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Reproductive Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742072/phaeoviruses-discovered-in-kelp-laminariales
#1
Dean A McKeown, Kim Stevens, Akira F Peters, Peter Bond, Glenn M Harper, Colin Brownlee, Murray T Brown, Declan C Schroeder
Phaeoviruses are latent double-stranded DNA viruses that insert their genomes into those of their brown algal (Phaeophyceae) hosts. So far these viruses are known only from members of the Ectocarpales, which are small and short-lived macroalgae. Here we report molecular and morphological evidence for a new Phaeovirus cluster, referred to as sub-group C, infecting kelps (Laminariales) of the genera Laminaria and Saccharina, which are ecologically and commercially important seaweeds. Epifluorescence and TEM observations indicate that the Laminaria digitata Virus (LdigV), the type species of sub-group C, targets the host nucleus for its genome replication, followed by gradual degradation of the chloroplast and assembly of virions in the cytoplasm of both vegetative and reproductive cells...
July 25, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740748/a-highly-pathogenic-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-candidate-vaccine-based-on-japanese-encephalitis-virus-replicon-system
#2
Pingsheng Hu, Xiaoming Chen, Lihong Huang, Shukai Liu, Fuyu Zang, Jinchao Xing, Youyue Zhang, Jiaqi Liang, Guihong Zhang, Ming Liao, Wenbao Qi
In the swine industry, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a highly contagious disease which causes heavy economic losses worldwide. Effective prevention and disease control is an important issue. In this study, we described the construction of a Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) DNA-based replicon with a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter based on the genome of Japanese encephalitis live vaccine virus SA14-14-2, which is capable of offering a potentially novel way to develop and produce vaccines against a major pathogen of global health...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738445/population-characteristics-of-macrocheles-glaber-acari-macrochelidae-and-stratiolaelaps-scimitus-acari-laelapidae-reared-on-a-mushroom-fly-coboldia-fuscipes-diptera-scatopsidae
#3
Mei-Fang Wen, Hsin Chi, Ying-Xiao Lian, Yu-Hao Zheng, Qing-Hai Fan, Min-Sheng You
Subterranean predatory mites are important biological control agents of pests in soil. In order to understand the population characteristics of two predatory mites, Macrocheles glaber Müller and Stratiolaelaps scimitus Womersley, we studied their development, survival and fecundity data under laboratory conditions using Coboldia fuscipes Meigen as food source and analyzed with the age-stage, two-sex life table. Macrocheles glaber had a significantly shorter developmental time, oviposition period, longevity and lower fecundity than those of S...
July 24, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738285/molecular-assessment-characterization-and-differentiation-of-theca-stem-cells-imply-the-presence-of-mesenchymal-and-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-sheep-ovarian-theca-layer
#4
Samane Adib, Mojtaba Rezazadeh Valojerdi
The ability of ovarian theca stem cells to differentiate into oocyte and theca cells may lead to a major advancement in reproductive biology and infertility treatments. However, there is little information about function, growth and differentiation potential of these immature cells. In this study adult sheep theca stem cells (TSCs) characteristics, and differentiation potential into osteocyte-like cells (OSLCs), adipocyte-like cells (ALCs), theca progenitor-like cells (TPCs), and oocyte-like cells (OLCs) were investigated...
July 8, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737003/facilitators-and-barriers-of-participation-in-a-longitudinal-research-on-migrant-families-in-badalona-spain-a-qualitative-approach
#5
Cristina Hernando, Meritxell Sabidó, Jordi Casabona
Migrant populations are under-represented in health research. We conducted a community-based qualitative study with the aim to examine the willingness, barriers, facilitators and reasons for participating in longitudinal health research among migrants. In Badalona and Santa Coloma de Gramanet (Barcelona) from May to November 2014, 26 individual interviews and 8 discussion groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 76 migrants born in Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Morocco, Pakistan and China; and 9 key informants...
