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Reproductive Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783136/occurrence-and-estrogenic-activity-of-steroid-hormones-in-chinese-streams-a-nationwide-study-based-on-a-combination-of-chemical-and-biological-tools
#1
Bo Yao, Rui Li, Shuwen Yan, Shen-An Chan, Weihua Song
Steroid hormones (SHs) are continuously released into the aquatic environment through various pathways after being excreted by humans and animals, interfere with the normal function of the endocrine system and may affect the physiology and reproduction of exposed aquatic life. To conduct a nationwide investigation of the occurrence and biological effects of SHs in surface river/steam water in China, we quantitated 27 selected SHs in 217 surface water samples by solid-phase extraction (SPE) tandem LC-MS/MS and used a recombinant yeast estrogen assay to screen extracts of the water samples for estrogenic activities...
May 18, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782020/whole-mount-immunofluorescence-and-follicle-quantification-of-cultured-mouse-ovaries
#2
Vera D Rinaldi, Jordana C Bloom, John C Schimenti
Research in the field of mammalian reproductive biology often involves evaluating the overall health of ovaries and testes. Specifically, in females, ovarian fitness is often assessed by visualizing and quantifying follicles and oocytes. Because the ovary is an opaque three-dimensional tissue, traditional approaches require laboriously slicing the tissue into numerous serial sections in order to visualize cells throughout the entire organ. Furthermore, because quantification by this method typically entails scoring only a subset of the sections separated by the approximate diameter of an oocyte, it is prone to inaccuracy...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779926/increased-platelet-factor-4-and-aberrant-permeability-of-follicular-fluid-in-pcos
#3
Chu-Chun Huang, Chia-Hung Chou, Shee-Uan Chen, Hong-Nerng Ho, Yu-Shih Yang, Mei-Jou Chen
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Abnormal folliculogenesis is one of the cardinal presentations of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and permeability of follicular wall has been proposed to be involved in the normal follicular growth. However, whether or not there is a change in intrafollicular permeability underlies PCOS is unknown. METHODS: This was a tertiary center-based case-control study. From 2014 to 2015, thirteen patients with PCOS who underwent in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) were enrolled...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777415/preparation-of-biologically-active-monomeric-recombinant-zebrafish-danio-rerio-and-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-recombinant-growth-hormones
#4
Ewa Ocłoń, Gili Solomon, Zvi Hayouka, Arieh Gertler
Fish growth hormones (GHs) play an important role in regulating growth, metabolism, reproduction, osmoregulation, and immunity and have thus garnered attention for their application in aquaculture. Zebrafish GH (zGH) cDNA or rainbow trout GH (rtGH) cDNA was cloned into the pMon3401 vector, expressed in MON105-competent Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Their biological activity was evidenced by their ability to interact with ovine GH receptor extracellular domain and stimulate GH receptor-mediated proliferation in FDC-P1-3B9 cells stably transfected with rabbit GH receptor...
May 18, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777319/what-does-sex-have-to-do-with-it-the-role-of-sex-as-a-biological-variable-in-the-development-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#5
REVIEW
Sara L Kornfield, Liisa Hantsoo, C Neill Epperson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the neurobiological aspects of sex differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), specifically focusing on the physiological responses to trauma and presents evidence supporting hormone and neurosteroid/peptide differences from both preclinical and clinical research. RECENT FINDINGS: While others have suggested that trauma type or acute emotional reaction are responsible for women's disproportionate risk to PTSD, neither of these explanations fully accounts for the sex differences in PTSD...
May 18, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776407/comparative-genomics-of-the-miniature-wasp-and-pest-control-agent-trichogramma-pretiosum
#6
Amelia R I Lindsey, Yogeshwar D Kelkar, Xin Wu, Dan Sun, Ellen O Martinson, Zhichao Yan, Paul F Rugman-Jones, Daniel S T Hughes, Shwetha C Murali, Jiaxin Qu, Shannon Dugan, Sandra L Lee, Hsu Chao, Huyen Dinh, Yi Han, Harsha Vardhan Doddapaneni, Kim C Worley, Donna M Muzny, Gongyin Ye, Richard A Gibbs, Stephen Richards, Soojin V Yi, Richard Stouthamer, John H Werren
BACKGROUND: Trichogrammatids are minute parasitoid wasps that develop within other insect eggs. They are less than half a millimeter long, smaller than some protozoans. The Trichogrammatidae are one of the earliest branching families of Chalcidoidea: a diverse superfamily of approximately half a million species of parasitoid wasps, proposed to have evolved from a miniaturized ancestor. Trichogramma are frequently used in agriculture, released as biological control agents against major moth and butterfly pests...
