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Waste water carbon

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348658/novel-multifunctional-cheese-like-3d-carbon-bn-as-a-highly-efficient-adsorbent-for-water-purification
#1
Zhenya Liu, Yi Fang, Huichao Jia, Chong Wang, Qianqian Song, Lanlan Li, Jing Lin, Yang Huang, Chao Yu, Chengchun Tang
In this paper, a novel three dimensional carbon boron nitride (3D C-BN) was successfully prepared. The obtained material has porous cheese-like structure and pore size ranging from 2 nm to 100 nm. Attractively, the 3D C-BN, which combines the adsorption advantages of BN and carbon together, exhibits excellent adsorption properties for organic dyes, oils and heavy metal ions. The maximum removal capacities of 3D C-BN for methyl blue (MB) and congo red (CR) are 408 mg g-1 and 307 mg g-1, respectively...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336527/sustainable-synthesis-of-oxalic-and-succinic-acid-via-aerobic-oxidation-of-c6-polyols-by-using-m-cnt-ncnt-m-fe-v-based-catalysts-in-mild-conditions
#2
Angela Dibenedetto, Maria Ventura, David Williamson, Francesco Lobefaro, Matthew D Jones, Davide Mattia, Francesco Nocito, Michele Aresta
Sustainable chemical industry encompasses the shift from fossil carbon to renewable carbon. The synthesis of chemicals from non-edible biomass (cellulosic or oily) represents one of the key steps for "greening" the chemical industry. In this paper we report the aerobic oxidation-cleavage of C6 polyols (5-HMF, glucose, fructose, sucrose) in water to oxalic acid-OA (and succinic acid-SA) under mild conditions using M@CNT/NCNT (M=Fe, V; CNT=carbon nanotubes; NCNT= N-doped CNT), which, under suitable conditions, are recoverable and reusable without any loss of efficiency...
January 16, 2018: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329005/costs-and-benefits-of-biogas-recovery-from-communal-anaerobic-digesters-treating-domestic-wastewater-evidence-from-peri-urban-zambia
#3
Jeannette Laramee, Sebastien Tilmans, Jennifer Davis
Communal anaerobic digesters (ADs) have been promoted as a waste-to-energy strategy that can provide sanitation and clean energy co-benefits. However, little empirical evidence is available regarding the performance of such systems in field conditions. This study assesses the wastewater treatment efficiency, energy production, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and financial costs and benefits of communal ADs used for domestic wastewater treatment in Zambia. Primary data on the technical performance of 15 ADs were collected over a 6-month period and in-person interviews were conducted with heads of 120 households...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322108/production-of-biodiesel-by-enzymatic-transesterification-of-waste-sardine-oil-and-evaluation-of-its-engine-performance
#4
A Arumugam, V Ponnusami
Waste sardine oil, a byproduct of fish industry, was employed as a low cost feedstock for biodiesel production. It has relatively high free fatty acid (FFA) content (32 mg KOH/g of oil). Lipase enzyme immobilized on activated carbon was used as the catalyst for the transesterification reaction. Process variables viz. reaction temperature, water content and oil to methanol molar ratio were optimized. Optimum methanol to oil molar ratio, water content and temperature were found to be 9:1, 10 v/v% and 30 °C respectively...
December 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289904/enhanced-removal-of-cr-vi-from-aqueous-solution-by-supported-zno-nanoparticles-on-biochar-derived-from-waste-water-hyacinth
#5
Jiangdong Yu, Chunyan Jiang, Qingqing Guan, Ping Ning, Junjie Gu, Qiuling Chen, Junmin Zhang, Rongrong Miao
Biochar derived from waste water hyacinth was prepared and modified by ZnO nanoparticles for Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solution with the aim of Cr(VI) removal and management of waste biomass. The effect of carbonization temperature (500-800 °C), ZnO content (10-50 wt%) loaded on biochar and contact time (0.17-14 h) on the Cr(VI) removal were investigated. It was found that higher than 95% removal efficiency of Cr(VI) can be achieved with the biochar loaded 30 wt% ZnO. The adsorption kinetics of the sorbent is consistent with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and adsorption isotherm follows the Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 43...
December 22, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249061/combining-an-experimental-study-and-anfis-modeling-to-predict-landfill-leachate-transport-in-underlying-soil-a-case-study-in-north-of-iran
#6
D Yousefi Kebria, M Ghavami, S Javadi, M Goharimanesh
In the contemporary world, urbanization and progressive industrial activities increase the rate of waste material generated in many developed countries. Municipal solid waste landfills (MSWs) are designed to dispose the waste from urban areas. However, discharged landfill leachate, the soluble water mixture that filters through solid waste landfills, can potentially migrate into the soil and affect living organisms by making harmful biological changes in the ecosystem. Due to well-documented landfill problems involving contamination, it is necessary to investigate the long-term influence of discharged leachate on the consistency of the soil beds beneath MSW landfills...
