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Waste water nitrogen

Mohamad Sukri Mohamad Yusof, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman, Azeman Mustafa, Mukhlis Abdul Rahman, Juhana Jaafar, Ahmad Fauzi Ismail
Palm oil fuel ash (POFA) is an agricultural waste which was employed in this study to produce novel adsorptive ceramic hollow fibre membranes. The membranes were fabricated using phase inversion-based extrusion technique and sintered at 1150 °C. The membranes were then evaluated on their ability to adsorb cadmium (Cd(II)). These membranes were characterised using (nitrogen) N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (FESEM-EDX) mapping, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses while adsorptivity activity was examined by batch adsorption studies...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xiao-Fei Han, Juan Chen, Yan-Ping Shi
A N-doped carbon nanotubes-reinforced hollow fiber solid-phase microextraction (N-doped CNTs-HF-SPME) method was developed for determination of two naphthalene-derived phytohormones, 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid (2-NOA), at trace levels in tomatoes. N-doped CNTs were dispersed in ultrapure water with the assistance of surfactant, and then immobilized into the pores of hollow fiber by capillary forces and sonification. The resultant N-doped CNTs-HF was wetted with 1-octanol, subsequently immersed into the tomato samples to extract the target analytes under a magnetic stirring, and then desorbed with methanol by sonication prior to chromatographic analysis...
August 1, 2018: Talanta
A Gładysz-Płaska, M Majdan, B Tarasiuk, D Sternik, E Grabias
Elimination of U(VI) from nuclear wastes and from the underground water near the uranium mines is the serious problem. Therefore search for new sorbents for U(VI) is still a big challenge for the scientists. This paper investigates of U(VI) ions sorption on halloysite modified with the isothiouronium salts: S-dodecaneisothiouronium bromide (ligand 1), S,S'-dodecane-1,12-diylbis(isothiouronium bromide) (ligand 2), S-hexadecaneisothiouronium chloride (ligand 3), S,S'-naphthalene-1,4-diylbis(methylisothiouronium) dichloride (ligand 4), and S,S'-2,5-dimethylbenzene-1,4-diylbis(methylisothiouronium) dichloride (ligand 5)...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Chen Guang Zhen, Ping Sheng Leng, Li Juan Liu, De Quan Dou, Zeng Hui Hu
The application of municipal sludge in ecological restoration has a good prospect for avoiding the food chain of grain crops, but its influences on surface water environmental are unclear. The municipal sludge and construction waste were mixed with 1:1 (V/V) as growth media, which were covered over simulation coal gangue slopes. Eight native woody species were sowed in the mixed media. The plant growth and coverage, as well as conductivity, pH, the concentrations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) of surface and underground runoff of the slopes in the growing season were investigated...
April 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Abdul Hamid Nurfarahin, Mohd Shamzi Mohamed, Lai Yee Phang
Surfactants are compounds that can reduce the surface tension between two different phases or the interfacial tension of the liquid between water and oil, possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties. Biosurfactants have traits that have proven to be advantageous over synthetic surfactants, but these compounds do not compete economically with synthetic surfactants. Different alternatives increase the yield of biosurfactants; development of an economical production process and the usage of cheaper substrates during process have been employed...
May 1, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
James K H Fang, Christine A Rooks, Cathinka M Krogness, Tina Kutti, Friederike Hoffmann, Raymond J Bannister
To meet the increasing global energy demand, expanding exploration for oil and gas reserves as well as associated drilling activities are expected in the Arctic-boreal region where sponge aggregations contribute to up to 90% of benthic biomass. These deep-water sponges along with their microbial endobionts play key roles in the nitrogen cycling in Arctic-boreal ecosystems. This study aimed to investigate the effects of drilling discharges and associated sediment resuspension events on net fluxes of oxygen, ammonium, nitrate and nitrite in three common deep-water sponge species in the form of explants...
April 26, 2018: Environmental Pollution
X Desmit, V Thieu, G Billen, F Campuzano, V Dulière, J Garnier, L Lassaletta, A Ménesguen, R Neves, L Pinto, M Silvestre, J L Sobrinho, G Lacroix
Marine eutrophication in the North-East Atlantic (NEA) strongly relies on nutrient enrichment at the river outlets, which is linked to human activities and land use in the watersheds. The question is whether human society can reduce its nutrient emissions by changing land use without compromising food security. A new version of Riverstrahler model (pyNuts-Riverstrahler) was designed to estimate the point and diffuse nutrient emissions (N, P, Si) to the rivers depending on land use in the watersheds across a large domain (Western Europe agro-food systems, waste water treatment)...