July 24, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736964/exceptionalism-is-not-exceptional-in-relation-to-sexual-and-reproduction-mechanisms-contrasts-of-human-and-animal-sexuality
#6
REVIEW
Roy J Levin
Speculation that the release of oxytocin by orgasm in the human female during coitus facilitates fertility by enhancing uterine sperm transport has been criticised as having no unequivocal empirical human evidence. However, a counter claim that this supports human 'exceptionalism' as some form of uterine sperm transport occurs in other species. This is a misconception as it ignores that human uterine peristalsis, powered by contractions of the smooth muscle of the archimyometrium, facilitates sperm transport even without any systemic oxytocin involvement...
July 24, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736855/-lnc-ing-wnt-in-female-reproductive-cancers-therapeutic-potential-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-wnt-signaling
#7
REVIEW
Mei S Ong, Wanpei Cai, Yi Yuan, Hin C Leong, Tuan Z Tan, Asad Mohammad, Ming L You, Frank Arfuso, Boon C Goh, Sudha Warrier, Gautam Sethi, Nicholas S Tolwinski, Peter E Lobie, Celestial T Yap, Shing C Hooi, Ruby Y Huang, Alan P Kumar
Recent discoveries in the non-coding genome have challenged the original central dogma of molecular biology; non-coding RNAs and related processes have been found to be important in regulating gene expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are amongst some that have gained attention recently in human diseases, including cancer, with the involvement of many more ncRNAs waiting to be discovered. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a group of ribonucleic acids transcribed from regions of the human genome, which do not become translated into proteins, despite having essential roles in cellular physiology...
July 24, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733994/seasonal-recruitment-and-survival-strategies-of-palisada-cervicornis-comb-nov-ceramiales-rhodophyta-in-coral-reefs
#8
Ligia Collado-Vides, Alain Duran, Elizabeth Armenis, Valéria Cassano, Deron Burkepile, Andrew A Shantz, Laura Palma, Jhoana Díaz-Larrea, Abel Sentíes, Mutue Toyota Fujii
As marine tropical ecosystems deteriorate and lose biodiversity, their communities are shifting to being dominated by a few species, altering ecosystem's functioning and services. Macroalgae are becoming dominant on coral reefs, and are frequently observed outcompeting corals. Turf algal assemblages are the base of energy flow in these systems and one of the most abundant types of macroalgae on coral reefs, but little is known about their biology and diversity. Through molecular and morphological analyses, we identified the turf-forming species Laurencia cervicornis, and by studying seasonal recruitment and the impact of herbivorous fishes on its abundance, we describe its survival strategy...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733191/ethnomedicobotanical-study-of-indigenous-knowledge-on-medicinal-plants-used-for-the-treatment-of-reproductive-problems-in-nalbari-district-assam-india
#9
Simi Talukdar, Partha Pradip Adhikari, Ananta Borah
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Reproductive problems are evolving as most predominant health care problems in many countries, furthermore, WHO, 2012 exemplified maternal illnesses, birth asphyxia and post birth difficulties, are rising at an alarming rate.Not all abnormalities of the human reproductive system have the same origin; the effects on reproductive problems would likely be affected by both male and female. For easy accessibility and affordability medicinal plants play a key role in primary healthcare care services in India and their use is an integral part of the cultural heritage...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732430/bee-pollen-flavonoids-as-a-therapeutic-agent-in-allergic-and-immunological-disorders
#10
Masoomeh Jannesar, Maryam Sharif Shoushtari, Ahmad Majd, Zahra Pourpak
Bee pollen grains, as the male reproductive part of seed-bearing plants contain considerable concentrations of various phytochemicals and nutrients. Since antiquity, people throughout the world used pollens to cure colds, flu, ulcers, premature aging, anemia and colitis. It is now well-documented that some bee pollen secondary metabolites (e.g. flavonoid) may have positive health effects. In recent years, the flavonoids have attracted much interest because of their wide range of biological properties and their beneficial effects on human health...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732173/exploring-the-potential-of-gametic-reconstruction-of-parental-genotypes-by-f-sub-1-sub-hybrids-as-a-bridge-for-rapid-introgression
#11
Charles H Cannon, C Lane Scher
Interspecific hybridization and genetic introgression are commonly observed in natural populations of many species, especially trees. Among oaks, gene flow between closely-related species has been well documented. And yet, hybridization does not lead to a 'melting pot', i.e. the homogenization of phenotypic traits. Here, we explore how the combination of several common reproductive traits and genomic biology could create an avenue for interspecific gene flow that partially explains this apparent paradox. During meiosis, F<sub>1</sub> hybrids will produce approximately (½)<sup>n</sup> 'reconstructed' parental gametes, where n equals the number of chromosomes...