December 16, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248685/bioconversion-of-carbon-dioxide-to-methane-using-hydrogen-and-hydrogenotrophic-methanogens
#7
REVIEW
Jana Zabranska, Dana Pokorna
Biogas produced from organic wastes contains energetically usable methane and unavoidable amount of carbon dioxide. The exploitation of whole biogas energy is locally limited and utilization of the natural gas transport system requires CO2 removal or its conversion to methane. The biological conversion of CO2 and hydrogen to methane is well known reaction without the demand of high pressure and temperature and is carried out by hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Reducing equivalents to the biotransformation of carbon dioxide from biogas or other resources to biomethane can be supplied by external hydrogen...
December 14, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245134/phosphorus-recovery-and-reuse-by-pyrolysis-applications-for-agriculture-and-environment
#8
REVIEW
Daquan Sun, Lauren Hale, Gourango Kar, Raju Soolanayakanahally, Sina Adl
Phosphorus ore extraction for soil fertilization supports the demand of modern agriculture, but extractable resource limitations, due to scarcity, impose a P reuse and recycling research agenda. Here we propose to integrate biochar production (pyrogenic carbon) with municipal and agricultural waste management systems, to recover and reuse phosphorous that would otherwise be lost from the ecological food web. A meta-analysis and available data on total P in biochar indicated that P-enriched feedstocks include animal manure, human excreta, and plant-biomass collected from P-polluted sites...
December 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229200/waste-based-alternative-adsorbents-for-the-remediation-of-pharmaceutical-contaminated-waters-has-a-step-forward-already-been-taken
#9
REVIEW
Carla Patrícia Silva, Guilaine Jaria, Marta Otero, Valdemar I Esteves, Vânia Calisto
When adsorption is considered for water treatment, commercial activated carbon is usually the chosen adsorbent for the removal of pollutants from the aqueous phase, particularly pharmaceuticals. In order to decrease costs and save natural resources, attempts have been made to use wastes as raw materials for the production of alternative carbon adsorbents. This approach intends to increase efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and also to propose an alternative and sustainable way for the valorization/management of residues...
December 2, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210275/sequestration-of-antimony-on-calcite-observed-by-time-resolved-nanoscale-imaging
#10
Francois Renard, Christine V Putnis, German Montes-Hernandez, Helen E King, Gijs D Breedveld, Gudny Okkenhaug
Antimony, which has damaging effects on the human body and the ecosystem, can be released into soils, ground- and surface waters either from ore minerals that weather in near surface environments, or due to anthropogenic releases from waste rich in antimony, a component used in batteries, electronics, ammunitions, plastics and many other industrial applications. Here, we show that dissolved Sb can interact with calcite, a widespread carbonate mineral, through a coupled dissolution-precipitation mechanism. The process is imaged in-situ, at room temperature, at the nanometer scale by using an atomic force microscope equipped with a flow-through cell...
December 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198522/role-of-compostable-tableware-in-food-service-and-waste-management-a-life-cycle-assessment-study
#11
Maurizio Fieschi, Ugo Pretato
It is estimated that in Europe 88-100 million tonnes of food waste are generated every year, with a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of around 227 MT of CO2 equivalents generated for their collection and disposal. A 12% of this waste is estimated to arise from food service within the hospitality sector, which includes quick service restaurants, casual and fine dining, contract catering (canteens, prisons, hospitals, schools etc.) as well as indoor and outdoor events and exhibitions. Given this considerable amount and that the mixed unsorted collection is often the only practicable way to handle such waste flows, the choice of tableware and cutlery can make a big difference in facilitating waste collection as well as in reducing the overall environmental impact of food waste management...
November 30, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198265/review-feed-demand-landscape-and-implications-of-food-not-feed-strategy-for-food-security-and-climate-change
#12
H P S Makkar
The food-feed competition is one of the complex challenges, and so are the ongoing climate change, land degradation and water shortage for realizing sustainable food production systems. By 2050 the global demand for animal products is projected to increase by 60% to 70%, and developing countries will have a lion's share in this increase. Currently, ~800 million tonnes of cereals (one-third of total cereal production) are used in animal feed and by 2050 it is projected to be over 1.1 billion tonnes. Most of the increase in feed demand will be in developing countries, which already face many food security challenges...
December 4, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196056/modeling-the-fate-and-end-of-life-phase-of-engineered-nanomaterials-in-the-japanese-construction-sector
#13
Shinya Suzuki, Florian Part, Yasushi Matsufuji, Marion Huber-Humer
To date construction materials that contain engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are available at the markets, but at the same time very little is known about their environmental fate. Therefore, this study aimed at modeling the potential fate of ENMs by using the example of the Japanese construction sector and by conducting a dynamic material flow analysis. Expert interviews and national reports revealed that about 3920-4660 tons of ENMs are annually used for construction materials in Japan. Nanoscale TiO2, SiO2, Al2O3 and carbon black have already been applied for decades to wall paints, road markings or concrete...