May 18, 2018: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776339/differential-gene-transcription-across-the-life-cycle-in-daphnia-magna-using-a-new-all-genome-custom-made-microarray
#7
Bruno Campos, Danielle Fletcher, Benjamín Piña, Romà Tauler, Carlos Barata
BACKGROUND: Unravelling the link between genes and environment across the life cycle is a challenging goal that requires model organisms with well-characterized life-cycles, ecological interactions in nature, tractability in the laboratory, and available genomic tools. Very few well-studied invertebrate model species meet these requirements, being the waterflea Daphnia magna one of them. Here we report a full genome transcription profiling of D. magna during its life-cycle. The study was performed using a new microarray platform designed from the complete set of gene models representing the whole transcribed genome of D...
May 18, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775828/size-season-and-origin-of-gastropods-matter-in-imposex-assessments
#8
Martina Rossato, Mércia Barcelos Costa, Ítalo Braga de Castro, Grasiela Lopes Leães Pinho
Through controlled exposure to tributyltin (TBT), the effects of season, size, and population origin were evaluated on imposex incidence in Stramonita brasiliensis. Four experiments were carried out with organisms collected from three different sites on the Brazilian coast (Torres - Rio Grande do Sul, Farol de Santa Marta - Santa Catarina, and Aracruz - Espírito Santo). S. brasiliensis were anesthetized, sexed, measured, classified by size in small (< 30 mm), medium (≥ 30 to ≤ 40 mm), or big (> 40 mm) and injected in the foot muscle with 0...
May 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775429/genome-wide-dna-methylation-profiles-of-porcine-ovaries-in-estrus-and-proestrus
#9
Xiaolong Zhou, Songbai Yang, Feifei Yan, Ke He, Ayong Zhao
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification involved in the estrous cycle and the regulation of reproduction. Here, we investigated the genome-wide profiles of DNA methylation in porcine proestrus and estrus ovaries using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeDIP-seq). The results showed that DNA methylation was enriched in intergenic and intron regions. The methylation levels of coding regions were higher than those of the 5' and 3' flanking regions of genes. There were 4813 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of CpG islands in the estrus vs...
May 18, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773834/embryonic-pou5f1-is-required-for-expanded-bovine-blastocyst-formation
#10
Bradford W Daigneault, Sandeep Rajput, George W Smith, Pablo J Ross
POU5F1 is a transcription factor and master regulator of cell pluripotency with indispensable roles in early embryo development and cell lineage specification. The role of embryonic POU5F1 in blastocyst formation and cell lineage specification differs between mammalian species but remains completely unknown in cattle. The CRISPR/Cas9 system was utilized for targeted disruption of the POU5F1 gene by direct injection into zygotes. Disruption of the bovine POU5F1 locus prevented blastocyst formation and was associated with embryonic arrest at the morula stage...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772073/julius-sachs-1868-the-father-of-plant-physiology
#11
Ulrich Kutschera, Karl J Niklas
The year 2018 marks the 150th anniversary of the first publication of Julius von Sachs' (1832-1897) Lehrbuch der Botanik (Textbook of Botany), which provided a comprehensive summary of what was then known about the plant sciences. Three years earlier, in 1865, Sachs produced the equally impressive Handbuch der Experimental-Physiologie der Pflanzen (Handbook of Experimental Plant Physiology), which summarized the state of knowledge in all aspects of the discipline known today as plant physiology. Both of these books provided numerous insights based on Sachs' seminal experiments...
May 17, 2018: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771340/reproductive-manipulators-in-the-bark-beetle-pityogenes-chalcographus-coleoptera-curculionidae-the-role-of-cardinium-rickettsia-spiroplasma-and-wolbachia
#12
Martin Schebeck, Lukas Feldkirchner, Belen Marín, Susanne Krumböck, Hannes Schuler, Christian Stauffer
Heritable bacterial endosymbionts can alter the biology of numerous arthropods. They can influence the reproductive outcome of infected hosts, thus affecting the ecology and evolution of various arthropod species. The spruce bark beetle Pityogenes chalcographus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) was reported to express partial, unidirectional crossing incompatibilities among certain European populations. Knowledge on the background of these findings is lacking; however, bacterial endosymbionts have been assumed to manipulate the reproduction of this beetle...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770151/research-on-establishment-of-abnormal-phlegmatic-syndrome-with-premature-ovarian-failure-rat-model-and-effects-of-balgham-munziq-treatment
#13
Muladili Yuemaier, Mayire Tuerhong, Abulizi Keremu, Nafeisha Kadeer, Ayiguzhali Aimaiti, Xilinguli Wushouer, Adilijiang Yiming, Xiamixinuer Yilike
This study aimed to establish and explore the biological basis of abnormal phlegmatic syndrome with premature ovarian failure (POF) model in rats based on the Uighur medicine (UM) in the first place and investigate the effects of unique herbal medicine, Balgham Munziq (BMq). Mature female Wistar rats were fed with spinach and coriander in cold and humid condition for approximately 20 weeks until abnormal phlegmatic syndrome (APS) model was established. When APS model was confirmed by Uighur medical experts, APS with POF disease rats were subdivided into APS with POF disease model group and APS with POF disease treated with BMq group; the rest of them were subdivided into APS model group and APS treated with BMq group...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769793/a-marker-of-biological-ageing-predicts-adult-risk-preference-in-european-starlings-sturnus-vulgaris
#14
Clare Andrews, Daniel Nettle, Sophie Reichert, Tom Bedford, Pat Monaghan, Melissa Bateson
Why are some individuals more prone to gamble than others? Animals often show preferences between 2 foraging options with the same mean reward but different degrees of variability in the reward, and such risk preferences vary between individuals. Previous attempts to explain variation in risk preference have focused on energy budgets, but with limited empirical support. Here, we consider whether biological ageing, which affects mortality and residual reproductive value, predicts risk preference. We studied a cohort of European starlings ( Sturnus vulgaris ) in which we had previously measured developmental erythrocyte telomere attrition, an established integrative biomarker of biological ageing...
