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Waste water carbon

Chuanhui Liao, Jin Hong, Dingtao Zhao, Shuang Zhang, Changhong Chen
Food waste is a worldwide problem due to its effects on carbon emission, water pollution, and arable lands. Previous studies of food waste generation and reduction focus on demographic, psychological, and situational factors, whereas the effects of culture in different countries have been ignored. This paper investigates the influence of Confucian culture on behaviors that waste food, considering additional factors of face saving and group conformity. We used an integrated behavioral intention model combining the TPB model and Lee's modified Fishbein model...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yilong Hua, Wei Wang, Xiaoyue Huang, Tianhang Gu, Dexin Ding, Lan Ling, Wei-Xian Zhang
Bicarbonate, ubiquitous in natural and waste waters is an important factor regulating the rate and efficiency of pollutant separation and transformation. For example, it can form complexes with U(VI) in the aqueous phase and at the solid-water interface. In this work, we investigated the effect of bicarbonate on the aging of nanoscale zero-valent (nZVI) in the context of U(VI) reduction and removal from wastewater. For fresh nZVI, over 99% aqueous uranium was separated in less than 10 min, of which 83% was reduced from U(VI) to U(IV)...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
J K Pinnegar
The damselfish Chromis chromis is typically the most abundant fish species in the rocky littoral environment of the Mediterranean Sea, where it feeds in huge shoals on incoming zooplankton and rests near the seabed each night. Research has shown that large populations of C. chromis play a fundamental role by transferring carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus directly from the pelagic system to the littoral in the form of solid and liquid wastes and therefore that this species acts as a vital conduit for nutrients...
March 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Nestor D Ortega-de la Rosa, Jose L Vázquez-Vázquez, Sergio Huerta-Ochoa, Miquel Gimeno, Mariano Gutiérrez-Rojas
Acinetobacter species are identified as producing surface-active and emulsifying molecules known as bioemulsifiers. Production, characterization and stability of bioemulsifiers produced by Acinetobacter bouvetii UAM25 were studied. A. bouvetii UAM25 grew in three different carbon and energy sources: ethanol, a glycerol-hexadecane mixture and waste cooking oil in an airlift bioreactor, showing that bioemulsifier production was growth associated. The three purified bioemulsifiers were lipo-heteropolysaccharides of high molecular weight (4866 ± 533 and 462 ± 101 kDa)...
March 14, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Guilaine Jaria, Carla Patrícia Silva, João A B P Oliveira, Sérgio M Santos, María Victoria Gil, Marta Otero, Vânia Calisto, Valdemar I Esteves
The wide occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments urges the development of cost-effective solutions for their removal from water. In a circular economy context, primary paper mill sludge (PS) was used to produce activated carbon (AC) aiming the adsorptive removal of these contaminants. The use of low-cost precursors for the preparation of ACs capable of competing with commercial ACs continues to be a challenge. A full factorial design of four factors (pyrolysis temperature, residence time, precursor/activating agent ratio, and type of activating agent) at two levels was applied to the production of AC using PS as precursor...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Michał Toński, Joanna Dołżonek, Monika Paszkiewicz, Jerzy Wojsławski, Piotr Stepnowski, Anna Białk-Bielińska
The presence of anticancer drugs in the environment raises a major concern due to their potentially negative impact on living organisms, as they cause, inter alia, teratogenic, mutagenic, carcinogenic effects on growing cells. The main source of these pharmaceuticals in the environment is the ineffectively treated wastewaters, hence the efficient methods for their removal are required. In this study, we have evaluated for the first time the applicability of different Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) as alternative adsorbents for the removal of three popular anticancer drugs from water matrices, which are detected in waste/hospital waters at the concentrations even up to μg L-1 : cyclophosphamide (CP), ifosfamide (IF) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)...
