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Waste water carbon

J W Chung, M Breulmann, A Clemens, C Fühner, J W Foppen, P N L Lens
Hydrothermal carbonization technology can convert fecal waste into a valuable carbonaceous product referred to as hydrochar. We investigated the potential of fecal waste-derived hydrochar as an adsorbent for virus removal in water treatment. Swine feces was hydrothermally treated under two conditions: at 180 °C for 2 h and 230 °C for 7 h. The resulting solid products (hydrochar) were evaluated as virus adsorbents in water treatment. Simultaneous removal of pathogenic rotavirus (RV) and human adenovirus (HAdV) was investigated using a sand column set-up of 10 cm bed height with and without hydrochar supplement (1...
October 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Lukas C Buelens, Vladimir V Galvita, Hilde Poelman, Christophe Detavernier, Guy B Marin
Efficient CO2 transformation from a waste product to carbon source for chemicals and fuels will require reaction conditions that effect its reduction. We develop a "super-dry" CH4 reforming reaction for enhanced CO production from CH4 and CO2 We used Ni/MgAl2O4 as a CH4 reforming catalyst, Fe2O3/MgAl2O4 as a solid oxygen carrier, and CaO/Al2O3 as a CO2 sorbent. The isothermal coupling of these three different processes resulted in higher CO production compared with conventional dry reforming by avoiding back reactions with water...
October 13, 2016: Science
Chido H Chihobo, Arindrajit Chowdhury, Pardon K Kuipa, David J Simbi
Pyrolysis is an attractive thermochemical conversion technology that may be utilised as a safe disposal option for acid tar waste. The kinetics of acid tar pyrolysis were investigated using thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectrometry under a nitrogen atmosphere at different heating rates of 10, 15 and 20 K min(-1) The thermogravimetric analysis shows three major reaction peaks centred around 178 °C, 258 °C, and 336 °C corresponding to the successive degradation of water soluble lower molecular mass sulphonic acids, sulphonated high molecular mass hydrocarbons, and high molecular mass hydrocarbons...
October 10, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Alexander C Hayes, S Enongene Ekwe, Steve Mervin, Earl Jenson
The extraction of natural resources often involves housing workers in remote work camps far from population centres. These camps are prevalent in northern Alberta where they house approximately 40,000 workers involved in oil sands processing. The central, full-service cafeterias at these camps produce a significant quantity of food and cardboard waste. Due to their remote nature, these camps face high waste disposal costs associated with trucking waste long distances to the landfill. In this study, we investigated the techno-economic feasibility of on-site treatment of food and cardboard waste in a tandem dry batch, garage-style anaerobic digestion-compost process in which the waste material is converted into renewable energy used to heat the camp water supply and a nutrient-rich soil amendment for local land reclamation projects...
October 4, 2016: Waste Management
Marion Eisenhut, Andrea Bräutigam, Stefan Timm, Alexandra Florian, Takayuki Tohge, Alisdair R Fernie, Hermann Bauwe, Andreas P M Weber
The photorespiratory pathway, short photorespiration, is an essential process in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms but also reduces the efficiency of photosynthetic carbon assimilation and is hence frequently considered as a wasteful process. By comparing the response of wild type plants and mutants impaired in photorespiration to a shift in ambient CO2 concentrations, we demonstrate that photorespiration also plays a beneficial role during short-term acclimation to reduced CO2 availability. Wild type plants responded with few differentially expressed genes, mostly involved in drought stress, which is likely a consequence of enhanced opening of stomata and concomitant water loss upon shift toward low CO2...
October 1, 2016: Molecular Plant
Noha A El Essawy, Abdelaziz H Konsowa, Mohamed Elnouby, Hassan A Farag
Nowadays our planet suffers from the accumulation of the plastic products which have a potential to cause a great harm to the environment in the form of air, water and land pollution. Plastic water bottles have become a great problem in the environment because of the mass numbers consumed throughout the world. Certain types of plastic bottles can be recycled but most of them are not. This paper describes an economical solvent free process that converts polyethyleneterephtalate (PET) bottles waste into carbon nanostructure materials via thermal dissociation in a closed system under autogenic pressure together with additives and/or catalyst which can act as cluster nuclei for carbon nanostructure materials as fullerenes and carbon nanotube...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Tanja T Radović, Svetlana D Grujić, Srđan R Kovačević, Mila D Laušević, Milan A Dimkić
In the present work, the sorption ability of 17 pharmaceutical compounds, two metabolites, and 15 pesticides (34 target compounds in total) onto four different river sediments was investigated separately. Selected compounds present the most frequently prescribed pharmaceuticals in human and animal medicine and the most frequently used pesticides in agriculture. Their presence into the surface, ground, and waste waters was confirmed into the numerous papers in literature, as well as their presence into the river sediments (for some of them)...