November 28, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191369/effect-of-drying-composting-and-subsequent-impurity-removal-by-sieving-on-the-properties-of-digestates-from-municipal-organic-waste
#14
Christine Knoop, Christina Dornack, Thomas Raab
The application of organic soil amendments is a common measure to prevent structural degradation of agricultural soils and to maintain and improve long-term soil fertility. Solid residues from anaerobic digestion of municipal organic waste (MOW) are rich in nutrients and organic matter and have a promising potential to be used as soil amendment. However, no study has related amendment properties of MOW digestate of one origin to different treatment procedures. We therefore investigated the impact of drying, composting and sieving on final digestate properties and specifically nutrient availability and heavy metal and carbon elution...
November 27, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179114/valorization-of-poly-ethylene-terephthalate-pet-wastes-into-magnetic-carbon-for-adsorption-of-antibiotic-from-water-characterization-and-application
#15
Premanjali Rai, Kunwar P Singh
Waste Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles were pyrolyzed in the presence of nitrogen and converted into activated carbon (PETAC) by physical activation in carbon dioxide flow. An ex-situ precipitation and external reduction method were applied for the intercalation of ferromagnetic iron oxides onto the PETAC matrix. The characteristic structural and chemical properties of PETAC and magnetic PETAC (M-PETAC) were studied by Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis, Raman spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, Energy Dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and elemental analysis...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156437/home-composting-using-different-ratios-of-bulking-agent-to-food-waste
#16
Lucas Lourenço Castiglioni Guidoni, Roger Vasques Marques, Rodrigo Bilhalva Moncks, Fabiana Torma Botelho, Matheus Francisco da Paz, Luciara Bilhalva Corrêa, Érico Kunde Corrêa
The negative environmental impacts associated with home composting may be due to the absence of a defined operation criteria for the degradation process. In addition to the potentially low environmental impact in terms of energy and water usage, which is minimal to the manufacture of the composting unit and avoiding the processing and transportation of waste or byproduct, composting at home can also promote a reduction in the emission of unpleasant gases. The proportion of the food waste and bulking agents in the composting mixture may be decisive to fulfill good practices of waste stabilization...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156263/application-of-biochar-from-food-and-wood-waste-as-green-admixture-for-cement-mortar
#17
Souradeep Gupta, Harn Wei Kua, Hui Jun Koh
Landfilling of food waste due to its low recycling rate is raising serious concerns because of associated soil and water contamination, and emission of methane and other greenhouse gases during the degradation process. This paper explores feasibility of using biochar derived from mixed food waste (FWBC), rice waste (RWBC) and wood waste (mixed wood saw dust, MWBC) as carbon sequestering additive in mortar. RWBC is prepared from boiled plain rice, while FWBC is prepared from combination of rice, meat, and vegetables in fixed proportion...
November 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154003/tracing-the-role-of-endogenous-carbon-in-denitrification-using-wine-industry-by-product-as-an-external-electron-donor-coupling-isotopic-tools-with-mathematical-modeling
#18
R Carrey, P Rodríguez-Escales, A Soler, N Otero
Nitrate removal through enhanced biological denitrification (EBD), consisting of the inoculation of an external electron donor, is a feasible solution for the recovery of groundwater quality. In this context, liquid waste from wine industries (wine industry by-products, WIB) may be feasible for use as a reactant to enhance heterotrophic denitrification. To address the feasibility of WIB as electron donor to promote denitrification, as well as to evaluate the role of biomass as a secondary organic C source, a flow-through experiment was carried out...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152698/characterization-and-valorization-of-biomass-char-a-comparison-with-biomass-ash
#19
Nikhilesh S Trivedi, Sachin A Mandavgane, Ashish Chaurasia
Organic matter derived from living, or recently living plant and animal, which can be used as fuel is called as biomass. It includes wood and agricultural waste such as dead plant etc. In India, majority of population depends largely upon agriculture as their primary source of income. Following every harvest, a huge amount of biomass is generated. It is mostly discarded as "agro waste"; however, recently, several uses of biomass and its derivatives have been reported. Thermochemical processing of biomass in absence of oxygen produces biomass char and flue gases which are of economic importance...
November 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150502/hyperthermophilic-carbamate-kinase-stability-and-anabolic-in-vitro-activity-at-alkaline-ph
#20
James E Hennessy, Melissa J Latter, Somayeh Fazelinejad, Amy Philbrook, Daniel M Bartkus, Hye-Kyung Kim, Hideki Onagi, John G Oakeshott, Colin Scott, Apostolos Alissandratos, Christopher J Easton
Carbamate kinases catalyze the conversion of carbamate to carbamoyl phosphate, which is readily transformed into other compounds. Carbamate forms spontaneously from ammonia and carbon dioxide in aqueous solutions, so the kinases have potential for sequestrative utilization of the latter compounds. Here, we compare seven carbamate kinases from mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic sources. In addition to the known enzymes from Enterococcus faecalis and Pyrococcus furiosus, the previously unreported enzymes from the hyperthermophiles Thermococcus sibiricus and Thermococcus barophilus, the thermophiles Fervidobacterium nodosum and Thermosipho melanesiensis, and the mesophile Clostridium tetani, were all expressed recombinantly, each in high yield...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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