February 22, 2018: Chemosphere
Xing Fan, Jie Chang, Yuan Ren, Xu Wu, Yuanyuan Du, Ronghua Xu, Dong Liu, Scott X Chang, Laura A Meyerson, Changhui Peng, Ying Ge
Dairy production is becoming more industrialized globally, especially in developing countries. The large amount of animal wastes from industrial feedlots cannot be fully used on nearby farmlands, leading to severe environmental problems. Using China as a case study, we found that most dairy feedlots employ a semi-coupled mode that only recycles solid manure to farmlands, and only a few dairy feedlots employ a fully-coupled mode that recycles both solid and liquid animal manure. To produce one ton of milk, the fully-coupled mode could reduce greenhouse gas (including carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in this paper) emissions by 24%, ammonia emissions by 14%, and N discharge into water by 29%, compared with the semi-coupled systems...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Phodiso P Mashile, Anele Mpupa, Philiswa N Nomngongo
Microcystin LR (MC-LR) is a highly toxic compound and it is known for its adverse health effect on both humans and animals. Due to the ineffectiveness of conventional water treatments methods, for the past decades, researchers have been developing cost-effective ways of removing MC-LR from water bodies. This study reports the application of powdered activated carbon (PAC) obtained from the waste tyre for the removal of MC-LR. The choice of the adsorbent was chosen due to its attractive properties. The prepared tyre-based PAC was found to have the large surface area (1111 m2  g-1 )...
February 28, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Yunjie Liu, Dezhang Ren, Zhiyuan Song, Xinyan Wan, Chuntao Zhang, Fangming Jin, Zhibao Huo
A novel magnetic heavy metal adsorbent was prepared via diethylenetriamine (DETA) modification on magnetic hydrothermal carbon, with glucose and sugar-containing waste water as the carbon source. The prepared materials were characterized by FT-IR, SEM, TEM, EDXRF, TGA, elemental analysis, XPS, and magnetic moment determination. In this paper, the adsorption mechanism of the modified and unmodified adsorbents was well discussed. Four kinds of waste water (watermelon juice, expired sprite, sugar-pressing waste water, and confectionary waste water) were employed to produce heavy metal ion adsorbents; the chemical properties of hydrothermal carbon derived from the proposed sources were analyzed as well...
March 2, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Steven J Granger, Yuguo Yang, Verena Pfahler, Chris Hodgson, Andrew C Smith, Kate Le Cocq, Adrian L Collins, Martin S A Blackwell, Nicholas J K Howden
RATIONALE: Phosphorus losses from agriculture pose an environmental threat to watercourses. A new approach using the stable oxygen isotope ratio of oxygen in phosphate (δ18 OPO4 value) may help elucidate some phosphorus sources and cycling. Accurately determined and isotopically distinct source values are essential for this process. The δ18 OPO4 values of animal wastes have, up to now, received little attention. METHODS: Phosphate (PO4 ) was extracted from cattle faeces using anion resins and the contribution of microbial PO4 was assessed...
February 28, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Yusniel Cruz-Hernández, Mismel Ruiz-García, Mario Villalobos, Francisco Martin Romero, Diana Meza-Figueroa, Fernando Garrido, Elizabeth Hernández-Alvarez, Teresa Pi-Puig
Mining and metallurgy generate residues that may contain thallium (Tl), a highly toxic metal, for which it is currently not feasible to determine its geochemical speciation through X-ray absorption spectroscopy due to a combination of very low contents and the interference of accompanying high arsenic contents. Therefore, fractionation studies in residues and soils are required to analyze the mobility and bioavailability of this metal, which in turn provide information to infer its speciation. For this purpose, in this work a modification of the BCR procedure was applied to residues and contaminated soils from three mining zones of Mexico and two mining zones of Spain, spanning samples with acidic to alkaline pH values...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Patrick Louchouarn, Shaya M Seward, Gerard Cornelissen, Hans Peter H Arp, Kevin M Yeager, Robin Brinkmeyer, Peter H Santschi
Sediments from a waste pit in Houston Ship Channel (HSC) were characterized using a number of molecular markers of natural organic matter fractions (e.g., pyrogenic carbon residues, PAHs, lignins), in addition to dioxins, in order to test the hypothesis that the dispersal and mobility of dioxins from the waste pit in the San Jacinto River is minimal. Station SG-6, sampled at the site of the submerged waste pit, had the highest dioxin/furan concentrations reported for the Houston Ship Channel/Galveston Bay (HSC/GB) system (10,000-46,000 pg/g), which translated into some of the highest reported World Health Organization Toxic Equivalents (TEQs: 2000-11,000 pg/g) in HSC sediments...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Silvia Ružičková, Dagmar Remeteiová, Vladislava Mičková, Vojtech Dirner
In this work, the matrix characterization (mineralogy, total and local chemical composition, and total organic (TOC) and inorganic carbon (TIC) contents) of different types of sediments from mining- and metallurgy-influenced areas and the assessment of the impact of the matrix on the association of potentially hazardous metals with the mineral phases of these samples, which affect their mobility in the environment, are presented. For these purposes, sediment samples with different origins and from different locations in the environment were analyzed...
