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NADH AND NAD+

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778044/electrodeposited-styrylquinolinium-dye-as-molecular-electrocatalyst-for-coupled-redox-reactions
#1
Yolina Hubenova, Rumyana Bakalska, Mario Mitov
Modification of carbonaceous materials with different conductive coatings is a successful approach to enhance their electrocatalytic activity and thus to increase the electrical outputs when used as electrodes in biofuel cells. In this study, a methodology for electrodeposition of styrylquinolinium dye on carbon felt was developed. The produced dye electrodeposits were characterized by means of AFM, ESI-MS/MS and NMR spectroscopy. The obtained data reveal that the dye forms overlaid layers consisting of monomer molecules most likely with an antiparallel orientation...
May 10, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773670/high-%C3%AE-tocopherol-dosing-increases-lipid-metabolism-by-changing-redox-state-in-damaged-rat-gastric-mucosa-and-liver-after-ethanol-treatment
#2
Marisela Olguín-Martínez, Diego R Hernández-Espinosa, Rolando Hernández-Muñoz
Regeneration of ethanol-injured rat gastric mucosa must undergo changes in major metabolic pathways to achieve DNA replication and cell proliferation. These events are highly dependent on glucose utilization and inhibited by vitamin E (α-tocopherol) administration. Therefore, this study was aimed at assessing lipid metabolism in the gastric mucosa and ethanol-induced gastric damage and the effect of α-tocopherol administration. For this, rates of fatty acid β-oxidation and lipogenesis were tested in gastric mucosa samples...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765372/is-iqg-607-a-potential-metallodrug-or-metallopro-drug-with-a-defined-molecular-target-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#3
REVIEW
Bruno L Abbadi, Valnês da Silva Rodrigues-Junior, Adilio da Silva Dadda, Kenia Pissinate, Anne D Villela, Maria M Campos, Luiz G de França Lopes, Cristiano V Bizarro, Pablo Machado, Eduardo H S Sousa, Luiz A Basso
The emergence of strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to isoniazid (INH) has underscored the need for the development of new anti-tuberculosis agents. INH is activated by the mycobacterial katG -encoded catalase-peroxidase, forming an acylpyridine fragment that is covalently attached to the C4 of NADH. This isonicotinyl-NAD adduct inhibits the activity of 2- trans -enoyl-ACP(CoA) reductase (InhA), which plays a role in mycolic acid biosynthesis. A metal-based INH analog, Na3 [FeII (CN)5 (INH)]·4H2 O, IQG-607, was designed to have an electronic redistribution on INH moiety that would lead to an intramolecular electron transfer to bypass KatG activation...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757993/profiling-redox-and-energy-coenzymes-in-whole-blood-tissue-and-cells-using-nmr-spectroscopy
#4
REVIEW
G A Nagana Gowda
Coenzymes of cellular redox reactions and cellular energy, as well as antioxidants mediate biochemical reactions fundamental to the functioning of all living cells. Conventional analysis methods lack the opportunity to evaluate these important redox and energy coenzymes and antioxidants in a single step. Major coenzymes include redox coenzymes: NAD⁺ (oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), NADP⁺ (oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) and NADPH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate); energy coenzymes: ATP (adenosine triphosphate), ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and AMP (adenosine monophosphate); and antioxidants: GSSG (oxidized glutathione) and GSH (reduced glutathione)...
May 14, 2018: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751795/inhibition-of-glutamate-oxaloacetate-transaminase-1-in-cancer-cell-lines-results-in-altered-metabolism-with-increased-dependency-of-glucose
#5
Xiaoshan Zhou, Sophie Curbo, Fuqiang Li, Shuba Krishnan, Anna Karlsson
BACKGROUND: Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 1 (GOT1) regulates cellular metabolism through coordinating the utilization of carbohydrates and amino acids to meet nutrient requirements. KRAS mutated cancer cells were recently shown to rely on GOT1 to support long-term cell proliferation. The aim of the present study was to address the role of GOT1 in the metabolic adaption of cancer cells. METHODS: GOT1-null and knockdown cell lines were established through CRISPR/Cas9 and shRNA techniques...
