translation. However, Firmicutes have a fundamentally different set of ribonucleases for mRNA degradation and whether sRNAs can regulate the activity of these enzymes is an open question. We show that Bacillus subtilis RoxS, a major trans-acting sRNA shared with Staphylococus aureus, prevents degradation of the yflS mRNA, encoding a malate transporter...
April 24, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433189/synergic-regulation-of-redox-potential-and-oxygen-uptake-to-enhance-production-of-coenzyme-q10-in-rhodobacter-sphaeroides
#2
Yongqiang Zhu, Lidan Ye, Zhaofeng Chen, Weijiang Hu, Yanghui Shi, Jianbo Chen, Chenfei Wang, Yong Li, Weifeng Li, Hongwei Yu
The physiological role of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) as an electron carrier suggests its association with redox potential. Overexpression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase type I (gapA-1) in Rhodobacter sphaeroides elevated the NADH/NAD(+) ratio and meanwhile enhanced the CoQ10 content by 58%, but at the sacrifice of biomass. On the other hand, Vitreoscilla hemoglobin was heterologously expressed to enhance the oxygen uptake ability of the cells, leading to 127% improvement of biomass. Subsequent coexpression of gapA-1 and vgb resulted in a CoQ10 titer of 83...
June 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424540/mc-ppea-as-a-new-and-more-potent-inhibitor-of-clp-induced-sepsis-and-pulmonary-inflammation-than-fk866
#3
Peixin Huang, Mark W Lee, Keivan Sadrerafi, Daniel P Heruth, Li Q Zhang, Dev Maulik, Shui Qing Ye
Our previous study indicated that overexpression of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) aggravated acute lung injury, while knockdown of NAMPT expression attenuated ventilator-induced lung injury. Recently, we found that meta-carborane-butyl-3-(3-pyridinyl)-2E-propenamide (MC-PPEA, MC4), in which the benzoylpiperidine moiety of FK866 has been replaced by a carborane, displayed a 100-fold increase in NAMPT inhibition over FK866. Here, we determined the effects of MC4 and FK866 on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery-induced sepsis in C57BL/6J mice...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420001/nicotinamide-n-methyltransferase-suppression-participates-in-nickel-induced-histone-h3-lysine9-dimethylation-in-beas-2b-cells
#4
Qian Li, Min-Di He, Lin Mao, Xue Wang, Yu-Lin Jiang, Min Li, Yong-Hui Lu, Zheng-Ping Yu, Zhou Zhou
BACKGROUND: Nickel compounds are well-established human carcinogens with weak mutagenic activity. Histone methylation has been proposed to play an important role in nickel-induced carcinogenesis. Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) decreases histone methylation in several cancer cells by altering the cellular ratio of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). However, the role of NNMT in nickel-induced histone methylation remains unclear. METHODS: BEAS-2B cells were exposed to different concentrations of nickel chloride (NiCl2) for 72 h or 200 μM NiCl2 for different time periods...
April 13, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419866/o-aminobenzoyl-s-nitrosoglutathione-a-fluorogenic-cell-permeable-pseudo-substrate-for-s-nitrosoglutathione-reductase
#5
Bei Lei Sun, Lisa Palmer, Shagufta Rehman Alam, Itunuoluwa Adekoya, Kathleen Brown-Steinke, Ammasi Periasamy, Bulent Mutus
S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) is a multifunctional enzyme. It can catalyze NADH-dependent reduction of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO); as well as NAD(+)-dependent oxidation of hydroxymethylglutathione (HMGSH; an adduct formed by the spontaneous reaction between formaldehyde and glutathione). While initially recognized as the enzyme that is involved in formaldehyde detoxification, increasing amount of evidence has shown that GSNOR also plays a significant role in nitric oxide mediated signaling through its modulation of protein S-nitrosothiol signaling...
