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NADH AND NAD+

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202712/ribeye-b-domain-binds-to-lipid-components-of-synaptic-vesicles-in-an-nad-h-dependent-redox-sensitive-manner
#1
Karin Schwarz, Frank Schmitz
Synaptic ribbons are needed for fast and continuous exocytosis in ribbon synapses. RIBEYE is a main protein component of synaptic ribbons and necessary to build the synaptic ribbon. RIBEYE consists of a unique A-domain and a carboxyterminal B-domain that binds NAD(H). Within the presynaptic terminal, the synaptic ribbons are in physical contact with large numbers of synaptic vesicles. How this physical contact between ribbons and vesicles is established at a molecular level is not well understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that the RIBEYE(B)-domain can directly interact with lipid components of synaptic vesicles using two different sedimentation assays with liposomes of defined chemical composition...
February 15, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199340/crystal-structure-and-structure-based-mutagenesis-of-actin-specific-adp-ribosylating-toxin-cpile-a-as-novel-enterotoxin
#2
Waraphan Toniti, Toru Yoshida, Toshiharu Tsurumura, Daisuke Irikura, Chie Monma, Yoichi Kamata, Hideaki Tsuge
Unusual outbreaks of food poisoning in Japan were reported in which Clostridium perfringens was strongly suspected to be the cause based on epidemiological information and fingerprinting of isolates. The isolated strains lack the typical C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) but secrete a new enterotoxin consisting of two components: C. perfringens iota-like enterotoxin-a (CPILE-a), which acts as an enzymatic ADP-ribosyltransferase, and CPILE-b, a membrane binding component. Here we present the crystal structures of apo-CPILE-a, NAD+-CPILE-a and NADH-CPILE-a...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194019/il-25-stimulates-m2-macrophage-polarization-and-thereby-promotes-mitochondrial-respiratory-capacity-and-lipolysis-in-adipose-tissues-against-obesity
#3
Juan Feng, Lingyi Li, Zhiying Ou, Qiao Li, Baoyong Gong, Zhenxian Zhao, Weiwei Qi, Ti Zhou, Jun Zhong, Weibin Cai, Xia Yang, Aiping Zhao, Guoquan Gao, Zhonghan Yang
Obesity and associated metabolic diseases are characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammatory state with the infiltration of many inflammatory cells, especially macrophages. Immune molecules, including some cytokines, have a close relationship with metabolism. Interleukin (IL)-25 is a member of the IL-17 cytokine family that can regulate macrophages and alleviate some metabolic dysfunction; however, its role and mechanisms in lipid metabolism remain to be extensively clarified. Human serum and liver biopsy specimens, high-fat diet-induced obesity mice and DB/DB (Lepr-/-) animal models were used to examine IL-25 expression in obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD)...
February 13, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190822/phloridzin-inhibits-high-k-induced-contraction-via-the-inhibition-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-1-in-rat-ileum
#4
Hidenori Kanda, Takeharu Kaneda, Akira Kawaguchi, Noriyasu Sasaki, Tsuyoshi Tajima, Norimoto Urakawa, Kazumasa Shimizu, Hiroetsu Suzuki
Recent studies have shown that phloridzin, an inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT), strongly decreases high K(+)-induced contraction in phasic muscle, such as tenia coli, but slightly affects tonic muscle, such as trachea . In this study, we examined the inhibitory mechanism of phloridzin on high K(+)-induced muscle contraction in rat ileum, a phasic muscle. Phloridzin inhibited the high K(+)-induced contraction in the ileum and the aorta, and the relaxing effect of phloridzin at 1 mM in the ileum was approximately five-fold more potent than that in the aorta...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183178/mimicking-horseradish-peroxidase-and-nadh-peroxidase-by-heterogeneous-cu-2-modified-graphene-oxide-nanoparticles
#5
Shan Wang, Rémi Cazelles, Wei-Ching Liao, Margarita Vázquez-González, Amani Zoabi, Raed Abu-Reziq, Itamar Willner
Cu(2+)-ion-modified graphene oxide nanoparticles, Cu(2+)-GO NPs, act as a heterogeneous catalyst mimicking functions of horseradish peroxidase, HRP, and of NADH peroxidase. The Cu(2+)-GO NPs catalyze the oxidation of dopamine to aminochrome by H2O2 and catalyze the generation of chemiluminescence in the presence of luminol and H2O2. The Cu(2+)-GO NPs provide an active material for the chemiluminescence detection of H2O2 and allow the probing of the activity of H2O2-generating oxidases and the detection of their substrates...
