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Waste water nitrogen

G S Nyashina, K Yu Vershinina, M A Dmitrienko, P A Strizhak
A promising solution to many problems that thermal power industry is facing today would be switching from conventional coal dust combustion to coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP). Here, we perform an experimental study of the most hazardous anthropogenic emissions (sulfur and nitrogen oxides) from the combustion of high-potential CWSP. We identify the main benefits and potential drawbacks of using CWSP in thermal power industry. A set of components and additives to CWSP are explored that significantly affect the environmental and energy performance of fuels...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
S Mingmongkolchai, W Panbangred
The use of probiotics as feed supplements in animal production has increased considerably over the last decade, particularly since the ban on antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in the livestock sector. Several Bacillus spp. are attractive for use as probiotic supplements in animal feed due to their ability to produce spores. Their heat stability and ability to survive the low pH of the gastric barrier represent an advantage over other probiotic microorganisms. This review discusses important characteristics required for selection of Bacillus probiotic strains and summarizes the beneficial effect of Bacillus-based feed additives on animal production...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Di Zhang, Xingxiang Wang, Zhigao Zhou
Industrialized small-scale pig farming has been rapidly developed in developing regions such as China and Southeast Asia, but the environmental problems accompanying pig farming have not been fully recognized. This study investigated 168 small-scale pig farms and 29 example pig farms in Yujiang County of China to examine current and potential impacts of pig wastes on soil, water and crop qualities in the hilly red soil region, China. The results indicated that the small-scale pig farms produced considerable annual yields of wastes, with medians of 216, 333 and 773 ton yr-1 per pig farm for manure, urine and washing wastewater, respectively, which has had significant impact on surface water quality...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Premanjali Rai, Kunwar P Singh
Waste Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles were pyrolyzed in the presence of nitrogen and converted into activated carbon (PETAC) by physical activation in carbon dioxide flow. An ex-situ precipitation and external reduction method were applied for the intercalation of ferromagnetic iron oxides onto the PETAC matrix. The characteristic structural and chemical properties of PETAC and magnetic PETAC (M-PETAC) were studied by Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis, Raman spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, Energy Dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and elemental analysis...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Lucas Lourenço Castiglioni Guidoni, Roger Vasques Marques, Rodrigo Bilhalva Moncks, Fabiana Torma Botelho, Matheus Francisco da Paz, Luciara Bilhalva Corrêa, Érico Kunde Corrêa
The negative environmental impacts associated with home composting may be due to the absence of a defined operation criteria for the degradation process. In addition to the potentially low environmental impact in terms of energy and water usage, which is minimal to the manufacture of the composting unit and avoiding the processing and transportation of waste or byproduct, composting at home can also promote a reduction in the emission of unpleasant gases. The proportion of the food waste and bulking agents in the composting mixture may be decisive to fulfill good practices of waste stabilization...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
James E Hennessy, Melissa J Latter, Somayeh Fazelinejad, Amy Philbrook, Daniel M Bartkus, Hye-Kyung Kim, Hideki Onagi, John G Oakeshott, Colin Scott, Apostolos Alissandratos, Christopher J Easton
Carbamate kinases catalyze the conversion of carbamate to carbamoyl phosphate, which is readily transformed into other compounds. Carbamate forms spontaneously from ammonia and carbon dioxide in aqueous solutions, so the kinases have potential for sequestrative utilization of the latter compounds. Here, we compare seven carbamate kinases from mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic sources. In addition to the known enzymes from Enterococcus faecalis and Pyrococcus furiosus, the previously unreported enzymes from the hyperthermophiles Thermococcus sibiricus and Thermococcus barophilus, the thermophiles Fervidobacterium nodosum and Thermosipho melanesiensis, and the mesophile Clostridium tetani, were all expressed recombinantly, each in high yield...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Wenjun Chen, Bin He, Daniel Nover, Weili Duan, Chuan Luo, Kaiyan Zhao, Wen Chen
Excessive nitrogen (N) discharge from agriculture causes widespread problems in aquatic ecosystems. Knowledge of spatiotemporal patterns and source attribution of N pollution is critical for nutrient management programs but is poorly studied in headwaters with various small water bodies and mini-point pollution sources. Taking a typical small watershed in the low mountains of Southeastern China as an example, N pollution and source attribution were studied for a multipond system around a village using the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Renganath Rao Ramesh, Vimudha Muralidharan, Saravanan Palanivel
Usage of the animal fleshing waste as the source of carbon and nitrogen for animal skin unhairing protease (EC 3.4.21) production along with agro-industrial wastes like wheat bran has been investigated. Thermal hydrolysis of delimed fleshing waste for 3 h yielded a fleshing hydrolysate (FH) having a protein content of 20.86 mg/mL and total solids of 46,600 ppm. The FH was lyophilized and spray dried to obtain fleshing hydrolysate powder (FHP) to be used along with wheat bran and rice bran for protease production...
