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Waste water nitrogen

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332819/a-path-to-impact-for-autonomous-field-deployable-chemical-sensors-a-case-study-of-in-situ-nitrite-sensors
#1
Tim M Schierenbeck, Matthew C Smith
Natural freshwater systems have been severely affected by excess loading of macronutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorous) from fertilizers, fossil fuels, and human and livestock waste. In the USA, impacts to drinking water quality, biogeochemical cycles, and aquatic ecosystems are estimated to cost US$210 billion annually. Field-deployable nutrient sensors (FDS) offer potential to support research and resource management efforts by acquiring higher resolution data than are currently supported by expensive conventional sampling methods...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281059/migration-of-nitrate-nitrite-and-ammonia-through-the-municipal-solid-waste-incinerator-bottom-ash-layer-in-the-simulated-landfill
#2
Jun Yao, Luxi Chen, Huayue Zhu, Dongsheng Shen, Zhanhong Qiu
Simulated landfill was operated for 508 days to investigate the effect of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash layer on the migration of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia when it was used as the intermediate layer in the landfill. The result suggested that the MSWI bottom ash layer could capture the nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia from the leachate. The adsorption of the nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia on the MSWI bottom ash layer was saturated at the days 396, 34, and 97, respectively. Afterwards, the nitrogen species were desorbed from the MSWI bottom ash layer...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279583/a-quantitative-microbial-risk-assessment-model-for-total-coliforms-and-e-%C3%A2-coli-in-surface-runoff-following-application-of-biosolids-to-grassland
#3
Rachel Clarke, Dara Peyton, Mark G Healy, Owen Fenton, Enda Cummins
In Ireland, the land application of biosolids is the preferred option of disposing of municipal sewage waste. Biosolids provide nutrients in the form of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and increases organic matter. It is also an economic way for a country to dispose of its municipal waste. However, biosolids may potentially contain a wide range of pathogens, and following rainfall events, may be transported in surface runoff and pose a potential risk to human health. Thus, a quantitative risk assessment model was developed to estimate potential pathogens in surface water and the environmental fate of the pathogens following dilution, residence time in a stream, die-off rate, drinking water treatment and human exposure...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260661/facile-and-scalable-synthesis-of-magnetite-carbon-adsorbents-by-recycling-discarded-fruit-peels-and-their-potential-usage-in-water-treatment
#4
Ji Ma, Shuangshuang Sun, Kezheng Chen
In this study, apple, banana and orange peels were used as precursor compounds for the mass production of magnetite/carbon adsorbents. A so-called "soak-calcination" procedure was employed by firstly soaking these waste fruit peels in FeCl3 aqueous solutions and secondly calcining these precursors in the nitrogen atmosphere to yield final magnetite/carbon composites. This approach is quite simple and effective to synthesize carbon-based adsorbents on an industrial scale. The as-produced adsorbents feature the merits of appropriate ferromagnetism (>4emug(-1)), high adsorption capacity (several hundreds of milligrams per gram for adsorption of methyl blue, Congo red, rhodamine B and Cr(6+) ions), and good regenerability (>85%)...
February 20, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257126/the-empirical-relationship-between-mining-industry-development-and-environmental-pollution-in-china
#5
Gerui Li, Yalin Lei, Jianping Ge, Sanmang Wu
This study uses a vector autoregression (VAR) model to analyze changes in pollutants among different mining industries and related policy in China from 2001 to 2014. The results show that: (1) because the pertinence of standards for mining waste water and waste gas emissions are not strong and because the maximum permissible discharge pollutant concentrations in these standards are too high, ammonia nitrogen and industrial sulfur dioxide discharges increased in most mining industries; (2) chemical oxygen demand was taken as an indicator of sewage treatment in environmental protection plans; hence, the chemical oxygen demand discharge decreased in all mining industries; (3) tax reduction policies, which are only implemented in coal mining and washing and extraction of petroleum and natural gas, decreased the industrial solid waste discharge in these two mining industries...
March 2, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238487/human-waste-an-underestimated-source-of-nutrient-pollution-in-coastal-seas-of-bangladesh-india-and-pakistan
#6
Md Nurul Amin, Carolien Kroeze, Maryna Strokal
Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in many nutrient models. We quantify nutrient export by large rivers to coastal seas of Bangladesh, India and Pakistan, and the associated eutrophication potential in 2000 and 2050. Our new estimates for N and P inputs from human waste are one to two orders of magnitude higher than earlier model calculations...
February 23, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222375/on-site-nutrient-recovery-and-removal-from-source-separated-urine-by-phosphorus-precipitation-and-short-cut-nitrification-denitrification
#7
Song Yao, Liping Chen, Detian Guan, Zhongguo Zhang, Xiujun Tian, Aimin Wang, Guotian Wang, Qian Yao, Dangcong Peng, Jiuyi Li
Source separation and treatment of human urine have been recognized as a resource-efficient alternative to conventional urban drainage, not only reducing nutrient loads on municipal wastewater treatment plants, but recovering valuable resources from waste streams. In this work, on-site phosphorus (P) recovery from real urine was carried out by using the brine from a reverse osmosis process as the flush water for urine-diverting toilets and a P precipitant, while nitrogen (N) was removed via short-cut nitrification-denitrification (SCND) in a membrane bioreactor (MBR)...