April 25, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Mui-Choo Jong, Jian-Qiang Su, Joshua T Bunce, Colin R Harwood, Jason R Snape, Yong-Guan Zhu, David W Graham
Inadequate sanitation can lead to the spread of infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) via contaminated water. Unfortunately, wastewater treatment is not universal in many developing and emerging countries, especially in rural and peri-urban locations that are remote from central sewers. As such, small-scale, more sustainable treatment options are needed, such as aerobic-Denitrifying Downflow Hanging Sponge (DDHS) bioreactors. In this study, DDHS reactors were assessed for such applications, and achieved over 79% and 84% removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand and Ammonium, respectively, and up to 71% removal of Total Nitrogen (TN) from domestic wastes...
April 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Lu Zhang, Xiangyang Sun
Composting is a popular method for recycling organic solid wastes including agricultural and forestry residues. However, traditional composting method is time consuming, generates foul smells, and produces an immature product. The effects of maifanite (MF; at 0%, 8.5%, and 13.5%) and/or silage (SG; at 0%, 25%, and 45%) as amendments on an innovative, two-stage method for composting green waste (GW) were investigated. The combined addition of MF and SG greatly improved composting conditions, reduced composting time, and enhanced compost quality in terms of composting temperature, bulk density, water-holding capacity, void ratio, pH, cation exchange capacity, ammonia nitrogen content, dissolved organic carbon content, crude fibre degradation, microbial numbers, enzyme activities, nutrient contents, and phytotoxicity...
April 23, 2018: Waste Management
Dongdong Zhang, Peter Clauwaert, Amanda Luther, Diego López Barreiro, Wolter Prins, D W F Wim Brilman, Frederik Ronsse
Sub- and supercritical water oxidation was applied to recover carbon as CO2 , while maintaining nitrogen as NH4 + or NO3 - , from sludge obtained from an anaerobic fermenter running on a model waste composed of plant residues and human fecal matter. The objective was to fully convert carbon in the organic waste to CO2 while maintaining nutrients (specifically N) in the liquid effluent. In regenerative life support systems, CO2 and nutrients could then be further used in plant production; thus creating a closed carbon and nutrient cycle...
April 20, 2018: Waste Management
Mayowa Agunbiade, Carolina Pohl, Omotayo Ashafa
A bacterium isolated from Sterkfontein dam was confirmed to produce bioflocculant with excellent flocculation activity. The 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence analyses revealed the bacteria to have 99% similarity to Streptomyces platensis strain HBUM174787 and the sequence was deposited in the Genbank as Streptomyces platensis with accession number FJ 486385.1. Culture conditions for optimal production of the bioflocculant included glucose as a sole carbon source, resulting in flocculating activity of 90%. Other optimal conditions included: peptone as nitrogen source; presence of Mg2+ as cations and inoculum size of 1...
April 5, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Jiazhen Zhou, Anran Luo, Youcai Zhao
In this study, the feasibility of preparing activated carbon from waste tea by physical activation using steam was investigated. The effects of activation temperature on yield and pore properties of the prepared activated carbon were studied. The yield decreased with increased activation temperature owing to the decomposition of cellulose and hemicellulose. The specific surface area and pore volume of the activated carbon were estimated using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, Langmuir equation, and t-plot method...
April 18, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Mei-Ling Fang, Ching-Yi Wu, Ming-Shean Chou
Some metal etching operations emit limited flow rates of waste gases with reddish-brown NO2 fume which may cause visual and acidic-odor complaints as well as negative healthy effects. In this study, tests were performed by passing caustic-treated waste gases vented from Al-etching operations through columns packed either with virgin or regenerated GAC (granular activated carbon) to test their adsorptive conversion performance of NO2 in the gases. The gases contained 5-55 ppm NO2 and acetic and nitric acids of below 3 ppm...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Xiaodong Tang, Wanqing Wu, Wei Zeng, Huanfeng Jiang
Selective oxidation, a fundamental organic transformation of critical importance, produces value-added products from simple organic molecules. This process is extensively used to incorporate heteroatoms into carbon-based molecules, where high-valent metal salts, hypervalent halogen reagents, and peroxides are widely used as oxidants. Oxidation reactions are extremely challenging because their selectivity is hard to control and/or they form significant quantities of unwanted waste derived from the stoichiometric oxidants...