May 11, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746824/reduction-of-2-methoxy-1-4-naphtoquinone-by-mitochondrially-localized-nqo1-yielding-nad-supports-substrate-level-phosphorylation-during-respiratory-inhibition
#6
Dora Ravasz, Gergely Kacso, Viktoria Fodor, Kata Horvath, Vera Adam-Vizi, Christos Chinopoulos
Provision of NAD+ for oxidative decarboxylation of alpha-ketoglutarate to succinyl-CoA by the ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) is critical for maintained operation of succinyl-CoA ligase yielding high-energy phosphates, a process known as mitochondrial substrate-level phosphorylation (mSLP). We have shown previously that when NADH oxidation by complex I is inhibited by rotenone or anoxia, mitochondrial diaphorases yield NAD+ , provided that suitable quinones are present (Kiss G et al., FASEB J 2014, 28:1682)...
May 7, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721150/p66-shc-inactivation-modifies-rns-production-regulates-sirt3-activity-and-improves-mitochondrial-homeostasis-delaying-the-aging-process-in-mouse-brain
#7
Hernán Pérez, Paola Vanesa Finocchietto, Yael Alippe, Inés Rebagliati, María Eugenia Elguero, Nerina Villalba, Juan José Poderoso, María Cecilia Carreras
Programmed and damage aging theories have traditionally been conceived as stand-alone schools of thought. However, the p66Shc adaptor protein has demonstrated that aging-regulating genes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are closely interconnected, since its absence modifies metabolic homeostasis by providing oxidative stress resistance and promoting longevity. p66Shc(-/-) mice are a unique opportunity to further comprehend the bidirectional relationship between redox homeostasis and the imbalance of mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics during aging...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718667/transmembrane-nadh-oxidation-with-tetracyanoquinodimethane
#8
MinHui Wang, Christian Wölfer, Lado Otrin, Ivan Ivanov, Tanja Vidaković-Koch, Kai Sundmacher
The design of efficient schemes for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) regeneration is essential for the development of enzymatic biotechnological processes in order to sustain continuous production. In line with our motivation for the encapsulation of redox cascades in liposomes to serve as microbioreactors, we developed a straightforward strategy for the interfacial oxidation of entrapped NADH by ferricyanide as an external electron acceptor. Instead of the commonly applied enzymatic regeneration methods, we employed a hydrophobic redox shuttle embedded in the liposome bilayer...
May 2, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712875/roles-of-alanine-dehydrogenase-and-induction-of-its-gene-in-mycobacterium-smegmatis-under-respiration-inhibitory-conditions
#9
Ji-A Jeong, Sae Woong Park, Dahae Yoon, Suhkmann Kim, Ho-Young Kang, Jeong-Il Oh
Here we demonstrated that the inhibition of electron flux through the respiratory electron transport chain (ETC) by either disruption of the gene for the major terminal oxidase ( aa3 -cytochrome c oxidase) or treatment with KCN resulted in the induction of ald encoding alanine dehydrogenase in Mycobacterium smegmatis A decrease in functionality of the ETC shifts the redox state of the NADH/NAD+ pool toward a more reduced state, which in turn leads to an increase in cellular levels of alanine by Ald catalyzing the conversion of pyruvate to alanine with the concomitant oxidation of NADH to NAD+ The induction of ald expression under respiration-inhibitory conditions in M...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710809/anti-oxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-ketogenic-diet-new-perspectives-for-neuroprotection-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
REVIEW
Alessandro Pinto, Alessio Bonucci, Elisa Maggi, Mariangela Corsi, Rita Businaro
The ketogenic diet, originally developed for the treatment of epilepsy in non-responder children, is spreading to be used in the treatment of many diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. The main activity of the ketogenic diet has been related to improved mitochondrial function and decreased oxidative stress. B-Hydroxybutyrate, the most studied ketone body, has been shown to reduce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), improving mitochondrial respiration: it stimulates the cellular endogenous antioxidant system with the activation of nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), it modulates the ratio between the oxidized and reduced forms of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD⁺/NADH) and it increases the efficiency of electron transport chain through the expression of uncoupling proteins...