May 2018: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769422/melatonin-receptors-subtypes-mt1-and-mt2-in-the-uterus-masculinus-of-mature-male-european-bison-biological-and-seasonal-reproductive-role
#15
A Tabecka-Lonczynska, J Mytych, P Solek, M Kulpa-Greszta, M Koziorowski
Regulation of seasonality in reproduction is closely related to melatonin and circadian rhythms. Melatonin affects the functions of reproductive organs through membrane melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2. The current knowledge about the presence, location and function of MT1 and MT2 receptors in the reproductive tract of an adult male European bison, seasonally breeding animal, is still missing. Frequently occurring organ in the male reproductive system of the European bison is uterus masculinus, what seems to confirm its specific role in seasonal reproduction control...
February 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767731/development-and-reproduction-of-neoseiulus-californicus-acari-phytoseiidae-and-tetranychus-urticae-acari-tetranychidae-under-simulated-natural-temperature
#16
Noureldin Abuelfadl Ghazy, Takeshi Suzuki, Hiroshi Amano
Although laboratory observations provide basic knowledge of the development and reproduction of predacious and phytophagous mites, little is known of their behavior under natural conditions. Using a closed system designed to simulate natural climate patterns, we investigated the development and reproduction of the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and the pest mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) at air temperatures typical of June to October at three latitudes (Aomori, Tottori, and Naha) in Japan...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767553/mating-system-in-the-brown-rot-pathogens-monilinia-fructicola-monilinia-laxa-and-monilinia-fructigena
#17
Domenico Abate, Rita Milvia De Miccolis Angelini, Caterina Rotolo, Stefania Pollastro, Francesco Faretra
Monilinia fructicola, Monilinia laxa and Monilinia fructigena are the most important pathogens responsible for brown rot disease of stone and pome fruits. Information on their mating system and sexual behaviour is scant. A mating-type specific PCR-based assay was developed and applied to 155 Monilinia isolates from ten countries and ten different host plants. We showed that single isolates carry only one of two opposite idiomorphs at the MAT1 locus consistent with a heterothallic mating system for all three species...
May 16, 2018: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766638/lethal-and-sublethal-effects-of-chlorantraniliprole-on-spodoptera-cosmioides-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#18
Alejandra L Lutz, Isabel Bertolaccini, Roberto R Scotta, María C Curis, María A Favaro, Laura N Fernandez, Daniel E Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker, 1858) population has increased in Bt soybean crops in Argentina. As there are no registered products for its control, the recommended insecticides for S. frugiperda are used. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the lethal concentration (LC) and sublethal effects of chlorantraniliprole on the biological and reproductive functions of S. cosmioides, an emerging soybean pest in Argentina. RESULTS: An ingestion toxicity bioassay showed that chlorantraniliprole was active against larvae of the second instar, and after 48 h exposure LC50 was 0...
May 16, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764939/the-importance-of-a-halotyrosine-dehalogenase-for-drosophila-fertility
#19
Abhishek Phatarphekar, Qi Su, Suk Ho Eun, Xin Chen, Steven E Rokita
The ability of iodotyrosine deiodinase to salvage iodide from iodotyrosine has long been recognized as critical for iodide homeostasis and proper thyroid function in vertebrates. The significance of its additional ability to dehalogenate bromo- and chlorotyrosine is less apparent and none of these functions could have been anticipated in invertebrates until recently. Drosophila , as most arthropods, contains a deiodinase homolog encoded by CG6279 , now named condet ( cdt ), with a similar catalytic specificity...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764656/rapid-evolution-of-aphid-pests-in-agricultural-environments
#20
REVIEW
Jean-Christophe Simon, Jean Peccoud
Aphids constitute a major group of crop pests that inflict serious damages to plants, both directly by ingesting phloem and indirectly as vectors of numerous diseases. In response to intense and repeated human-induced pressures, such as insecticide treatments, the use of resistant plants and biological agents, aphids have developed a series of evolutionary responses relying on adaptation and phenotypic plasticity. In this review, we highlight some remarkable evolutionary responses to anthropogenic pressures in agroecosystems and discuss the mechanisms underlying the ecological and evolutionary success of aphids...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
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