September 29, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Bo G Eriksson
New vegetation in barren areas offers possibilities for sequestering carbon in the soil. Arid and semi-arid areas (ASAs) are candidates for new vegetation. The possibility of agriculture in ASAs is reviewed, revealing the potential for cultivation by covering the surface with a layer of organic fibres. This layer collects more water from humidity in the air than does the uncovered mineral surface, and creates a humid environment that promotes microbial life. One possibility is to use large amounts of organic fibres for soil enhancement in ASAs...
September 24, 2016: Ambio
Jiali Yang, Junzhuo Liu, Chenxi Wu, Philip G Kerr, Po-Keung Wong, Yonghong Wu
The aim of this work was to study the bioremediation of agricultural solid waste leachates with high-concentrations of Cu (II) and Cd (II) after washing the wastes with water and Na2EDTA solution (0.2M). Results indicate that Cu (II) and Cd (II) are mainly comprised of Cu2(OH)2(2+), Cu3(OH)4(2+), CuOH(+), Cu(H2O)4(OH)2, Cd(2+) and CdOH(+) in the water-washed leachates and Cu(EDTA)(2-), Cu(HEDTA)(-), Cd(EDTA)(2-) and Cd(HEDTA)(-) in the Na2EDTA-washed leachates. Cu (II) removal efficiency by selected native periphyton from the water- and Na2EDTA-washed leachates were 80...
December 2016: Bioresource Technology
Isabel González, María Auxiliadora Vázquez, Antonio J Romero-Baena, Cinta Barba-Brioso
Fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) was treated with microorganisms (Sporosarcina pasteurii and Myxococcus xanthus) to assess their capacity for cementing this waste material. Leaching tests on the samples treated with bacteria were also performed to assess the possibility of recovering and recycling trace elements from the fly ash. Sequential extractions combined with mineralogical studies demonstrated that Pb is mobile in water when associated with portlandite. Also, Cd, Pb, and Zn are primarily associated with carbonates and are mobile in acidic environments (up to 4...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
B P Naveen, Durga Madhab Mahapatra, T G Sitharam, P V Sivapullaiah, T V Ramachandra
Unscientific management and ad-hoc approaches in municipal solid waste management have led to a generation of voluminous leachate in urban conglomerates. Quantification, quality assessment, following treatment and management of leachate has become a serious problem worldwide. In this context, the present study investigates the physico-chemical and biological characterization of landfill leachate and nearby water sources and attempts to identify relationships between the key parameters together with understanding the various processes for chemical transformations...
September 8, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Hongmei Bu, Xianfang Song, Fen Guo
Dissolved trace element concentrations (Ba, Fe, Mn, Si, Sr, and Zn) were investigated in the Haicheng River near to the Liaodong Bay in Northeast China during 2010. Dissolved Ba, Fe, Mn, and Sr showed significant spatial variation, whereas dissolved Fe, Mn, and Zn displayed seasonal variations. Conditions such as water temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen were found to have an important impact on redox reactions involving dissolved Ba, Fe, and Zn. Dissolved Fe and Mn concentrations were regulated by adsorption or desorption of Fe/Mn oxyhydroxides and the effects of organic carbon complexation on dissolved Ba and Sr were found to be significant...
September 7, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Geoffrey P Hammond, Bo Li
Environmental or 'ecological' footprints have been widely used in recent years as indicators of resource consumption and waste absorption presented in terms of biologically productive land area [in global hectares (gha)] required per capita with prevailing technology. In contrast, 'carbon footprints' are the amount of carbon (or carbon dioxide equivalent) emissions for such activities in units of mass or weight (like kilograms per functional unit), but can be translated into a component of the environmental footprint (on a gha basis)...