April 28, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706024/overexpression-of-cyb5r3-and-nqo1-two-nad-producing-enzymes-mimics-aspects-of-caloric-restriction
#11
Alberto Diaz-Ruiz, Michael Lanasa, Joseph Garcia, Hector Mora, Frances Fan, Alejandro Martin-Montalvo, Andrea Di Francesco, Miguel Calvo-Rubio, Andrea Salvador-Pascual, Miguel A Aon, Kenneth W Fishbein, Kevin J Pearson, Jose Manuel Villalba, Placido Navas, Michel Bernier, Rafael de Cabo
Calorie restriction (CR) is one of the most robust means to improve health and survival in model organisms. CR imposes a metabolic program that leads to increased stress resistance and delayed onset of chronic diseases, including cancer. In rodents, CR induces the upregulation of two NADH-dehydrogenases, namely NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1) and cytochrome b5 reductase 3 (Cyb5r3), which provide electrons for energy metabolism. It has been proposed that this upregulation may be responsible for some of the beneficial effects of CR, and defects in their activity are linked to aging and several age-associated diseases...
April 28, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702406/oxygen-dependence-of-mitochondrial-ros-production-as-detected-by-amplex-red-assay
#12
Vera G Grivennikova, Alexandra V Kareyeva, Andrei D Vinogradov
The initial rates of superoxide plus hydrogen peroxide (ROS) generation by intact or permeabilized rat heart mitochondria and coupled inside-out bovine heart submitochondrial particles (SMP) oxidizing NAD-dependent substrates, NADH, and succinate were measured by detecting resorufin formation in the Amplex Red assay at various oxygen concentrations. Linear dependences of the initial rates on oxygen concentration within the range of ~125-750 μM were found for all significant mitochondrial generators, i.e...
April 14, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700119/assembly-of-human-c-terminal-binding-protein-ctbp-into-tetramers
#13
Andrew G Bellesis, Anne M Jecrois, Janelle A Hayes, Celia Schiffer, William E Royer
C-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1) and CtBP2 are transcriptional coregulators that repress numerous cellular processes, such as apoptosis, by binding transcription factors and recruiting chromatin-remodeling enzymes to gene promoters. The NAD(H) linked oligomerization of human CtBP is coupled to its co-transcriptional activity, which is implicated in cancer progression.  However, the biologically relevant level of CtBP assembly has not been firmly established, nor has the stereochemical arrangement of the subunits above that of a dimer...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698837/chemo-enzymatic-synthesis-of-furfuralcohol-from-chestnut-shell-hydrolysate-by-a-sequential-acid-catalyzed-dehydration-under-microwave-and-escherichia-coli-cczu-y10-whole-cells-conversion
#14
Junhua Di, Cuiluan Ma, Jianghao Qian, Xiaolong Liao, Bo Peng, Yucai He
In this study, chemo-enzymatic synthesis of furfuralcohol from biomass-derived xylose was successfully demonstrated by a sequential acid-catalyzed dehydration under microwave and whole-cells reduction. After dry dewaxed chestnut shells (CNS, 75 g/L) was acid-hydrolyzed with dilute oxalic acid (0.5 wt%) at 140 °C for 40 min, the obtained CNS-derived xylose (17.9 g/L xylose) could be converted to furfural at 78.8% yield with solid acid SO4 2- /SnO2 -Attapulgite (2.0 wt% catalyst loading) in the dibutyl phthalate-water (1:1, v:v) under microwave (600 W) at 180 °C for 10 min...
April 12, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690652/genome-guided-analysis-of-clostridium-ultunense-and-comparative-genomics-reveal-different-strategies-for-acetate-oxidation-and-energy-conservation-in-syntrophic-acetate-oxidising-bacteria
#15
Shahid Manzoor, Anna Schnürer, Erik Bongcam-Rudloff, Bettina Müller
Syntrophic acetate oxidation operates close to the thermodynamic equilibrium and very little is known about the participating organisms and their metabolism. Clostridium ultunense is one of the most abundant syntrophic acetate-oxidising bacteria (SAOB) that are found in engineered biogas processes operating with high ammonia concentrations. It has been proven to oxidise acetate in cooperation with hydrogenotrophic methanogens. There is evidence that the Wood-Ljungdahl (WL) pathway plays an important role in acetate oxidation...