April 15, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411200/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-thermostable-f420-nadph-oxidoreductase-from-thermobifida-fusca
#6
Hemant Kumar, Quoc-Thai Nguyen, Claudia Binda, Andrea Mattevi, Marco W Fraaije
F420H2-dependent enzymes reduce a wide range of substrates that are otherwise recalcitrant to enzyme-catalyzed reduction, and their potential for applications in biocatalysis has attracted increasingly attention. Thermobifida fusca is a moderately thermophilic bacterium and holds high biocatalytic potential as a source for several highly thermostable enzymes. We report here on the isolation and characterization of a thermostable F420:NADPH oxidoreductase (Tfu-FNO) from T. fusca, being the first F420-dependent enzyme described from this bacterium...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405646/half-sandwich-iridium-n-heterocyclic-carbene-anticancer-complexes
#7
Chuanlan Wang, Jinfeng Liu, Zhenzhen Tian, Meng Tian, Laijin Tian, Wenqian Zhao, Zhe Liu
Half-sandwich pseudo-octahedral pentamethylcyclopentadienyl Ir(III) complexes of the type [(η(5)-Cp(x))Ir(C^C)Cl]PF6, where Cp(x) is pentamethylcyclopentadienyl (Cp*), or its phenyl (Cp(xph) = C5Me4C6H5) or biphenyl (Cp(xbiph) = C5Me4C6H4C6H5) derivatives, and the C^C-chelating ligands are different N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands, have been synthesized and characterized. Three X-ray crystal structures have been determined. Except for Cp* complex 1A, the other eleven complexes 1B-4C all showed potent cytotoxicity, with IC50 values ranging from 2...
April 13, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400476/gad1-upregulation-programs-aggressive-features-of-cancer-cell-metabolism-in-the-brain-metastatic-microenvironment
#8
Patricia M Schnepp, Dennis D Lee, Ian H Guldner, Treasa K O'Tighearnaigh, Erin N Howe, Bhavana Palakurthi, Kaitlyn E Eckert, Tiffany A Toni, Brandon L Ashfeld, Siyuan Zhang
The impact of altered amino acid metabolism on cancer progression is not fully understood. We hypothesized that a metabolic transcriptome shift during metastatic evolution is crucial for brain metastasis. Here we report a powerful impact in this setting caused by epigenetic upregulation of glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1), a regulator of the GABA neurotransmitter metabolic pathway. In cell-based culture and brain metastasis models, we found that downegulation of the DNA methyltransferase DNMT1 induced by the brain microenvironment-derived clusterin resulted in decreased GAD1 promoter methylation and subsequent upregulation of GAD1 expression in brain metastatic tumor cells...
April 11, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399854/improved-n-butanol-production-via-co-expression-of-membrane-targeted-tilapia-metallothionein-and-the-clostridial-metabolic-pathway-in-escherichia-coli
#9
Wei-Chih Chin, Kuo-Hsing Lin, Chun-Chi Liu, Kenji Tsuge, Chieh-Chen Huang
BACKGROUND: N-Butanol has favorable characteristics for use as either an alternative fuel or platform chemical. Bio-based n-butanol production using microbes is an emerging technology that requires further development. Although bio-industrial microbes such as Escherichia coli have been engineered to produce n-butanol, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated toxicity may limit productivity. Previously, we show that outer-membrane-targeted tilapia metallothionein (OmpC-TMT) is more effective as an ROS scavenger than human and mouse metallothioneins to reduce oxidative stress in the host cell...
April 11, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396387/pik3ca-mutant-tumors-depend-on-oxoglutarate-dehydrogenase
#10
Nina Ilic, Kıvanç Birsoy, Andrew J Aguirre, Nora Kory, Michael E Pacold, Shambhavi Singh, Susan E Moody, Joseph D DeAngelo, Nicole A Spardy, Elizaveta Freinkman, Barbara A Weir, Aviad Tsherniak, Glenn S Cowley, David E Root, John M Asara, Francisca Vazquez, Hans R Widlund, David M Sabatini, William C Hahn
Oncogenic PIK3CA mutations are found in a significant fraction of human cancers, but therapeutic inhibition of PI3K has only shown limited success in clinical trials. To understand how mutant PIK3CA contributes to cancer cell proliferation, we used genome scale loss-of-function screening in a large number of genomically annotated cancer cell lines. As expected, we found that PIK3CA mutant cancer cells require PIK3CA but also require the expression of the TCA cycle enzyme 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH)...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385612/inhibition-of-liver-alanine-aminotransferase-and-aspartate-aminotransferase-by-hesperidin-and-its-aglycone-hesperetin-an-in-vitro-and-in-silico-study
#11
Sara Zareei, Massoud M A Boojar, Massoud Amanlou
AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of two natural flavonoids, hesperetin (HT) and hesperidin (HD), on two gluconeogenesis enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and their possible mechanisms of action. MAIN METHODS: Rat liver incubated with different concentrations of HT and HD was used to measure enzyme activities spectrophotometrically, based on monitoring the oxidation of NADH to NAD(+) at 340nm...