February 14, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181562/structural-and-functional-insights-into-the-catalytic-mechanism-of-the-type-ii-nadh-quinone-oxidoreductase-family
#6
Bruno C Marreiros, Filipa V Sena, Filipe M Sousa, A Sofia F Oliveira, Cláudio M Soares, Ana P Batista, Manuela M Pereira
Type II NADH:quinone oxidoreductases (NDH-2s) are membrane proteins involved in respiratory chains. These proteins contribute indirectly to the establishment of the transmembrane difference of electrochemical potential by catalyzing the reduction of quinone by oxidation of NAD(P)H. NDH-2s are widespread enzymes being present in the three domains of life. In this work, we explored the catalytic mechanism of NDH-2 by investigating the common elements of all NDH-2s, based on the rationale that conservation of such elements reflects their structural/functional importance...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181523/mitochondria-play-an-important-role-in-the-cell-proliferation-suppressing-activity-of-berberine
#7
Xiao-Jin Yan, Xuan Yu, Xin-Pei Wang, Jing-Fei Jiang, Zhi-Yi Yuan, Xi Lu, Fan Lei, Dong-Ming Xing
After being studied for approximately a century, berberine (BBR) has been found to act on various targets and pathways. A great challenge in the pharmacological analysis of BBR at present is to identify which target(s) plays a decisive role. In the study described herein, a rescue experiment was designed to show the important role of mitochondria in BBR activity. A toxic dose of BBR was applied to inhibit cell proliferation and mitochondrial activity, then α-ketobutyrate (AKB), an analogue of pyruvate that serves only as an electron receptor of NADH, was proven to partially restore cell proliferation...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174304/the-pyruvate-and-%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-dehydrogenase-complexes-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-catalyze-pyocyanin-and-phenazine-1-carboxylic-acid-reduction-via-the-subunit-dihydrolipoamide-dehydrogenase
#8
Nathaniel R Glasser, Benjamin X Wang, Julie A Hoy, Dianne K Newman
Phenazines are a class of redox-active molecules produced by diverse bacteria and archaea. Many of the biological functions of phenazines, such as mediating signaling, iron acquisition, and redox homeostasis, derive from their redox activity. While prior studies have focused on extracellular phenazine oxidation by oxygen and iron, here we report a search for reductants and catalysts of intracellular phenazine reduction in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Enzymatic assays in cell-free lysate, together with crude fractionation and chemical inhibition, indicate that P...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167526/vibrio-phage-kvp40-encodes-a-functional-nad-salvage-pathway
#9
Jae Yun Lee, Zhiqun Li, Eric S Miller
: The genome of T4-type Vibrio bacteriophage KVP40 has five genes predicted to encode proteins of pyridine nucleotide metabolism, of which two, nadV and natV, would suffice for an NAD(+) salvage pathway. NadV is an apparent nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAmPRTase) and NatV is an apparent bifunctional nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNATase) and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide pyrophosphatase (Nudix hydrolase). Genes encoding the predicted salvage pathway were cloned, expressed in E...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159812/right-ventricular-metabolism-during-veno-arterial-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-immature-swine-heart-in-vivo
#10
Masaki Kajimoto, Dolena R Ledee, Nancy G Isern, Michael A Portman
Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) provides hemodynamic rescue for patients encountering right or left ventricular (RV or LV) decompensation, particularly after surgery for congenital heart defects. ECMO, supported metabolically by parenteral nutrition, provides reductions in myocardial work and energy demand and therefore enhances functional recovery. The RV must often assume systemic ventricular pressures and function upon weaning from VA-ECMO. However the substrate utilization responses of the RV to VA-ECMO or stimulation are unknown...