April 23, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688005/reversible-ph-responsive-behavior-of-ruthenium-ii-arene-complexes-with-tethered-carboxylate
#16
Francisco Martínez-Peña, Sonia Infante-Tadeo, Abraha Habtemariam, Ana M Pizarro
Five complexes of formula [Ru(η6 -C6 H5 CH2 COOH)(XY)Cl]Cl/Na (XY = ethylenediamine (1), o-phenylenediamine (2), phenanthroline (3), and oxalato (4)) and [Ru(η6 :κ1 -C6 H5 CH2 COO)(tmen)]Cl (tmen = N, N, N', N'-tetramethylethylenediamine, 5C) have been synthesized and fully characterized. Five new X-ray crystal structures ([Ru(η6 -C6 H5 CH2 COOH)(μ-Cl)Cl]2 , 1, 3, 4, and 5C·PF6 ) have been determined, which are the first examples of ruthenium(II) structures with phenylacetic acid as arene ligand. Furthermore, 5C·PF6 is the first example of a five-membered tether ring with a Ru(η6 :κ1 -arene:O) bond...
April 24, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682906/profiles-of-streptococcus-thermophilus-mn-zlw-002-nutrient-requirements-in-controlled-ph-batch-fermentations
#17
Gefei Liu, Yali Qiao, Yanjiao Zhang, Cong Leng, Jiahui Sun, Hongyu Chen, Yan Zhang, Aili Li, Zhen Feng
This study aimed to evaluate the profiles of Streptococcus thermophilus nutrient requirements to guide the design of media for high cell density culturing. The growth kinetics, physiological state, and nutrient requirement profiles of S. thermophilus were analyzed in chemically defined media. The results showed that the intracellular ATP concentration, H+ -ATPase activity, NADH/NAD+ , and NH3 concentrations varied with intracellular pH. The nutrient components with the highest amounts required were Leu and Asp; ascorbic acid and p-amino benzoic acid; K+ and PO4 3- ; and guanine and uracil...
April 22, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680869/metabolic-analyses-of-the-improved-%C3%AE%C2%B5-poly-l-lysine-productivity-using-a-glucose-glycerol-mixed-carbon-source-in-chemostat-cultures
#18
Jian-Hua Zhang, Xin Zeng, Xu-Sheng Chen, Zhong-Gui Mao
The glucose-glycerol mixed carbon source remarkably reduced the batch fermentation time of ε-poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) production, leading to higher productivity of both biomass and ε-PL, which was of great significance in industrial microbial fermentation. Our previous study confirmed the positive influence of fast cell growth on the ε-PL biosynthesis, while the direct influence of mixed carbon source on ε-PL production was still unknown. In this work, chemostat culture was employed to study the capacity of ε-PL biosynthesis in different carbon sources at a same dilution rate of 0...
April 21, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673707/triethylene-glycol-dimethacrylate-impairs-bioenergetic-functions-and-induces-oxidative-stress-in-mitochondria-via-inhibiting-respiratory-complex-i
#19
Krisztina Mikulás, Péter Hermann, István Gera, Timea Komlódi, Gergő Horváth, Attila Ambrus, László Tretter
OBJECTIVES: Earlier studies demonstrated that dental resin monomers lower cellular viability and provoke oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation has a key role in triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) induced adverse reactions. In the present study the effects of TEGDMA on mitochondrial functions were investigated to identify a direct molecular target for cytotoxicity. METHODS: Mitochondria were isolated from guinea pig brain. The most important bioenergetic parameters, oxygen consumption, membrane potential (ΔΨm ), and ATP production were assessed...
April 16, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672321/metabolic-plasticity-enables-circadian-adaptation-to-acute-hypoxia-in-zebrafish-cells
#20
Adolf M Sandbichler, Bianca Jansen, Bettina A Peer, Monika Paulitsch, Bernd Pelster, Margit Egg
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Reduced oxygen availability, hypoxia, is frequently encountered by organisms, tissues and cells, in aquatic environments as well as in high altitude or under pathological conditions such as infarct, stroke or cancer. The hypoxic signaling pathway was found to be mutually intertwined with circadian timekeeping in vertebrates and, as reported recently, also in mammals. However, the impact of hypoxia on intracellular metabolic oscillations is still unknown. METHODS: For determination of metabolites we used Multilabel Reader based fluorescence and luminescence assays, circadian levels of Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 alpha and oxidized peroxiredoxins were semi quantified by Western blotting and ratiometric quantification of cytosolic and mitochondrial H2O2 was achieved with stable transfections of a redox sensitive green fluorescent protein sensor into zebrafish fibroblasts...
April 16, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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