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Waste water carbon

Jan Mumme, Josephine Getz, Munoo Prasad, Ulf Lüder, Jürgen Kern, Ondřej Mašek, Wolfram Buss
This study assessed the properties and toxicity (water cress germination trials) of 38 waste-derived, novel biochar-mineral composites (BMCs) produced via slow pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization (hydrochars). The biochars were produced from sewage sludge and compost-like output (CLO) by varying the type of mineral additive (zeolite, wood ash and lignite fly ash), the mineral-to-feedstock ratio and the carbonization process. While pure hydrochars completely inhibited germination of water cress, this effect was ameliorated by mineral additives...
May 8, 2018: Chemosphere
Antonio Turco, Anna Grazia Monteduro, Elisabetta Mazzotta, Giuseppe Maruccio, Cosimino Malitesta
Energy efficient, low-cost, user-friendly, and green methods for the removal of toxic phenolic compounds from aqueous solution are necessary for waste treatment in industrial applications. Herein we present an interesting approach for the utilization of oxidized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the removal of phenolic compounds from aqueous solution. Dried pristine CNTs were stably incorporated in a solid porous support of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) facilitating the handling during both oxidation process of the nanomaterial and uptake of phenolic compounds, and enabling their safe disposal, avoiding expensive post-treatment processes...
May 16, 2018: Nanomaterials
Talita L L Carmo, Vinícius C Azevedo, Priscila R Siqueira, Tiago D Galvão, Fabrício A Santos, Cláudia B R Martinez, Carlos R Appoloni, Marisa N Fernandes
Manufactured titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 -NP) have been intensely applied in numerous industrial products and may be a risk for aquatic systems as they are not completely removed from domestic and industrial wastes after water treatment. This study evaluated the osmo- and ionic balance, Na+ /K+ -ATPase, H+ -ATPase and carbonic anhydrase activities and the mitochondria-rich cells (MRC) in the gills and kidney of the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus after 2 (acute) and 14 (subchronic) days of exposure to nominal 0, 1, 5, 10 and 50 mg L-1 TiO2 -NP...
May 9, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Akram El Kateb, Claudio Stalder, Andres Rüggeberg, Christoph Neururer, Jorge E Spangenberg, Silvia Spezzaferri
The marine environment in the Gulf of Gabes (southern Tunisia) is severely impacted by phosphate industries. Nowadays, three localities, Sfax, Skhira and Gabes produce phosphoric acid along the coasts of this Gulf and generate a large amount of phosphogypsum as a waste product. The Gabes phosphate industry is the major cause of pollution in the Gulf because most of the waste is directly discharged into the sea without preliminary treatment. This study investigates the marine environment in the proximity of the phosphate industries of Gabes and the coastal marine environment on the eastern coast of Djerba, without phosphate industry...
2018: PloS One
Xiao-Fei Han, Juan Chen, Yan-Ping Shi
A N-doped carbon nanotubes-reinforced hollow fiber solid-phase microextraction (N-doped CNTs-HF-SPME) method was developed for determination of two naphthalene-derived phytohormones, 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid (2-NOA), at trace levels in tomatoes. N-doped CNTs were dispersed in ultrapure water with the assistance of surfactant, and then immobilized into the pores of hollow fiber by capillary forces and sonification. The resultant N-doped CNTs-HF was wetted with 1-octanol, subsequently immersed into the tomato samples to extract the target analytes under a magnetic stirring, and then desorbed with methanol by sonication prior to chromatographic analysis...
August 1, 2018: Talanta
Qiaochong He, Dongqing Zhang, Kevan Main, Chuanping Feng, Sarina J Ergas
There is a lack of information on denitrification of saline wastewaters, such as those from marine recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), ion exchange brines and wastewater in areas where sea water is used for toilet flushing. In this study, side-by-side microcosms were used to compare methanol, fish waste (FW), wood chips, elemental sulfur (S0 ) and a combination of wood chips and sulfur for saline wastewater denitrification. The highest denitrification rate was obtained with methanol (23.4 g N/(m3 ·d)), followed by FW (4...
