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NADH AND NAD+

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145079/microbial-transcript-and-metabolome-analysis-uncover-discrepant-metabolic-pathways-in-autotrophic-and-mixotrophic-anammox-consortia
#1
Ying Feng, Yunpeng Zhao, Yongzhao Guo, Sitong Liu
The ability of anammox bacteria to utilize organic matter has drawn extensive attention. However, the metabolic discrepancies between autotrophic and mixotrophic anammox consortia need to be further explored. Here, microbial transcript and metabolomic analysis were conducted for the samples harvested in the reactors and batch assays to investigate the phenotype discrepancies and intrinsic causes in autotrophic and mixotrophic anammox consortia. Results showed that metabolically active community structures did not show significant difference between autotrophic and mixotrophic anammox consortia (C/N = 0...
October 31, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138502/crystal-structures-of-the-mitochondrial-deacylase-sirtuin-4-reveal-isoform-specific-acyl-recognition-and-regulation-features
#2
Martin Pannek, Zeljko Simic, Matthew Fuszard, Marat Meleshin, Dante Rotili, Antonello Mai, Mike Schutkowski, Clemens Steegborn
Sirtuins are evolutionary conserved NAD(+)-dependent protein lysine deacylases. The seven human isoforms, Sirt1-7, regulate metabolism and stress responses and are considered therapeutic targets for aging-related diseases. Sirt4 locates to mitochondria and regulates fatty acid metabolism and apoptosis. In contrast to the mitochondrial deacetylase Sirt3 and desuccinylase Sirt5, no prominent deacylase activity and structural information are available for Sirt4. Here we describe acyl substrates and crystal structures for Sirt4...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137352/maternal-high-calorie-diet-induces-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-senescence-phenotype-in-subcutaneous-fat-of-newborn-mice
#3
Daniele Lettieri-Barbato, Fabiana D'Angelo, Francesca Sciarretta, Giuseppe Tatulli, Flavia Tortolici, Maria Rosa Ciriolo, Katia Aquilano
Mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and senescence-like features are observed in adipose depots in aging and obesity. Herein, we evaluated how maternal high calorie diet (HCD) may impact on subcutaneous adipose tissue (sAT) of the newborn mice. Adult C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided in three groups: normal calorie diet (NCD), HCD and HCD supplemented with niacin 8 weeks before mating. Mothers and pups were then sacrificed and metabolic and molecular analyses were carried out on sAT. HCD induced mitochondria dysfunction in mothers without inflammation and senescence, whereas in pups we also revealed the occurrence of senescent phenotype...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137135/an-electrochemical-enzyme-biosensor-for-3-hydroxybutyrate-detection-using-screen-printed-electrodes-modified-by-reduced-graphene-oxide-and-thionine
#4
Gonzalo Martínez-García, Elena Pérez-Julián, Lourdes Agüí, Naomí Cabré, Jorge Joven, Paloma Yáñez-Sedeño, José Manuel Pingarrón
A biosensor for 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB) involving immobilization of the enzyme 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase onto a screen-printed carbon electrode modified with reduced graphene oxide (GO) and thionine (THI) is reported here. After addition of 3-hydroxybutyrate or the sample in the presence of NAD⁺ cofactor, the generated NADH could be detected amperometrically at 0.0 V vs. Ag pseudo reference electrode. Under the optimized experimental conditions, a calibration plot for 3-HB was constructed showing a wide linear range between 0...
