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Reproductive Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352238/molting-site-fidelity-accounts-for-colony-elimination-of-the-formosan-subterranean-termites-isoptera-rhinotermitidae-by-chitin-synthesis-inhibitor-baits
#1
G Kakkar, W Osbrink, N-Y Su
Site fidelity by molting termites in Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki colonies is a new addition to our understanding of lower termites' behavior and biology. Our previous studies indicated that workers moved to the central nest to molt in the presence of eggs and reproductives. The current study showed that noviflumuron-affected workers also return to the central nest and died in the vicinity of reproductives and eggs. The aversion to the dead and decaying workers caused reproductives and brood to leave the original central nest site in a colony and refuge at newer sites every few days in response to newly dead workers near them...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351062/phylogeny-and-cocoon-production-in-the-parasitic-leech-myzobdella-lugubris-leidy-1851-hirudinidae-piscicolidae
#2
Naim Saglam, Ralph Saunders, Shirley A Lang, Daniel H Shain
Myzobdella lugubris is a commensal leech on crustaceans and a parasite to fishes, surviving predominantly in brackish waters throughout North America. Specimens in this study were collected within the tidal zone of the Delaware River basin (New Jersey and Pennsylvania). To compare regional M. lugubris specimens, defined characters were scored after dorsal and ventral dissections, and phylogenetic relationships were resolved using cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), 12S ribosomal RNA (rDNA) and 18S rDNA gene fragments...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350886/the-cell-biology-and-molecular-genetics-of-m%C3%A3-llerian-duct-development
#3
REVIEW
Zahida Yesmin Roly, Brendan Backhouse, Andrew Cutting, Tiong Yang Tan, Andrew H Sinclair, Katie L Ayers, Andrew T Major, Craig A Smith
The Müllerian ducts are part of the embryonic urogenital system. They give rise to mature structures that serve a critical function in the transport and development of the oocyte and/or embryo. In most vertebrates, both sexes initially develop Müllerian ducts during embryogenesis, but they regress in males under the influence of testis-derived Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH). A number of regulatory factors have been shown to be essential for proper duct development, including Bmp and Wnt signaling molecules, together with homeodomain transcription factors such as PAX2 and LIM1...
January 19, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350786/multiple-biological-defects-caused-by-calycosin-7-o-%C3%AE-d-glucoside-in-the-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans-are-associated-with-the-activation-of-oxidative-damage
#4
Jianqin Zhang, Xiaoli Xue, Yang Yang, Wen Ma, Yan Han, Xuemei Qin
Calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside (CG) is an important active isoflavone compound in Radix Astragali that has many bioactivities. However, the toxicological effects and related toxicological mechanism of CG have been rarely documented. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the toxicity effects of CG on the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Some characteristics of the nematode, including lifespan, movement behavior and reproductive capacity, were used to detect the toxic effects of CG on C. elegans...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350436/age-difference-between-parents-influences-parity-and-number-of-sons
#5
Berenika Kuna, Andrzej Galbarczyk, Magdalena Klimek, Ilona Nenko, Grazyna Jasienska
OBJECTIVES: Among couples, women usually prefer slightly older men, and men tend to choose much younger partners. Age difference between partners has been shown to influence their parity; however, results of previous studies are inconsistent. This study analyzed relationships between husband and wife age difference and their total number of children, and number of daughters and sons in a contemporary, rural Polish population. METHODS: Demographic and reproductive data were collected from 384 postmenopausal women from rural Poland who were married only once...
January 19, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350315/revisiting-embryo-assisted-hatching-approaches-a-systematic-review-of-the-current-protocols
#6
REVIEW
Alessandra Alteri, Paola Viganò, Ahmad Abu Maizar, Luca Jovine, Elisa Giacomini, Patrizia Rubino
Zona pellucida (ZP) manipulation, termed "assisted hatching" (AH), has been introduced in order to favor embryo hatching and ultimately improve assisted reproductive technology success but with poor proofs of safety and biological plausibility. We herein provide a systematic review of clinical outcomes following the application of different methods of ZP manipulation on fresh or frozen/thawed embryos at different developmental stages in different groups of patients. Out of the 69 papers that compared the clinical outcomes deriving from hatched versus non-hatched embryos, only 11 considered blastocysts while the rest referred to cleavage stage embryos...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347914/in-depth-proteomic-analysis-of-boar-spermatozoa-through-shotgun-and-gel-based-methods
#7
Jean M Feugang, Shengfa F Liao, Scott T Willard, Peter L Ryan
BACKGROUND: Mature spermatozoa contain numerous epididymal and seminal plasma proteins, which full identification through high-throughput technologies may allow for a better understanding of the sperm biology. Therefore, we conducted a global proteomic analysis of boar spermatozoa through shotgun and gel-based methodologies. RESULTS: The total proteins were extracted from mature spermatozoa and subjecsted to proteome analyses. Functional analyses of gene ontology representations and pathway enrichments were conducted on the shotgun dataset, followed by immunology and gene expression validations...