April 12, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Lucía Lijó, Nicola Frison, Francesco Fatone, Sara González-García, Gumersindo Feijoo, Maria Teresa Moreira
The aim of this study was to compare the environmental performance and sustainability of different management options for livestock waste in Cyprus. The two most common practices in the country, i.e. the use of anaerobic lagoons and conventional biogas plants, were compared with the innovative scheme developed in the LiveWaste project (LIFE12 ENV/CY/000544), which aims not only to produce bioenergy, but also to treat the digestate for nutrient recovery and water reuse. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was combined with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to compare the performance of these alternatives...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jayeeta Hazarika, Meena Khwairakpam
Primary paper mill sludge (PPMS) is the major waste expelled from the pulp and paper industries contributing soil and water pollution through the recalcitrant organic and inorganic constituents. These pollutants can, however, be transformed into a high-value soil ameliorating material with nominal investment and time. Current study therefore evaluated the potential of rotary drum composting PPMS for 20 days to delineate an environmentally sustainable option. Five trials with proportions of PPMS, cow dung and saw dust: Trial 1 (10:0:0), Trial 2 (8:1:1), Trial 3 (7:2:1), Trial 4 (6:3:1) and Trial 5 (5:4:1) were performed for evaluation of degrading and nutritive ability along with the fate of pollutants for total mass of 150 kg...
April 3, 2018: Waste Management
Weibin Kong, Jan Baeyens, Peiyong Qin, Huili Zhang, Tianwei Tan
The extraction of vegetable oils is an energy-intensive process. It has moreover a significant environmental impact through hexane emissions and through the production of organic-loaded wastewater. A rice bran oil process was selected as the basis, since full data were available. By using Aspen Plus v8.2 simulation, with additional scripts, several improvements were examined, such as using heat exchanger networks, integrating a Vapor Recompression Heat Pump after the evaporation and stripping, and examining a nitrogen stripping of hexane in the rice bran meal desolventizing unit followed by a gas membrane to recover hexane...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Byron C Crump, John M Wojahn, Fiona Tomas, Ryan S Mueller
Terrestrial plants benefit from many well-understood mutualistic relationships with root- and leaf-associated microbiomes, but relatively little is known about these relationships for seagrass and other aquatic plants. We used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and metatranscriptomics to assess potential mutualisms between microorganisms and the seagrasses Zostera marina and Zostera japonica collected from mixed beds in Netarts Bay, OR, United States. The phylogenetic composition of leaf-, root-, and water column-associated bacterial communities were strikingly different, but these communities were not significantly different between plant species...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Qiongying Xu, Qiandi Wang, Weijun Zhang, Peng Yang, Youjing Du, Dongsheng Wang
Proteins are the dominant organic component of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in waste activated sludge (WAS), and play an important role during sludge dewatering processes. Methanol is a polar hydrophilic reagent and can denature proteins, which suggested to us that the modification of protein configurations with methanol could improve sludge dewatering performance. In this study, methanol was used to precondition WAS prior to adding inorganic coagulants for dewatering enhancement. The morphology and EPS properties (especially of proteins) were investigated to analyze and explain the effects of methanol in the sludge conditioning process...
March 16, 2018: Water Research
Xiaojia Huang, Xiangyu Zhu, Miao Pei
Boron-nitrogen coordination is a useful interaction for use in the extraction of amino-nitrogen-containing compounds. A new monolithic adsorbent is described here that consisted of poly(acrylamidophenyl boronic acid/vinyl-3-octylimidazolium tetrafluroborate-co-divinylbenzene/ethylene dimethacrylate) polymer. It was synthesized with the aim to obtain a new kind of extraction phase for multiple monolith based fiber solid-phase microextraction of sulfonylurea herbicides. Results indicate that boron-nitrogen coordination interaction plays a key role in the efficient extraction...
March 16, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
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