November 11, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123192/targeted-mitochondrial-therapy-using-mitoq-shows-equivalent-renoprotection-to-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibition-but-no-combined-synergy-in-diabetes
#5
Micheal S Ward, Nicole B Flemming, Linda A Gallo, Amelia K Fotheringham, Domenica A McCarthy, Aowen Zhuang, Peter H Tang, Danielle J Borg, Hannah Shaw, Benjamin Harvie, David R Briskey, Llion A Roberts, Manuel R Plan, Michael P Murphy, Mark P Hodson, Josephine M Forbes
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a pathological mediator of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Our objective was to test the mitochondrially targeted agent, MitoQ, alone and in combination with first line therapy for DKD. Intervention therapies (i) vehicle (D); (ii) MitoQ (DMitoQ;0.6 mg/kg/day); (iii) Ramipril (DRam;3 mg/kg/day) or (iv) combination (DCoAd) were administered to male diabetic db/db mice for 12 weeks (n = 11-13/group). Non-diabetic (C) db/m mice were followed concurrently. No therapy altered glycaemic control or body weight...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122596/studies-of-lysine-cyclodeaminase-from-streptomyces-pristinaespiralis-insights-into-the-complex-transition-nad-state
#6
Hanxiao Ying, Jing Wang, Ting Shi, Yilei Zhao, Xin Wang, Pingkai Ouyang, Kequan Chen
Lysine cyclodeaminase (LCD) catalyzes the piperidine ring formation in macrolide-pipecolate natural products metabolic pathways from a lysine substrate through a combination of cyclization and deamination. This enzyme belongs to a unique enzyme class, which uses NAD(+) as the catalytic prosthetic group instead of as the co-substrate. To understand the molecular details of NAD(+) functions in lysine cyclodeaminase, we have determined four ternary crystal structure complexes of LCD-NAD(+) with pipecolic acid (LCD-PA), lysine (LCD-LYS), and an intermediate (LCD-INT) as ligands at 2...
November 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120608/biochemical-gas-sensors-biosniffers-using-forward-and-reverse-reactions-of-secondary-alcohol-dehydrogenase-for-breath-isopropanol-and-acetone-as-potential-volatile-biomarkers-of-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Po-Jen Chien, Takuma Suzuki, Masato Tsujii, Ming Ye, Isao Minami, Kanako Toda, Hiromi Otsuka, Koji Toma, Takahiro Arakawa, Kouji Araki, Yasuhiko Iwasaki, Kayoko Shinada, Yoshihiro Ogawa, Kohji Mitsubayashi
This study describes two biosniffers to determine breath acetone and isopropanol (IPA) levels and applies them for breath measurement in healthy subjects and diabetic patients. Secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (S-ADH) can reduce acetone and oxidize nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH to NAD(+)) in a weak acid environment. NADH can be excited by 340 nm excitation lights and subsequently emit 490 nm fluorescence. Therefore, acetone can be measured by the decrease in NADH fluorescence intensity. S-ADH can also oxidize IPA and reduce NAD(+) to NADH when it is in an alkaline environment...
November 9, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112954/metabolic-dynamics-restricted-by-conserved-carriers-jamming-and-feedback
#8
Tetsuhiro S Hatakeyama, Chikara Furusawa
To uncover the processes and mechanisms of cellular physiology, it first necessary to gain an understanding of the underlying metabolic dynamics. Recent studies using a constraint-based approach succeeded in predicting the steady states of cellular metabolic systems by utilizing conserved quantities in the metabolic networks such as carriers such as ATP/ADP as an energy carrier or NADH/NAD+ as a hydrogen carrier. Although such conservation quantities restrict not only the steady state but also the dynamics themselves, the latter aspect has not yet been completely understood...
November 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107809/sanguinarine-is-reduced-by-nadh-through-a-covalent-adduct
#9
Roman Sandor, Jiri Slanina, Adam Midlik, Kristyna Sebrlova, Lucie Novotna, Martina Carnecka, Iva Slaninova, Petr Taborsky, Eva Taborska, Ondrej Pes
Sanguinarine is a benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid with interesting cytotoxic properties, such as induction of oxidative DNA damage and very rapid apoptosis, which is not mediated by p53-dependent signaling. It has been previously documented that sanguinarine is reduced with NADH even in absence of any enzymes while being converted to its dihydro form. We found that the dark blue fluorescent species, observed during sanguinarine reduction with NADH and misinterpreted by Matkar et al. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys...