May 8, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Jie Han, Guilong Zhang, Linglin Zhou, Furu Zhan, Dongqing Cai, Zhengyan Wu
A new nanocomposite (SCZ), micro spherical carbon (SC) loaded with nanoscale zero-valent iron (ZVI), was fabricated to efficiently remove hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from water. Therein, SC was derived from waste carton through hydrothermal treatment after pretreatment of removing hemicellulose and lignin, and the optimal hydrothermal conditions (200oC, hydrothermal time of 12 h) for the preparation of SC were obtained. Subsequently, SC could be used as an ideal carrier for ZVI nano particles which distributed evenly on the surface of SC and in the pores among SC particles, favoring the dispersion of ZVI through steric hindrance effect...
May 11, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Thomas Kiran Marella, Narasimha Reddy Parine, Archana Tiwari
Because of the decreasing fossil fuel supply and increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, microalgae have been identified as a viable and sustainable feedstock for biofuel production. The major effect of the release of wastewater rich in organic compounds has led to the eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems. A combined approach of freshwater diatom cultivation with urban sewage water treatment is a promising solution for nutrient removal and biofuel production. In this study, urban wastewater from eutrophic Hussain Sagar Lake was used to cultivate a diatom algae consortium, and the effects of silica and trace metal enrichment on growth, nutrient removal, and lipid production were evaluated...
May 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Louis B Jugnia, Dominic Manno, Karine Drouin, Meghan Hendry
Bioremediation was performed in situ at a former military range site to assess the performance of native bacteria in degrading hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT). The fate of these pollutants in soil and soil pore water was investigated as influenced by waste glycerol amendment to the soil. Following waste glycerol application, there was an accumulation of organic carbon that promoted microbial activity, converting organic carbon into acetate and propionate, which are intermediate compounds in anaerobic processes...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Gonçalo Oliveira, Vânia Calisto, Sérgio M Santos, Marta Otero, Valdemar I Esteves
In this work, two pulps, bleached (BP) and raw pulp (RP), derived from the paper production process, were used as precursors of non-activated and activated carbons (ACs). In the case of non-ACs, the production involved either pyrolysis or pyrolysis followed by acid washing. For ACs production, the pulps were impregnated with K2 CO3 or H3 PO4 , and then pyrolysed and acid washed. After production, the materials were physically and chemically characterized. Then, batch adsorption tests on the removal of two pharmaceuticals (the anti-epileptic carbamazepine (CBZ) and the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX)) from ultra-pure water and from Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) effluents were performed...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Renata Świderska-Dąbrowska, Krzysztof Piaskowski, Paweł K Zarzycki
There is great interest in the search for multifunctional waste-based materials that may be applied as environmentally friendly adsorbents. Iron-rich sludge from ground drinking-water treatment plants may be considered a potential adsorbent for various water contaminants. This material is generated during ground water purification because of the excess of metal ions in water (Fe, Mn). In practice, this sludge is frequently disposed of as waste material and, so far, is not commonly applied as the adsorption base...
May 3, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Abdul Hamid Nurfarahin, Mohd Shamzi Mohamed, Lai Yee Phang
Surfactants are compounds that can reduce the surface tension between two different phases or the interfacial tension of the liquid between water and oil, possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties. Biosurfactants have traits that have proven to be advantageous over synthetic surfactants, but these compounds do not compete economically with synthetic surfactants. Different alternatives increase the yield of biosurfactants; development of an economical production process and the usage of cheaper substrates during process have been employed...
May 1, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Guillaume Nielsen, Ido Hatam, Karl A Abuan, Amelie Janin, Lucie Coudert, Jean Francois Blais, Guy Mercier, Susan A Baldwin
Mine drainage contaminated with metals is a major environmental threat since it is a source of water pollution with devastating effects on aquatic ecosystems. Conventional active treatment technologies are prohibitively expensive and so there is increasing demand to develop reliable, cost-effective and sustainable passive or semi-passive treatment. These are promising alternatives since they leverage the metabolism of microorganisms native to the disturbed site at in situ or close to in situ conditions. Since this is a biological approach, it is not clear if semi-passive treatment would be effective in remote locations with extremely cold weather such as at mines in the subarctic...