April 3, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369765/method-to-detect-the-cellular-source-of-over-activated-nadph-oxidases-using-nad-p-h-fluorescence-lifetime-imaging
#12
Daniel Bremer, Ruth Leben, Ronja Mothes, Helena Radbruch, Raluca Niesner
Fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is a technique to generate images, in which the contrast is obtained by the excited-state lifetime of fluorescent molecules instead of their intensity and emission spectrum. The ubiquitous coenzymes NADH and NADPH, hereafter NAD(P)H, in cells show a short fluorescence lifetime ≈400 psec in the free-state and a longer fluorescence lifetime when bound to enzymes. The fluorescence lifetime of NAD(P)H in this state depends on the binding-site on the specific enzyme...
April 3, 2017: Current Protocols in Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365837/comparison-of-phytohormone-levels-and-transcript-profiles-during-seasonal-dormancy-transitions-in-underground-adventitious-buds-of-leafy-spurge
#13
Wun S Chao, Münevver Doğramacı, David P Horvath, James V Anderson, Michael E Foley
Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is an herbaceous perennial weed that maintains its perennial growth habit through generation of underground adventitious buds (UABs) on the crown and lateral roots. These UABs undergo seasonal phases of dormancy under natural conditions, namely para-, endo-, and ecodormancy in summer, fall, and winter, respectively. These dormancy phases can also be induced in growth chambers by manipulating photoperiod and temperature. In this study, UABs induced into the three phases of dormancy under controlled conditions were used to compare changes in phytohormone and transcriptome profiles...
April 1, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361886/enzyme-dependent-fluorescence-recovery-of-nadh-after-photobleaching-to-assess-dehydrogenase-activity-of-isolated-perfused-hearts
#14
Angel Moreno, Sarah Kuzmiak-Glancy, Rafael Jaimes, Matthew W Kay
Reduction of NAD(+) by dehydrogenase enzymes to form NADH is a key component of cellular metabolism. In cellular preparations and isolated mitochondria suspensions, enzyme-dependent fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (ED-FRAP) of NADH has been shown to be an effective approach for measuring the rate of NADH production to assess dehydrogenase enzyme activity. Our objective was to demonstrate how dehydrogenase activity could be assessed within the myocardium of perfused hearts using NADH ED-FRAP. This was accomplished using a combination of high intensity UV pulses to photobleach epicardial NADH...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353336/simultaneous-measurement-of-glucose-6-phosphate-3-dehydrogenase-ntdc-catalysis-and-the-nonenzymatic-reaction-of-its-product-kinetics-and-isotope-effects-on-the-first-step-in-kanosamine-biosynthesis
#15
Natasha D Vetter, David R J Palmer
Glucose-6-phosphate 3-dehydrogenase (NtdC) is an NAD-dependent oxidoreductase encoded in the NTD operon of Bacillus subtilis. The oxidation of glucose 6-phosphate by NtdC is the first step in kanosamine biosynthesis. The product, 3-oxo-d-glucose 6-phosphate (3oG6P), has never been synthesized or isolated. The NtdC-catalyzed reaction is very slow at low and neutral pH, and its rate increases to a maximum near pH 9.5. However, under alkaline conditions, the product is not stable because of ring opening followed by deprotonation of the 1,3-dicarbonyl compound...