July 21, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732077/mutations-in-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-orthologs-of-human-genes-required-for-mitochondrial-trna-modification-cause-similar-electron-transport-chain-defects-but-different-nuclear-responses
#12
Carmen Navarro-González, Ismaïl Moukadiri, Magda Villarroya, Ernesto López-Pascual, Simon Tuck, M-Eugenia Armengod
Several oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) diseases are caused by defects in the post-transcriptional modification of mitochondrial tRNAs (mt-tRNAs). Mutations in MTO1 or GTPBP3 impair the modification of the wobble uridine at position 5 of the pyrimidine ring and cause heart failure. Mutations in TRMU affect modification at position 2 and cause liver disease. Presently, the molecular basis of the diseases and why mutations in the different genes lead to such different clinical symptoms is poorly understood...
July 21, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731299/human-biomonitoring-of-lead-exposure
#13
Katrin Klotz, Thomas Göen
After a chronic exposure, lead accumulates in the human body, especially in bones and teeth. Critical effects of lead affect the nervous system, reproduction, fertility as well as genotoxicity and carcinogenicity [1]. Analyses of lead concentrations in human biological material are performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry, but also electrochemical methods and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The predominant sample matrices include blood and bone, as well as urine, hair, nail, and saliva...
April 10, 2017: Metal Ions in Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730313/derivatization-free-lc-ms-ms-method-for-estrogen-quantification-in-mouse-brain-highlights-a-local-metabolic-regulation-after-oral-versus-subcutaneous-administration
#14
Ecaterina Lozan, Svitlana Shinkaruk, Shaam Alice Al Abed, Valérie Lamothe, Mylène Potier, Aline Marighetto, Jean-Marie Schmitter, Catherine Bennetau-Pelissero, Corinne Buré
17β-Estradiol (17β-E2) is a steroid with pleiotropic actions. In addition to being a sexual hormone, it is also produced in the brain where it modulates the reproductive axis. It has been shown that 17β-E2 also acts on synaptic plasticity and plays a role in neurological pathways and in neurodegenerative diseases. Assaying this steroid in the brain is thus interesting to improve our knowledge of 17β-E2 effects in the brain. However, 17β-E2 concentration in the central nervous system has been reported to be of a few nanograms per gram wet weight (nanomolar range concentration); therefore, its quantification requires both an efficient extraction process and a sensitive detection method...