November 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Steffen Werner, Korbinian Kätzl, Marc Wichern, Andreas Buerkert, Christoph Steiner, Bernd Marschner
In many water-scarce countries, waste water is used for irrigation which poses a health risk to farmers and consumers. At the same time, it delivers nutrients to the farming systems. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that biochar can be used as a filter medium for waste water treatment to reduce pathogen loads. At the same time, the biochar is becoming enriched with nutrients and therefore can act as a fertilizer for soil amendment. We used biochar as a filter medium for the filtration of raw waste water and compared the agronomic effects of this "filterchar" (FC) and the untreated biochar (BC) in a greenhouse pot trial on spring wheat biomass production on an acidic sandy soil from Niger...
November 2, 2017: Environmental Pollution
J G Murnane, O Fenton, M G Healy
This study aimed to quantify leaching losses of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C), as well as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions from stored slurry, and from packed soil columns surface applied with unamended and chemically amended dairy and pig slurries, and dairy soiled water (DSW). The amendments to the slurries, which were applied individually and together, were: polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and zeolite for pig and dairy slurry, and liquid aluminium sulfate (alum) and zeolite for DSW...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Dilip K L Harijan, Vimlesh Chandra, Taeseung Yoon, Kwang S Kim
The effective capture and storage of radioactive iodine is of importance for nuclear waste storage during nuclear power station accidents. Here we report Fe3O4@PPy powder containing ∼12nm magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles encapsulated in the polypyrrole (PPy) matrix. It shows 1627mg/g uptake of iodine dissolved in water, within 2h at room temperature. Fe3O4@PPy is ferromagnetic in nature and can be separated from water using external magnetic field. The nitrogen gas sweeping test at 30°C shows release of 2% iodine from iodine adsorbed Fe3O4@PPy, revealing stable storage of iodine for a moderate period...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Olha Nikolenko, Anna Jurado, Alberto V Borges, Kay Knӧller, Serge Brouyѐre
This work reviews applications of stable isotope analysis to the studies of transport and transformation of N species in groundwater under agricultural areas. It summarizes evidence regarding factors affecting the isotopic composition of NO3(-), NH4(+) and N2O in subsurface, and discusses the use of (11)B, (18)O, (13)C, (34)S, (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotopes to support the analysis of δ(15)N values. The isotopic composition of NO3(-), NH4(+) and N2O varies depending on their sources and dynamics of N cycle processes...
October 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Julien Crovadore, Vice Soljan, Gautier Calmin, Romain Chablais, Bastien Cochard, François Lefort
Anaerobic digestion is a common method for reducing the amount of sludge solids in used waters and enabling biogas production. The wet oxidation process (WOX) improves anaerobic digestion by converting carbon into methane through oxidation of organic compounds. WOX produces effluents rich in ammonia, which must be removed to maintain the activity of methanogens. Ammonia removal from WOX could be biologically operated by aerobic granules. To this end, granulation experiments were conducted in 2 bioreactors containing an activated sludge (AS)...