November 3, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106036/inhibition-of-mitochondrial-complex-i-improves-glucose-metabolism-independently-of-ampk-activation
#10
Wo-Lin Hou, Jun Yin, Miriayi Alimujiang, Xue-Ying Yu, Li-Gen Ai, Yu-Qian Bao, Fang Liu, Wei-Ping Jia
Accumulating evidences showed metformin and berberine, well-known glucose-lowering agents, were able to inhibit mitochondrial electron transport chain at complex I. In this study, we aimed to explore the antihyperglycaemic effect of complex I inhibition. Rotenone, amobarbital and gene silence of NDUFA13 were used to inhibit complex I. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test were performed in db/db mice. Lactate release and glucose consumption were measured to investigate glucose metabolism in HepG2 hepatocytes and C2C12 myotubes...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104634/endogenous-nampt-upregulation-is-associated-with-diabetic-nephropathy-inflammatory-fibrosis-through-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65-and-sirt1-pathway-nmn-alleviates-diabetic-nephropathy-inflammatory-fibrosis-by-inhibiting-endogenous-nampt
#11
Ye Chen, Yuzhen Liang, Tingting Hu, Riming Wei, Congjie Cai, Ping Wang, Lingyu Wang, Wei Qiao, Leping Feng
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) is a key enzyme in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) biosynthetic pathway. Exogenous extra cellular Nampt has been reported to increase the synthesis of pro-fibrotic molecules in various types of renal cells. However, the role of endogenous Namptenzymatic activity in diabetic renal cells, particularly those associated with inflammation and fibrosis through the nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 and sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) pathway is still unknown. In the present study, a possible mechanism by which endogenous Nampt upregulation affects the expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines in vivo and in vitro, is reported...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103319/in-vivo-evaluation-of-electron-mediators-for-the-reduction-of-methemoglobin-encapsulated-in-liposomes-using-electron-energies-produced-by-red-blood-cell-glycolysis
#12
Semhar Ghirmai, Leif Bülow, Hiromi Sakai
Earlier studies have clarified that NADH and NADPH, re-energized repeatedly by red blood cell (RBC) glycolysis, can be used in extracellular chemical reactions, where electron energies are extracted by electron mediators, such as methylene blue (MB). The electron mediators, which are reduced by NAD(P)H, permeate both the membranes of RBC and phospholipid bilayer of liposomes encapsulating haemoglobin (Hb-vesicles, HbV) and reduce autoxidized ferric methemoglobin (metHb) in HbV to ferrous Hb. Moreover, in vitro screening study clarified some other potential electron mediators with comparable capacity to reduce metHb...
November 6, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099858/effects-of-glucose-availability-in-lactobacillus-sakei-metabolic-change-and-regulation-of-the-proteome-and-transcriptome
#13
Anette McLeod, Ellen F Mosleth, Ida Rud, Filipe Branco Dos Santos, Lars Snipen, Kristian Hovde Liland, Lars Axelsson
Effects of glucose availability were investigated in Lactobacillus sakei strains 23K and LS25 cultivated in anaerobic, glucose-limited chemostats set at high (D = 0.357 h-1) and low (D = 0.045 h-1) dilution rates. We observed for both strains a shift from homolactic towards more mixed acid fermentation when comparing high to low growth rates. However, this change was more pronounced for LS25 than for 23K, where dominating products were lactate>formate>acetate≥ethanol at both conditions. A multivariate approach was used for analyzing proteome and transcriptome data from the bacterial cultures, where the predictive power of the omics data was used for identifying features that can explain the differences in the end-product profiles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095437/metformin-ameliorates-arsenic-trioxide-hepatotoxicity-via-inhibiting-mitochondrial-complex-i
#14
Sunbin Ling, Qiaonan Shan, Peng Liu, Tingting Feng, Xuanyu Zhang, Penghui Xiang, Kangchen Chen, Haiyang Xie, Penghong Song, Lin Zhou, Jimin Liu, Shusen Zheng, Xiao Xu
Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a well-accepted chemotherapy agent in managing promyelocytic leukemia. ATO often causes severe health hazards such as hepatotoxicity, dermatosis, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and cardiotoxicity. The production of reactive oxygen species, (ROS) play a significant role in ATO-induced hepatotoxicity. The oral hypoglycemic drug, metformin, is considered to be a potential novel agent for chemoprevention in the treatment of cancer. Moreover, metformin has also been shown to have hepatoprotective effects...