July 20, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729959/shot-gun-proteome-and-transcriptome-mapping-of-the-jujube-floral-organ-and-identification-of-a-pollen-specific-s-locus-f-box-gene
#15
Ruihong Chen, Guoliang Chen, Jian Huang
The flower is a plant reproductive organ that forms part of the fruit produced as the flowering season ends. While the number and identity of proteins expressed in a jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) flower is currently unknown, integrative proteomic and transcriptomic analyses provide a systematic strategy of characterizing the floral biology of plants. We conducted a shotgun proteomic analysis on jujube flowers by using a filter-aided sample preparation tryptic digestion, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729552/new-insights-into-the-karyotype-evolution-of-the-free-living-flatworm-macrostomum-lignano-platyhelminthes-turbellaria
#16
Kira S Zadesenets, Lukas Schärer, Nikolay B Rubtsov
The free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano is a model organism for evolutionary and developmental biology studies. Recently, an unusual karyotypic diversity was revealed in this species. Specifically, worms are either 'normal' 2n = 8, or they are aneuploid with one or two additional large chromosome(s) (i.e. 2n = 9 or 2n = 10, respectively). Aneuploid worms did not show visible behavioral or morphological abnormalities and were successful in reproduction. In this study, we generated microdissected DNA probes from chromosome 1 (further called MLI1), chromosome 2 (MLI2), and a pair of similar-sized smaller chromosomes (MLI3, MLI4)...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727004/physiology-and-endocrinology-symposium-postnatal-reproductive-development-and-the-lactocrine-hypothesis
#17
F F Bartol, A A Wiley, A F George, D J Miller, C A Bagnell
Maternal effects on development can program cell fate and dictate offspring phenotype. Such effects do not end at birth, but extend into postnatal life through signals communicated from mother to offspring in first milk (colostrum). Transmission of bioactive factors from mother to offspring as a specific consequence of nursing defines a lactocrine mechanism. The female reproductive tract is not fully formed at birth (postnatal day = PND 0). Data for ungulates and mice indicate that disruption of development during neonatal life can have lasting effects on the form and function of uterine tissues...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724213/characterization-of-serum-estradiol-level-and-tissue-estrogen-receptor-immunostaining-with-clinical-response-and-reproductive-factor-changes-in-chinese-female-patients-with-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#18
Dongyun Zhang, Jianwei Ku, Ran Liu, Hongfang Wu, Guina Liang, Yan Wei, Peinan Chen, Xueke Zhao, Song Liu, Yin Li, Jianchao Yao, Xin Song, Lidong Wang
Pre-menopausal female patients have a prolonged survival than post-menopausal patients, indicating that estrogen and/or estrogen receptor (ER) may have some biological effects on prognosis. ER expression in cancer tissue has been reported to be a significant prognostic marker in multiple human cancers. However, the prognostic value of estrogen and/or ER on female patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is rarely reported. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the associations of serum estradiol level, tissue estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) expression with clinical response and reproductive factor changes in 387 female ESCC patients...
July 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724071/haplotypes-phased-from-population-transcriptomes-detecting-selection-in-the-initial-adaptation-of-miscanthus-lutarioriparius-to-stressful-environments
#19
Cai-Yun Zhu, Wei Liu, Li-Fang Kang, Qin Xu, Shi-Lai Xing, Yang-Yang Fan, Zhi-Hong Song, Juan Yan, Jian-Qiang Li, Tao Sang
Adaptation is a characteristic that enhances the survival or reproduction of organisms; selection is the critical process leading to adaptive evolution. Therefore, detecting selection is important in studying evolutionary biology. Changes in allele frequency are fundamental to adaptive evolution. The allele frequency of entire genes at the genomic scale is more intensive and precise for analyzing selection effects, compared with simple sequence repeat and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles from nuclear gene fragments...
July 2017: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723912/ginger-and-the-beetle-evidence-of-primitive-pollination-system-in-a-himalayan-endemic-alpine-ginger-roscoea-alpina-zingiberaceae
#20
Babu Ram Paudel, Mani Shrestha, Adrian G Dyer, Qing-Jun Li
The Himalayan endemic alpine genus Roscoea, like other members of ginger family, exhibits the combination of floral traits that would fit pollination by long distant foragers such as bees, birds or flies. We studied the pollination biology of Roscoea alpina, observed potential floral visitors and determined their foraging behaviour, visitation frequency and pollination efficiency, to seek evidence in support of the pollination syndrome hypothesis. We also measured the floral spectra of R. alpina flowers to evaluate if signals fit with the currently known framework for observed floral visitors...
2017: PloS One
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