February 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153386/structure-and-biochemistry-of-phenylacetaldehyde-dehydrogenase-from-the-pseudomonas-putida-s12-styrene-catabolic-pathway
#11
Anders G Crabo, Baljit Singh, Tim Nguyen, Shahram Emami, George T Gassner, Matthew H Sazinsky
Phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase catalyzes the NAD(+)-dependent oxidation of phenylactealdehyde to phenylacetic acid in the styrene catabolic and detoxification pathway of Pseudomonas putida (S12). Here we report the structure and mechanistic properties of the N-terminally histidine-tagged enzyme, NPADH. The 2.83 Å X-ray crystal structure is similar in fold to sheep liver cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1), but has unique set of intersubunit interactions and active site tunnel for substrate entrance...
February 15, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137513/contribution-of-remote-substrate-binding-energy-to-the-enzymatic-rate-acceleration-for-3%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-carbonyl-reductase
#12
Chi-Ching Hwang, Pei-Ru Chang, Tzu-Pin Wang
3α-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/carbonyl reductase (3α-HSD/CR) catalyzes the oxidation of androsterone with NAD(+) to form androstanedione and NADH with the rate limiting step being the release of NADH. In this study, we elucidate the role of remote substrate binding interactions contributing to the rate enhancement by 3α-HSD/CR through steady-state kinetic studies with the truncated substrate analogs. No enzyme activity was detected for methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, which lack the steroid scaffold of androsterone, implying that the steroid scaffold plays an important role in enzyme catalytic specificity...
January 27, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130305/modulation-of-the-acetone-butanol-ratio-during-fermentation-of-corn-stover-derived-hydrolysate-by-clostridium-beijerinckii-ncimb-8052
#13
Zi-Yong Liu, Xiu-Qing Yao, Quan Zhang, Zhen Liu, Ze-Jie Wang, Yong-Yu Zhang, Fu-Li Li
: Producing biobutanol from lignocellulosic biomass has shown promise to ultimately reduce greenhouse gases and alleviate the global energy crisis. However, because of the recalcitrance of a lignocellulosic biomass, a pretreatment of the substrate is needed which in many cases releases soluble lignin compounds (SLCs), which inhibit growth of butanol-producing clostridia. In this study, we found that SLCs changed the acetone/butanol ratio (A/B ratio) during butanol fermentation. The typical A/B molar ratio during Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 batch fermentation with glucose as the carbon source is about 0...
January 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126230/analysis-of-metabolisms-and-transports-of-xylitol-using-xylose-and-xylitol-assimilating-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#14
Tatsunori Tani, Hisataka Taguchi, Takashi Akamatsu
To clarify the relationship between NAD(P)(+)/NAD(P)H redox balances and the metabolisms of xylose or xylitol as carbon sources, we analyzed aerobic and anaerobic batch cultures of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a complex medium containing 20 g/L xylose or 20 g/L xylitol at pH 5.0 and 30°C. The TDH3p-GAL2 or gal80Δ strain completely consumed the xylose within 24 h and aerobically consumed 92-100% of the xylitol within 96 h, but anaerobically consumed only 20% of the xylitol within 96 h. Cells of both strains grew well in aerobic culture...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122359/tumor-associated-nadh-oxidase-tnox-nad-sirtuin-1-axis-contributes-to-oxaliplatin-induced-apoptosis-of-gastric-cancer-cells
#15
Huei-Yu Chen, Hsiao-Ling Cheng, Yi-Hui Lee, Tien-Ming Yuan, Shi-Wen Chen, You-Yu Lin, Pin Ju Chueh
Oxaliplatin belongs to the platinum-based drug family and has shown promise in cancer treatment. The major mechanism of action of platinum compounds is to form platinum-DNA adducts, leading to DNA damage and apoptosis. Accumulating evidence suggests that they might also target non-DNA molecules for their apoptotic activity. We explored the effects of oxaliplatin on a tumor-associated NADH oxidase (tNOX) in gastric cancer lines. In AGS cells, we found that the oxaliplatin-inhibited tNOX effectively attenuated the NAD+/NADH ratio and reduced the deacetylase activity of an NAD+-dependent sirtuin 1, thereby enhancing p53 acetylation and apoptosis...