May 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213731/fungi-based-treatment-of-brewery-wastewater-biomass-production-and-nutrient-reduction
#8
M Hultberg, H Bodin
The beer-brewing process produces high amounts of nutrient-rich wastewater, and the increasing number of microbreweries worldwide has created a need for innovative solutions to deal with this waste. In the present study, fungal biomass production and the removal of organic carbon, phosphorus and nitrogen from synthetic brewery wastewater were studied. Different filamentous fungi with a record of safe use were screened for growth, and Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus and Trichoderma harzianum were selected for further work...
February 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211267/efficient-and-selective-uptake-of-tco4-by-a-cationic-metal-organic-framework-material-with-open-ag-sites
#9
Daopeng Sheng, Lin Zhu, Chao Xu, Chengliang Xiao, Yanlong Wang, Yaxing Wang, Lanhua Chen, Juan Diwu, Jing Chen, Zhifang Chai, Thomas E Albrecht-Schmitt, Shuao Wang
(99)Tc is one of the most problematic radioisotopes in used nuclear fuel owing to its combined features of high fission yield, long half-life, and high environmental mobility. There are only a handful of functional materials that can remove TcO4(-) anion from aqueous solution and identifying for new, stable materials with high anion-exchange capacities, fast kinetics, and good selectivity remains a challenge. We report here an 8-fold interpenetrated three-dimensional cationic metal-organic framework material, SCU-100, which is assembled from a tetradentate neutral nitrogen-donor ligand and two-coordinate Ag(+) cations as potential open metal sites...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197944/wet-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-deposition-in-the-eutrophication-of-the-lagos-lagoon-nigeria
#10
Najeem O Oladosu, Akeem A Abayomi, Kehinde O Olayinka, Babajide I Alo
Air pollution is influenced by wind-aided particulate suspension, open-air waste burning, and fossil fuel combustion. The pollutants from these sources eventually deposit on ambient surfaces. Atmospheric wet deposition into Lagos Lagoon may be significant additions to the nutrient levels of the eutrophic lagoon. Precipitation was monitored at three stations in the Lagos Lagoon basin from May to November, 2012, in order to estimate the contribution of wet deposition to the nutrient cycles of the lagoon. Water samples were digested with potassium persulfate, and the species of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) were analyzed by colorimetric methods...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177400/can-organic-materials-reduce-excess-nutrient-leaching-from-manure-rich-paddock-soils
#11
Mohammed Masud Parvage, Barbro Ulén, Holger Kirchmann
Horse paddocks have been identified as a significant contributor of animal waste nutrients to natural waters; thus, modified paddock management is needed. Because chemical amendments pose a health risk to horses, an alternative for reducing nutrient translocation from manure is to add available organic residues to the soil. To examine the feasibility of outdoor use of organic materials to reduce nutrient losses from paddock soils, three commonly available organic materials (peat, wheat straw, and wood chips) were tested for their nutrient retention capacities in batch experiments followed by leaching experiments in an in-house lysimeter station using artificial rainfall...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176865/nitrate-leaching-in-a-winter-wheat-summer-maize-rotation-on-a-calcareous-soil-as-affected-by-nitrogen-and-straw-management
#12
Tao Huang, Xiaotang Ju, Hao Yang
Nitrate leaching is one of the most important pathways of nitrogen (N) loss which leads to groundwater contamination or surface water eutrophication. Clarifying the rates, controlling factors and characteristics of nitrate leaching is the pre-requisite for proposing effective mitigation strategies. We investigated the effects of interactions among chemical N fertilizer, straw and manure applications on nitrogen leaching in an intensively managed calcareous Fluvo-aquic soil with winter wheat-summer maize cropping rotations on the North China Plain from October 2010 to September 2013 using ceramic suction cups and seepage water calculations based on a long-term field experiment...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120203/hair-from-different-ethnic-groups-vary-in-elemental-composition-and-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-mineralisation-in-soil
#13
N M Malepfane, P Muchaonyerwa
Disposal of hair wastes at landfills causes nitrate leaching to ground water, and use of the waste as fertiliser could be a viable option. This study was to determine elemental composition of major hair types in South Africa and their nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) release in soil. Wastes of African, White and Indian hair were obtained from local salons and analysed for carbon (C), N and sulphur (S) with the Leco CNS analyzer, and P, bases, aluminium (Al) and micronutrients, with the ICP. We also conducted an incubation study to determine changes in mineral N and P in soil...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105596/monitoring-nutrients-fate-after-digestate-spreading-in-a-short-rotation-buffer-area
#14
Nicolò Colombani, Bruno Boz, Bruna Gumiero, Micòl Mastrocicco
One of the main sources of reactive nitrogen pollution is animal manure. The disposal of digestate (material remaining after the anaerobic digestion of a biodegradable feedstock) in agricultural soils could solve both the problems of soil fertilization and waste removal, but the fate of digestate in the environment must be assessed carefully before its massive utilization. To investigate whether digestate could be safely employed as a soil fertilizer, an agricultural field located in Monastier di Treviso (Northern Italy) and characterized by the presence of low hydraulic conductivity clay soils, was selected to be amended with bovine digestate...