October 2017: Heliyon
Yutthapong Sangnoi, Sunipa Chankaew, Sompong O-Thong
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Toxic nitrogen compounds are one cause decreasing of shrimp production and water pollution. Indigenous Halomonas spp., isolated from Pacific white shrimp farm are benefitted for saline ammonium waste water treatment. This study aimed to isolate the heterotrophic-halophilic Halomonas spp. and investigate their ammonium removal efficiency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Halomonas spp., were isolated by culturing of samples collected from shrimp farm into modified Pep-Beef-AOM medium...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Qian Shang, Haifang Tang, Yinghui Wang, Kefu Yu, Liwei Wang, Ruijie Zhang, Shaopeng Wang, Rui Xue, Chaoshuai Wei
As a kind of tropical agricultural solid waste, cassava dregs had become a thorny nonpoint source pollution problem. This study investigated the feasibility of applying cassava dregs as a substitute for sucrose in biofloc technology (BFT) systems. Three types of biofloc systems (using three different carbon sources sucrose (BFT1), cassava dregs (BFT2) and enzyme-hydrolyzed cassava dregs (BFT3) respectively), and the control were constructed in this experiment in 200L tanks with a C/N ratio of 20/1. The comparison of the water quality indicators (The total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), nitrite (NO2(-)-N), nitrate (NO3(-)-N), chemical oxygen demand (COD)), biofloc for the above four groups was performed, and the results indicated that BFT3 showed greater potential to the formation of biofloc, which was beneficial for the water quality control...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Zi Jun Yong, Mohammed J K Bashir, Choon Aun Ng, Sumathi Sethupathi, Jun-Wei Lim
The increase in landfill leachate generation is due to the increase of municipal solid waste (MSW) as global development continues. Landfill leachate has constantly been the most challenging issue in MSW management as it contains high amount of organic and inorganic compounds that might cause pollution to water resources. Biologically treated landfill leachate often fails to fulfill the regulatory discharge standards. Thus, to prevent environmental pollution, many landfill leachate treatment plants involve multiple stages treatment process...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Shengjun Xu, Sining Zhou, Shuanglong Ma, Cancan Jiang, Shanghua Wu, Zhihui Bai, Guoqiang Zhuang, Xuliang Zhuang
With the increasing use of chemical fertilizers, negative environmental impacts have greatly increased as a result from agricultural fields. The fungus Trichoderma viride used as a biofertilizer can efficiently reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from subtropical tea fields in southern China. In this paper, it was further found that T. viride biofertilizer could alleviate nitrogen (N) leaching in tea fields. Gross N leaching was 1.51 kg ha(-1) year(-1) with no external fertilizer input, but when 225 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)was applied, it increased to 12...
October 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
E Corneli, A Adessi, E J Olguín, G Ragaglini, D A García-López, R De Philippis
AIMS: Aim of the paper was to assess the feasibility of producing hydrogen as a biofuel by photofermentation of fermented water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) waste biomass, after a nitrogen-stripping treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: A natural (42OL) and an engineered strain (CGA676, with low-ammonium sensitivity) of Rhodopseudomonas palustris were used for producing hydrogen. The stripping procedure was highly effective for ammonium removal, with an acceptable selectivity (91% of ammonium was removed; only 14% of total organic acids were lost)...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Margarita A Dmitrienko, Pavel A Strizhak
This introductory study presents the analysis of the environmental, economic and energy performance indicators of burning high-potential coal water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP) instead of coal, fuel oil, and natural gas at typical thermal power stations (TPS) and a boiler plant. We focus on the most hazardous anthropogenic emissions of coal power industry: sulfur and nitrogen oxides. The research findings show that these emissions may be several times lower if coal and oil processing wastes are mixed with water as compared to the combustion of traditional pulverized coal, even of high grades...
February 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yongdong Zhang, Yaling Su, Zhengwen Liu, Kaihong Sun, Lingyang Kong, Jinlei Yu, Miao Jin
During the past hundred years, the Lake Taihu basin has been greatly impacted by human interventions. The undesirable changes in water quality of lakes, presumably caused by the human activities, remain relatively undescribed in this area. In order to investigate these anthropogenic effects, a (210)Pb dated sediment core from a relatively small lake in the upper reaches of Lake Taihu known as Lake Changdang was subject to a detailed lipid biomarker study and other geochemical analyses including quantification of biogenic silica (BSi), nutrients and heavy metals...
February 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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