November 2, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093766/generation-and-bioenergetic-profiles-of-cybrids-with-east-asian-mtdna-haplogroups
#15
Huaibin Zhou, Ke Nie, Ruyi Qiu, Jingting Xiong, Xiaoli Shao, Bingqian Wang, Lijun Shen, Jianxin Lyu, Hezhi Fang
Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants and haplogroups may contribute to susceptibility to various diseases and pathological conditions, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. To address this issue, we established a cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) system to investigate the role of mtDNA haplogroups in human disease; specifically, we examined the effects of East Asian mtDNA genetic backgrounds on oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos). We found that mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms such as m.489T>C, m...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090698/novel-half-sandwich-iridium-iii-imino-pyridyl-complexes-showing-remarkable-in-vitro-anticancer-activity
#16
JuanJuan Li, Lihua Guo, Zhenzhen Tian, Meng Tian, Shumiao Zhang, Ke Xu, Yuchuan Qian, Zhe Liu
Seven novel half-sandwich Ir(III) cyclopentadienyl complexes, [(η(5)-Cp(x))Ir(N^N)Cl]PF6, have been prepared and characterized, where Cp(x) is Cp* or the biphenyl derivative Cp(xbiph) (C5Me4C6H4C6H5), and the N^N-chelating ligands are imino-pyridyl Schiff-bases. The X-ray crystal structures of complexes 2A, 2B, and 3A have been determined. Excitingly, most of the complexes show potent antiproliferative activity towards A549 and HeLa cancer cells, except for Cp* complex 1A towards HeLa cells. Cp(xbiph) complex 2B displayed the highest potency, about 19 and 6 times more active than the clinically used drug cisplatin toward A549 and HeLa cells, respectively...
November 14, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089150/hemin-reduces-hmgb1-release-by-uvb-in-an-ampk-ho-1-dependent-pathway-in-human-keratinocytes-hacat-cells
#17
Eun Jung Park, Young Min Kim, Ki Churl Chang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) plays an important role as a pro-inflammatory cytokine that regulates inflammation in various diseases. We hypothesized that hemin might reduce HMGB1 release through the induction of HO-1 in UVB-induced HaCaTs. METHODS: The effects of hemin on the release of HMGB1 in UVB exposure were evaluated. The mechanisms were investigated using various signal inhibitors and small interfering RNA techniques. RESULTS: Treatment with hemin inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) in UVB-induced HaCaTs in a dose-dependent manner...
October 28, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29088980/spectrophotometric-assays-for-measuring-redox-biomarkers-in-blood-and-tissues-the-nadph-network
#18
Aristidis S Veskoukis, Nikos V Margaritelis, Antonios Kyparos, Vassilis Paschalis, Michalis G Nikolaidis
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)/NADH) along with its phosphorylated form (NADP(+)/NADPH) are two molecules ubiquitously present in all organisms, and they play key roles as cofactors in fundamental catabolic and anabolic processes, respectively. The oxidation of NADPH to NADP(+) initiates a cascade of reactions, where a network of molecules is implicated. The molecules of this cascade form a network with eminent translational potential in redox metabolism. A special point of interest is that spectrophotometric assays have been developed both for NADH/NADPH and the molecules directly regulated by them...
October 31, 2017: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073779/mitochondrial-nad-nadh-redox-state-and-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#19
Jessica M Berthiaume, Jacob G Kurdys, Danina M Muntean, Mariana G Rosca
SIGNIFICANCE: Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a frequent complication occurring even in well-controlled asymptomatic diabetic patients, and may advance to heart failure. Recent advances: The diabetic heart is characterized by a state of "metabolic rigidity" involving enhanced rates of fatty acid uptake and mitochondrial oxidation as the predominant energy source, and exhibits mitochondrial electron transport chain defects. These alterations promote redox state changes evidenced by a decreased NAD+/NADH ratio associated with an increase in acetyl-CoA/CoA ratio...
October 26, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059204/alterations-of-sirtuins-in-mitochondrial-cytochrome-c-oxidase-deficiency
#20
Arne Björn Potthast, Theresa Heuer, Simone Johanna Warneke, Anibh Martin Das
BACKGROUND: Sirtuins are NAD+ dependent deacetylases, which regulate mitochondrial energy metabolism as well as cellular response to stress. The NAD/NADH-system plays a crucial role in oxidative phosphorylation linking sirtuins and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Furthermore, sirtuins are able to directly deacetylate and activate different complexes of the respiratory chain. This prompted us to analyse sirtuin levels in skin fibroblasts from patients with cytochrome c-oxidase (COX) deficiency and to test the impact of different pharmaceutical activators of sirtuins (SRT1720, paeonol) to modulate sirtuins and possibly respiratory chain enzymes in patient cells in vitro...
2017: PloS One
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