April 23, 2018: Water Research
Yufeng Jia, Huajun Feng, Dongsheng Shen, Yuyang Zhou, Ting Chen, Meizhen Wang, Wei Chen, Zhipeng Ge, Lijie Huang, Shuting Zheng
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are promising for converting biomass energy into electricity, and have attracted much research interest. However, few inexpensive high-performance anode materials for MFCs exist. In this study, MFC anodes composed of sewage sludge and different contents of fly ash (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%) are fabricated via a one-step carbonization method. The maximum current density of 25.5 A m-2 is achieved using the electrode with 20% fly ash, which is 37.5% higher than that of the electrode without fly ash...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Lu Zhang, Xiangyang Sun
Composting is a popular method for recycling organic solid wastes including agricultural and forestry residues. However, traditional composting method is time consuming, generates foul smells, and produces an immature product. The effects of maifanite (MF; at 0%, 8.5%, and 13.5%) and/or silage (SG; at 0%, 25%, and 45%) as amendments on an innovative, two-stage method for composting green waste (GW) were investigated. The combined addition of MF and SG greatly improved composting conditions, reduced composting time, and enhanced compost quality in terms of composting temperature, bulk density, water-holding capacity, void ratio, pH, cation exchange capacity, ammonia nitrogen content, dissolved organic carbon content, crude fibre degradation, microbial numbers, enzyme activities, nutrient contents, and phytotoxicity...
April 23, 2018: Waste Management
Dongdong Zhang, Peter Clauwaert, Amanda Luther, Diego López Barreiro, Wolter Prins, D W F Wim Brilman, Frederik Ronsse
Sub- and supercritical water oxidation was applied to recover carbon as CO2 , while maintaining nitrogen as NH4 + or NO3 - , from sludge obtained from an anaerobic fermenter running on a model waste composed of plant residues and human fecal matter. The objective was to fully convert carbon in the organic waste to CO2 while maintaining nutrients (specifically N) in the liquid effluent. In regenerative life support systems, CO2 and nutrients could then be further used in plant production; thus creating a closed carbon and nutrient cycle...
April 20, 2018: Waste Management
Yuxi Zhang, Qunqun Ruan, Yaguang Peng, Guopeng Han, Hongliang Huang, Chongli Zhong
Large organic pollutants in wastewater are harmful to human health and environmental ecosystem, and it is of great importance to remove them from waste water. In this report, hierarchical-pore metal-organic frameworks with different mesopore sizes (H-UiO-66-3.8 nm and H-UiO-66-17.3 nm) have been successfully synthesized at reflux condition. The resulting MOFs are characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption analysis and the results show that the samples have hierarchical-pore structures, which indicate the heat reflux method is efficient for the synthesis of H-UiO-66s on liter scale...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Takanori Itoh, Kazunori Iwabuchi, Kumpei Ota
This study aimed to establish a new methodology for upgrading biomass quality using low-temperature (below 100 °C) oxidation to achieve simultaneous drying and decomposition. Sterilized manure (63% wet basis) was heated at 90 °C for 49 days under an oxidative environment. The obtained solid and moisture reduction curves indicated that drying and decomposition proceeded simultaneously. The biomass was decomposed by oxidation with the release of water, carbon dioxide, and volatile fatty acids such as acetic acid...
2018: PloS One
Arvind Kumar Shakya, Parasmani Rajput, Pranab Kumar Ghosh
Arsenic is removed from aqueous phase through precipitation as arsenosulphides and/or co-precipitation and adsorption on iron sulphides. Studies were carried out to ascertain the stability of reduced biogenic arsenic and iron sulphide precipitates formed in an attached growth reactor (AGR) through a series of experiments based on Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), aging and long term leaching tests. About half of the AGR was initially added with waste activated carbon (WAC) to support the growth of mixed microbial consortia and used for treatment of arsenic and iron contaminated simulated groundwater...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Aarthi Pandiarajan, Ramakrishnan Kamaraj, Sudharshan Vasudevan, Subramanyan Vasudevan
This study presents the orange peel activated carbon (OPAC), derived from biowaste precursor (orange peel) by single step pyrolysis method and its application for the adsorption of chlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicides from the water. The OPAC exhibited the surface area of 592.471 m2  g-1 , pore volume and pore diameter of 0.242 cc g-1 and 1.301 nm respectively. The adsorption kinetics and thermodynamic equilibrium modelling for all chlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicides were investigated. The various parametric effects such as pH and temperature were evaluated...
April 12, 2018: Bioresource Technology
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