September 2016: Global Change Biology. Bioenergy
Carlo Bianco, Tiziana Tosco, Rajandrea Sethi
Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in the environment can act both as contaminants, when they are unintentionally released, and as remediation agents when injected on purpose at contaminated sites. In this work two carbon-based NPs are considered, namely CARBO-IRON®, a new material developed for contaminated site remediation, and single layer graphene oxide (SLGO), a potential contaminant of the next future. Understanding and modeling the transport and deposition of such NPs in aquifer systems is a key aspect in both cases, and numerical models capable to simulate NP transport in groundwater in complex 3D scenarios are necessary...
August 20, 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Nguyen Thi Thanh Truc, Byeong-Kyu Lee
This study reports simple, selective, and sustainable separation of chlorinated plastic (polyvinyl chloride, PVC) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) containing brominated flame retardants (BFRs) from mixed waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) plastics using microwave and/or mild-heat treatment. Microwave treatment after plastic coating with powdered activated carbon (PAC) selectively increased the hydrophilicity of the PVC surface, which facilitated PVC separation (100% recovery and purity) from the WEEE plastic mixture under the optimum flotation conditions...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Mahalingam Shanmugam, Ali Alsalme, Abdulaziz Alghamdi, Ramasamy Jayavel
Graphene-titanium oxide (G-TiO2) nanocomposites were synthesized by a novel surfactant free, environmentally friendly one-port in-situ microwave method. The structure of the nanocomposite was characterized by the X-ray diffraction analysis and the morphology by using scanning electron microscopic and transmission electron microscopic images. The functional groups and carbon band structures were identified using FTIR and Raman spectral analysis. TiO2 nanoparticles in the size range of 5-10nm were distributed on the graphene sheets...
October 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Andreas C Scheinost, Robin Steudtner, René Hübner, Stephan Weiss, Frank Bok
The Np(V) retention by siderite, an Fe(II) carbonate mineral with relevance for the near-field of high-level radioactive waste repositories, was investigated under anoxic conditions. Batch sorption experiments show that siderite has a high affinity for aqueous Np(V)O2(+) across pH 7 to 13 as expressed by solid-water distribution coefficients, log Rd, > 5, similar to the log Rd determined for the (solely) tetravalent actinide Th on calcite, suggesting reduction of Np(V) to Np(IV) by siderite. Np L3-edge X-ray absorption near edge (XANES) spectroscopy conducted in a pH range typical for siderite-containing host rocks (7-8), confirmed the tetravalent Np oxidation state...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Poernomo Gunawan, Wen Xiao, Marcus Wen Hao Chua, Cheryl Poh-Choo Tan, Jun Ding, Ziyi Zhong
One-dimensional (1D) magnetic nanostructures with high thermal stability have important industrial applications, but their fabrication remains a big challenge. Herein we demonstrate a scalable approach for the preparation of stable 1D γ-Fe2O3@carbon, which is also applicable for other metal oxide-core and carbon-shell nanostructures, such as 1D TiO2@carbon. One-dimensional ferric oxyhydroxide (α-FeO(OH)) was initially prepared by a hydrothermal method, followed by carbon coating through hydrothermal treatment of the resulting metal oxide in glucose solution...
October 14, 2016: Nanotechnology
Maebh A Grace, Eoghan Clifford, Mark G Healy
Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are an ever-increasing occurrence in water networks, particularly those which abstract water from peatland areas. Although much research has been carried out to discover novel methods to remove specific DBPs, the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) from source water may provide a more sustainable solution in many areas. This study focuses on the removal of NOM by novel filters, which could be retrospectively fitted to any conventional water treatment facility. The filters comprised stratified layers of a variety of media, including sand, Bayer residue, granular activated carbon (GAC), and pyritic fill...
November 1, 2016: Water Research
Lin Zhang, Ying Lu, Ying-Ling Liu, Ming Li, Hai-Yang Zhao, Li-An Hou
Graphene oxide (GO)-based membranes provide an encouraging opportunity to support high separation efficiency for wastewater treatment. However, due to the relatively weak interaction between GO nanosheets, it is difficult for bare GO-based membranes to survive in cross-flow filtration. In addition, the permeation flux of the bare GO membrane is not high sufficiently due to its narrow interlayer spacing. In this study, GO membranes interlinked with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) via covalent bonds were fabricated on modified polyacrylonitrile (PAN) supports by vacuum filtration...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
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