January 18, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346437/tissue-specific-transcriptome-analyses-provide-new-insights-into-gpcr-signalling-in-adult-schistosoma-mansoni
#8
REVIEW
Steffen Hahnel, Nic Wheeler, Zhigang Lu, Arporn Wangwiwatsin, Paul McVeigh, Aaron Maule, Matthew Berriman, Timothy Day, Paula Ribeiro, Christoph G Grevelding
Schistosomes are blood-dwelling trematodes with global impact on human and animal health. Because medical treatment is currently based on a single drug, praziquantel, there is urgent need for the development of alternative control strategies. The Schistosoma mansoni genome project provides a platform to study and connect the genetic repertoire of schistosomes to specific biological functions essential for successful parasitism. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) form the largest superfamily of transmembrane receptors throughout the Eumetazoan phyla, including platyhelminths...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346283/the-biological-role-of-hyaluronan-rich-oocyte-cumulus-extracellular-matrix-in-female-reproduction
#9
REVIEW
Eva Nagyova
Fertilization of the mammalian oocyte requires interactions between spermatozoa and expanded cumulus extracellular matrix (ECM) that surrounds the oocyte. This review focuses on key molecules that play an important role in the formation of the cumulus ECM, generated by the oocyte-cumulus complex. In particular, the specific inhibitors (AG1478, lapatinib, indomethacin and MG132) and progesterone receptor antagonist (RU486) exerting their effects through the remodeling of the ECM of the cumulus cells surrounding the oocyte have been described...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343298/circular-rnas-biogenesis-expression-and-their-potential-roles-in-reproduction
#10
REVIEW
Guobo Quan, Julang Li
Unlike other non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), circular RNA (circRNA) is generally presented as a covalently linked circle lacking both a 5' cap and a 3' tail. circRNAs were thought to be spliced intermediates, byproducts, or products of abnormal RNA splicing events. However, the high-throughput sequencing technology coupled with bioinformatics has recently uncovered thousands of endogenous circRNAs in cells of many different species. These circRNAs show various features, such as abundant expression, evolutionary conservation, cell- or tissue-specific expression, and a higher resistance to degradation caused by exonuclease or ribonuclease (RNase), suggesting their potentially biological significance...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341814/utilizing-a-rat-delayed-implantation-model-to-teach-integrative-endocrinology-and-reproductive-biology
#11
Rodney D Geisert, Michael F Smith, Amanda L Schmelzle, Jonathan A Green
In this teaching laboratory, the students are directed in an exercise that involves designing and performing an experiment to determine estrogen's role in regulating delayed implantation (diapause) in female rats. To encourage active participation by the students, a discussion question is provided before the laboratory exercise in which each student is asked to search the literature and provide written answers to questions and to formulate an experiment to test the role of ovarian estrogen in inducing implantation in female rats...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340790/an-automated-framework-for-qsar-model-building
#12
Samina Kausar, Andre O Falcao
BACKGROUND: In-silico quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models based tools are widely used to screen huge databases of compounds in order to determine the biological properties of chemical molecules based on their chemical structure. With the passage of time, the exponentially growing amount of synthesized and known chemicals data demands computationally efficient automated QSAR modeling tools, available to researchers that may lack extensive knowledge of machine learning modeling...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Cheminformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339017/reliability-and-agreement-on-embryo-assessment-5-years-of-an-external-quality-control-programme
#13
Luis Martínez-Granados, María Serrano, Antonio González-Utor, Nereyda Ortiz, Vicente Badajoz, María Luisa López-Regalado, Montserrat Boada, Jose A Castilla
An external quality-control programme for morphology-based embryo quality assessment, incorporating a standardized embryo grading scheme, was evaluated over a period of 5 years to determine levels of inter-observer reliability and agreement between practising clinical embryologists at IVF centres and the opinions of a panel of experts. Following Guidelines for Reporting Reliability and Agreement Studies, the Gwet index and proportion of positive (Ppos) and negative agreement were calculated. For embryo morphology assessment, a substantial degree of reliability was measured between the centres and the panel of experts (Gwet index: 0...
December 29, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337166/cd163-knockout-pigs-are-fully-resistant-to-highly-pathogenic-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#14
Huaqiang Yang, Jian Zhang, Xianwei Zhang, Junsong Shi, Yongfei Pan, Rong Zhou, Guoling Li, Zicong Li, Gengyuan Cai, Zhenfang Wu
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes severe economic losses to current swine production worldwide. Highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV), originated from a genotype 2 PRRSV, is more virulent than classical PRRSV and further exacerbates the economic impact. HP-PRRSV has become the predominant circulating field strain in China since 2006. CD163 is a cellular receptor for PRRSV. The depletion of CD163 whole protein or SRCR5 region (interaction site for the virus) confers resistance to infection of several PRRSV isolates in pigs or cultured host cells...