January 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104328/isotopic-constraints-on-water-source-mixing-network-leakage-and-contamination-in-an-urban-groundwater-system
#15
F Grimmeisen, M F Lehmann, T Liesch, N Goeppert, J Klinger, J Zopfi, N Goldscheider
Water supply in developing countries is prone to large water losses due to leaky distribution networks and defective sewers, which may affect groundwater quality and quantity in urban areas and result in complex subsurface mixing dynamics. In this study, a multi-stable isotope approach was used to investigate spatiotemporal fluctuations of surface and sub-surface water source partitioning and mixing, and to assess nitrogen (N) contamination in the urban water cycle of As-Salt, Jordan. Water import from the King Abdullah Canal (KAC), mains waters from the network, and wastewater are characterized by distinct isotopic signatures, which allowed us to quantify city effluents into the groundwater...
January 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043267/-investigation-of-emergency-capacities-for-occupational-hazard-accidents-in-silicon-solar-cell-producing-enterprises
#16
D D Yang, J N Xu, B L Zhu
Objective: To investigate and analyze the influential factors of occupational hazard acci-dents, emergency facilities and emergency management in Silicon solar cell producing enterprises, then to pro-vide scientific strategies. Methods: The methods of occupationally healthy field investigating, inspecting of ven-tilation effectiveness, setup of emergency program and wearing chemical suit were used. Results: The mainly occupational hazard accidents factors in the process of Silicon solar cell producing included poisoning chemi-cals, high temperature, onizing radiation and some workplaces...
November 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040487/a-waterborne-chemical-cue-from-gulf-toadfish-opsanus-beta-prompts-pulsatile-urea-excretion-in-conspecifics
#17
Jeremy Fulton, Christophe M R LeMoine, Carol Bucking, Kevin V Brix, Patrick J Walsh, M Danielle McDonald
The Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) has a fully functional ornithine urea cycle (O-UC) that allows it to excrete nitrogenous waste in the form of urea. Interestingly, urea is excreted in a pulse across the gill that lasts 1-3h and occurs once or twice a day. Both the stress hormone, cortisol, and the neurotransmitter, serotonin (5-HT) are involved in the control of pulsatile urea excretion. This and other evidence suggests that urea pulsing may be linked to toadfish social behavior. The hypothesis of the present study was that toadfish urea pulses can be triggered by waterborne chemical cues from conspecifics...
December 28, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959879/non-carcinogenic-risk-assessment-of-groundwater-in-south-gobi-mongolia
#18
Koyomi Nakazawa, Osamu Nagafuchi, Kanji Okano, Ken'ichi Osaka, Etsuji Hamabata, Jamsran Tsogtbaatar, Javzan Choijil
Thirty-nine groundwater samples were collected from wells near the Tavan Tolgoi and Oyu Tolgoi mines in Mongolia and at a relatively pristine site in northern Mongolia during August to September 2013, and analyzed for the concentrations of F(-), NO3(-), Hg, As, Al, V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Mo, Cd, Sb, and Pb. A probabilistic risk assessment found that >95% of the population in the areas was at risk from drinking well water. The hazard index (HI) was >1, indicating a non-carcinogenic risk to human health...
December 2016: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955705/production-of-biodegradable-plastic-by-polyhydroxybutyrate-phb-accumulating-bacteria-using-low-cost-agricultural-waste-material
#19
Anteneh Getachew, Fantahun Woldesenbet
BACKGROUND: Polyhydroxybutyrates (PHBs) are macromolecules synthesized by bacteria. They are inclusion bodies accumulated as reserve materials when the bacteria grow under different stress conditions. Because of their fast degradability under natural environmental conditions, PHBs are selected as alternatives for production of biodegradable plastics. The aim of this work was to isolate potential PHB producing bacteria, evaluate PHB production using agro-residues as carbon sources. RESULT: Among fifty bacterial strains isolated from different localities, ten PHB accumulating strains were selected and compared for their ability to accumulate PHB granules inside their cells...
December 12, 2016: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941918/profiling-bacterial-communities-associated-with-sediment-based-aquaculture-bioremediation-systems-under-contrasting-redox-regimes
#20
Georgina Robinson, Gary S Caldwell, Matthew J Wade, Andrew Free, Clifford L W Jones, Selina M Stead
Deposit-feeding invertebrates are proposed bioremediators in microbial-driven sediment-based aquaculture effluent treatment systems. We elucidate the role of the sediment reduction-oxidation (redox) regime in structuring benthic bacterial communities, having direct implications for bioremediation potential and deposit-feeder nutrition. The sea cucumber Holothuria scabra was cultured on sediments under contrasting redox regimes; fully oxygenated (oxic) and redox stratified (oxic-anoxic). Taxonomically, metabolically and functionally distinct bacterial communities developed between the redox treatments with the oxic treatment supporting the greater diversity; redox regime and dissolved oxygen levels were the main environmental drivers...
December 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
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