March 29, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349673/involvement-of-oxidative-stress-in-protocatechuic-acid-mediated-bacterial-lethality
#16
Taofeek O Ajiboye, Ramat S Habibu, Kabiru Saidu, Fatimah Z Haliru, Hikmat O Ajiboye, Najeeb O Aliyu, Oluwayemisi B Ibitoye, Judith N Uwazie, Hamdalat F Muritala, Sharafa A Bello, Idris I Yusuf, Aisha O Mohammed
The involvement of oxidative stress in protocatechuic acid-mediated bacterial lethality was investigated. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of protocatechuic acid against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus are 600 and 700 μg/ml, 600 and 800 μg/ml, and 600 and 800 μg/ml, respectively. The optical densities and colony-forming units of protocatechuic acid-treated bacteria decreased in time-dependent manner. Protocatechuic acid (4× MIC) significantly increased the superoxide anion content of E...
March 27, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327357/the-ternary-complex-structure-of-d-mandelate-dehydrogenase-with-nadh-and-anilino-oxo-acetate
#17
Nayuta Furukawa, Akimasa Miyanaga, Masahiro Nakajima, Hayao Taguchi
Enterococcus faecium NAD-dependent d-mandelate dehydrogenase (d-ManDH) belongs to a ketopantoate reductase (KPR)-related d-2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase family, and exhibits broad substrate specificity toward bulky hydrophobic 2-ketoacids, preferring C3-branched substrates. The ternary complex structure of d-ManDH with NADH and anilino(oxo)acetate (AOA) revealed that the substrate binding induces a shear motion of the N-terminal domain along the C-terminal domain, following the hinge motion induced by the NADH binding, and allows the bound NADH molecule to form favorable interactions with a 2-ketoacid substrate...
March 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318242/whole-blood-metabolomics-by-1-h-nmr-spectroscopy-provides-a-new-opportunity-to-evaluate-coenzymes-and-antioxidants
#18
G A Nagana Gowda, Daniel Raftery
Conventional human blood metabolomics employs serum or plasma and provides a wealth of metabolic information therein. However, this approach lacks the ability to measure and evaluate important metabolites such as coenzymes and antioxidants that are present at high concentrations in red blood cells. As an important alternative to serum/plasma metabolomics, we show here that a simple (1)H NMR experiment can simultaneously measure coenzymes and antioxidants in extracts of whole human blood, in addition to the nearly 70 metabolites that were shown to be quantitated in serum/plasma recently [ Anal...
March 30, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315453/defects-in-mitochondrial-energetic-function-compels-fanconi-anemia-cells-to-glycolytic-metabolism
#19
Enrico Cappelli, Paola Cuccarolo, Giorgia Stroppiana, Maurizio Miano, Roberta Bottega, Vanessa Cossu, Paolo Degan, Silvia Ravera
Energetic metabolism plays an essential role in the differentiation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSC). In Fanconi Anaemia (FA), DNA damage is accumulated during HSC differentiation, an event that is likely associated with bone marrow failure (BMF). One of the sources of the DNA damage is altered mitochondrial metabolism and an associated increment of oxidative stress. Recently, altered mitochondrial morphology and a deficit in the energetic activity in FA cells have been reported. Considering that mitochondria are the principal site of aerobic ATP production, we investigated FA metabolism in order to understand what pathways are able to compensate for this energy deficiency...
March 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303934/redox-sensing-regulator-rex-regulates-aerobic-metabolism-morphological-differentiation-and-avermectin-production-in-streptomyces-avermitilis
#20
Xingchao Liu, Yaqing Cheng, Mengya Lyu, Ying Wen, Yuan Song, Zhi Chen, Jilun Li
The regulatory role of redox-sensing regulator Rex was investigated in Streptomyces avermitilis. Eleven genes/operons were demonstrated to be directly regulated by Rex; these genes/operons are involved in aerobic metabolism, morphological differentiation, and secondary metabolism. Rex represses transcription of target genes/operons by binding to Rex operator (ROP) sequences in the promoter regions. NADH reduces DNA-binding activity of Rex to target promoters, while NAD(+) competitively binds to Rex and modulates its DNA-binding activity...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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