January 11, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336863/age-associated-expression-of-vitamin-d-receptor-and-vitamin-d-metabolizing-enzymes-in-the-male-reproductive-tract-and-sperm-of-hu-sheep
#15
Xiaolei Yao, M A Ei-Samahy, Hua Yang, Xu Feng, Fengzhe Li, Fanxing Meng, Haitao Nie, Feng Wang
The cellular response to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (Vit D3; biologically active form of Vitamin D) is complex and depends not only on Vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression but also on cellular uptake of circulating Vit D3 and the presence and activity of Vitamin D-metabolizing enzyme. This study evaluated the expression of VDR and Vitamin D-metabolizing enzymes in the ram reproductive tract at different developmental stages and in spermatozoa. Nearly all cell types in the testes and epithelial cells of the caput, corpus, and cauda expressed VDR, CYP27B1, and CYP24A1 proteins...
January 10, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336373/advances-of-long-noncoding-rnas-mediated-regulation-in-reproduction
#16
REVIEW
Kang-Sheng Liu, Tai-Ping Li, Hua Ton, Xiao-Dong Mao, Ya-Jun Chen
OBJECTIVE: Advances in genomics and molecular biology have led to the discovery of a large group of uncharacterized long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Emerging evidence indicated that many lncRNAs function in multiple biological processes and its dysregulation often causes diseases. Recent studies suggested that almost all regulatory lncRNAs interact with biological macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, and protein. LncRNAs regulate gene expression mainly on three levels, including epigenetic modification, transcription, and posttranscription, through DNA methylation, histone modification, and chromatin remodeling...
January 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336199/the-rust-fungus-melampsora-larici-populina-expresses-a-conserved-genetic-program-and-distinct-sets-of-secreted-protein-genes-during-infection-of-its-two-host-plants-larch-and-poplar
#17
Cécile Lorrain, Clémence Marchal, Stéphane Hacquard, Christine Delaruelle, Jérémy Pétrowski, Benjamin Petre, Arnaud Hecker, Pascal Frey, Sebastien Duplessis
Mechanisms required for broad spectrum or specific host colonization of plant parasites are poorly understood. As a perfect illustration, heteroecious rust fungi require two alternate host plants to complete their life cycles. Melampsora larici populina infects two taxonomically unrelated plants, larch on which sexual reproduction is achieved and poplar on which clonal multiplication occurs leading to severe epidemics in plantations. We applied deep RNA sequencing to three key developmental stages of M. larici-populina infection on larch: basidia, pycnia and aecia; and we performed comparative transcriptomics of infection on poplar and larch hosts using available expression data...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335015/cryptic-diversity-in-an-atlantic-forest-malaria-vector-from-the-mountains-of-south-east-brazil
#18
Guilherme de Rezende Dias, Thais Tenorio Soares Fujii, Bernardo Fernandes Fogel, Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Teresa Fernandes Silva-do-Nascimento, André Nóbrega Pitaluga, Carlos José Carvalho-Pinto, Antonio Bernardo Carvalho, Alexandre Afrânio Peixoto, Luísa Damazio Pitaluga Rona
BACKGROUND: Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii is the primary vector of human and simian malarias in Brazilian regions covered by the Atlantic Rainforest. Previous studies found that An. cruzii presents high levels of behavioural, chromosomal and molecular polymorphisms, which led to the hypothesis that it may be a complex of cryptic species. Here, An. cruzii specimens were collected in five sites in South-East Brazil located at different altitudes on the inner and coastal slopes of two mountain ranges covered by Atlantic Rainforest, known as Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueria...
January 15, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331830/fetal-development-of-the-poeppig-s-woolly-monkey-lagothrix-poeppigii
#19
Rafael Dos Santos de Andrade, Frederico Ozanan Barros Monteiro, Hani Rocha El Bizri, Wilter Ricardo Russiano Vicente, Diva Anelie de Araujo Guimarães, Pedro Mayor
The intrauterine development is an evolutionary strategy that prepares the neonate for extra-uterine life, thus providing important information on the life history of species. In this study, we described the external and internal morphology of 25 fetuses of Poeppig's woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii) by taking advantage of a 10-year participatory collection of biological samples originated from animals hunted for subsistence purposes in the Peruvian Amazon. Logistic regressions estimated the probability of occurrence of each external morphological characteristic in relation to the crown-rump length (CRL)...
December 8, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331089/modification-of-chrysanthemum-odour-and-taste-with-chrysanthemol-synthase-induces-strong-dual-resistance-against-cotton-aphids
#20
Hao Hu, Jinjin Li, Thierry Delatte, Jacques Vervoort, Liping Gao, Francel Verstappen, Wei Xiong, Jianping Gan, Maarten A Jongsma, Caiyun Wang
Aphids are pests of chrysanthemum that employ plant volatiles to select host plants and ingest cell contents to probe host quality before engaging in prolonged feeding and reproduction. Changes in volatile and non-volatile metabolite profiles can disrupt aphid-plant interactions and provide new methods of pest control. Chrysanthemol synthase (CHS) from Tanacetum cinerariifolium, represents the first committed step in the biosynthesis of pyrethrin ester insecticides, but no biological role for the chrysanthemol product alone has yet been documented...
January 13, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
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