February 21, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Haimei Zhou, Ping Lv, Hang Qi, Jinqi Ma, Jianji Wang
Numerous applications of ionic liquids (ILs) are often accompanied with the generation of aqueous wastes. Due to the high toxicity and poor biodegradability of ILs, effective chemical treatment is great of importance for their removal from aqueous solution. In this work, an ultrasound-assisted zero-valent iron/activated carbon (US-ZVI/AC) micro-electrolysis technique was used to degrade residual functionalized ILs, 1-butyl-3-methyl benzimidazolium bromide ([BMBIM]Br) and 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([AMIM]Cl) in aqueous solution, and the degradation degree, degradation kinetics and possible degradation pathways were investigated...
February 21, 2018: Environmental Technology
Božidar Rašković, Vesna Poleksić, Stefan Skorić, Katarina Jovičić, Slađana Spasić, Aleksandar Hegediš, Nebojša Vasić, Mirjana Lenhardt
Chub (Squalius cephalus) specimens were collected in Korenita River seven months after spillover from the waste water of antimony mine tailing pond and compared with chub living in Kruščica reservoir (intended for water supply) and Međuvršje reservoir (influenced by intense emission of industrial, urban and rural wastewater). Concentrations of 15 elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Si, Sr, Zn) were determined in muscle, liver and gills of chub by inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometry (ICP-OES) and histopathological alterations in liver and gills were assessed...
February 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Bo Sung Kang, Yeojin Hong, Heejin Lee, Young Min Kim, Sang Chai Kim, Jong-Ki Jeon, Sang-Chul Jung, Young-Kwon Park
The removal of acetaldehyde, which is one of main components of food waste odor was investigated using biomass char as a nanoporous carbon absorbent. The biomass char adsorbent obtained from the pyrolysis of Geodae-Uksae was modified by the water and KOH treatment. The modified char absorbent had a higher acetaldehyde removal efficiency than nanoporous CMK-8 possibly due to its high oxygen and nitrogen functional groups.
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Michael A Mallin, Matthew R McIver
Concentrated (or confined) animal feed operations (CAFOs) are the principal means of livestock production in the United States, and such facilities pollute nearby waterways because of their waste management practices; CAFO waste is pumped from the confinement structure into a cesspit and sprayed on a field. Stocking Head Creek is located in eastern North Carolina, a state with >9,000,000 head of swine confined in CAFOs. This watershed contains 40 swine CAFOs; stream water quality was investigated at seven sites during 2016, with five sampling dates in early spring and five in summer...
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Gang Li, Sardar Khan, Muhammad Ibrahim, Tian-Ran Sun, Jian-Feng Tang, James B Cotner, Yao-Yang Xu
Biochar application has attracted great attention due to its diverse uses and benefits in the fields of environmental management and agriculture. Biochar modifies the composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soil, which directly or indirectly controls the mobility of metal contaminants and their bioaccumulation. In this study, ten different hydrothermal biochars pyrolysed from mushroom waste (MSBC), soybean straw (SBBC), sewage sludge (SSBC), peanut shells (PNBC) and rice straw (RSBC) at two pyrolysis temperatures (200 °C and 350 °C) were used to investigate DOM changes in soil solution and their effects on metal availability and bioaccumulation...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Petra Muri, Romana Marinšek-Logar, Petar Djinović, Albin Pintar
This study assesses the impact of different support materials (Mutag BioChip™, expanded clay and activated carbon) on microbial hydrogen production in an anaerobic packed-bed reactor (APBR) treating synthetic waste water containing glucose as the main carbon source at low pH value. The APBRs were inoculated with acid pretreated anaerobic sludge and operated at pH value of 4±0.2 and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3h. The maximum hydrogen yield of 1.80mol H2/mol glucose was achieved for the APBR packed with Mutag BioChip™ (R1), followed by expanded clay (R2, 1...
April 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Poushali Das, Sayan Ganguly, Priti Prasanna Maity, Madhuparna Bose, Subhadip Mondal, Santanu Dhara, Amit Kumar Das, Susanta Banerjee, Narayan Ch Das
Proper waste disposal from household and restaurants is becoming an important and recurring waste-management concern. Herein, a method of upcycling of waste kitchen chimney oil has been adopted to prepare fluorescent multifunctional carbon quantum dots. These nanodots showed superior biocompatibility, excellent optical properties, water solubility and high yield. Preparation of C-dots from highly abundant carbon source of waste refusals is highly effective in commercial aspect as well as in reducing the immense environmental pollution...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
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