January 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121062/exposure-to-15-oxygen-in-vivo-up-regulates-cardioprotective-sur2a-without-affecting-erk1-2-and-akt-a-crucial-role-for-ampk
#16
Khaja Shameem Mohammed Abdul, Sofija Jovanović, Aleksandar Jovanović
SUR2A is an 'atypical' ABC protein that forms sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP ) channels by binding to inward rectifier Kir6.2. Manipulation with SUR2A levels has been suggested to be a promising therapeutic strategy against ischaemic heart diseases and other diseases where increased heart resistance to stress is beneficial. Some years ago, it has been reported that high-altitude residents have lower mortality rates for ischaemic heart disease. The purpose of this study was to determine whether SUR2A is regulated by mild-to-severe hypoxic conditions (15% oxygen; oxygen tension equivalent to 3000 m above sea level) and elucidate the underlying mechanism...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120876/mycofactocin-associated-mycobacterial-dehydrogenases-with-non-exchangeable-nad-cofactors
#17
Daniel H Haft, Phillip G Pierce, Stephen J Mayclin, Amy Sullivan, Anna S Gardberg, Jan Abendroth, Darren W Begley, Isabelle Q Phan, Bart L Staker, Peter J Myler, Vasilios M Marathias, Donald D Lorimer, Thomas E Edwards
During human infection, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) survives the normally bacteriocidal phagosome of macrophages. Mtb and related species may be able to combat this harsh acidic environment which contains reactive oxygen species due to the mycobacterial genomes encoding a large number of dehydrogenases. Typically, dehydrogenase cofactor binding sites are open to solvent, which allows NAD/NADH exchange to support multiple turnover. Interestingly, mycobacterial short chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) within family TIGR03971 contain an insertion at the NAD binding site...
January 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120242/improvement-of-ad-biosynthesis-response-to-enhanced-oxygen-transfer-by-oxygen-vectors-in-mycobacterium-neoaurum-tccc-11979
#18
Liqiu Su, Yanbing Shen, Tian Gao, Jianmei Luo, Min Wang
In steroid biotransformation, soybean oil can improve the productivity of steroids by increasing substrate solubility and strengthen the cell membrane permeability. However, little is known of its role as oxygen carrier and its mechanism of promoting the steroid biotransformation. In this work, soybean oil used as oxygen vector for the enhancement of androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (AD) production by Mycobacterium neoaurum TCCC 11979 (MNR) was investigated. Upon the addition of 16% (v/v) soybean oil, the volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (K L a) value increased by 44%, and the peak molar yield of AD (55...
January 24, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108762/enhancement-of-succinate-yield-by-manipulating-nadh-nad-ratio-and-atp-generation
#19
Jiaojiao Li, Yikui Li, Zhiyong Cui, Quanfeng Liang, Qingsheng Qi
We previously engineered Escherichia coli YL104 to efficiently produce succinate from glucose. In this study, we investigated the relationships between the NADH/NAD(+) ratio, ATP level, and overall yield of succinate production by using glucose as the carbon source in YL104. First, the use of sole NADH dehydrogenases increased the overall yield of succinate by 7% and substantially decreased the NADH/NAD(+) ratio. Second, the soluble fumarate reductase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was overexpressed to manipulate the anaerobic NADH/NAD(+) ratio and ATP level...
January 20, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108222/diquat-induced-cellular-pyridine-nucleotide-redox-changes-and-alteration-of-metabolic-enzyme-activities-in-colonic-carcinoma-cells
#20
Magdalena L Circu, Ronald E Maloney, Tak Yee Aw
Previously we have shown that the redox cycler menadione (MQ) induced cellular pyridine nucleotide redox imbalance that was linked to a decrease in aerobic glycolysis and perturbation of the mitochondrial respiratory activity due to the redox cycling of the compound; these processes were potentiated by low glucose. In this study, we investigated how colonic epithelial cells maintained pyridine nucleotide (NAD(+)/NADH and NADP(+)/NADPH) redox homeostasis upon acute metabolic variation and exposure to the redox cycling diquat (DQ)...
February 25, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
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