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Reproductive Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214944/the-vascular-plants-open-system-of-growth
#1
REVIEW
Alice Basile, Marco Fambrini, Claudio Pugliesi
What is fascinating in plants (true also in sessile animals such as corals and hydroids) is definitely their open and indeterminate growth, as a result of meristematic activity. Plants as well as animals are characterized by a multicellular organization, with which they share a common set of genes inherited from a common eukaryotic ancestor; nevertheless, circa 1.5 billion years of evolutionary history made the two kingdoms very different in their own developmental biology. Flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, arose during the Cretaceous Period (145-65 million years ago), and up to date, they count around 235,000 species, representing the largest and most diverse group within the plant kingdom...
February 18, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214658/an-association-study-of-established-breast-cancer-reproductive-and-lifestyle-risk-factors-with-tumour-subtype-defined-by-the-prognostic-70-gene-expression-signature-mammaprint-%C3%A2
#2
M Makama, C A Drukker, E J Th Rutgers, L Slaets, F Cardoso, M A Rookus, K Tryfonidis, L J Van't Veer, M K Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Reproductive and lifestyle factors influence both breast cancer risk and prognosis; this might be through breast cancer subtype. Subtypes defined by immunohistochemical hormone receptor markers and gene expression signatures are used to predict prognosis of breast cancer patients based on their tumour biology. We investigated the association between established breast cancer risk factors and the 70-gene prognostication signature in breast cancer patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Standardised questionnaires were used to obtain information on established risk factors of breast cancer from the Dutch patients of the MINDACT trial...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214176/sex-differences-in-prolactin-levels-in-emerging-psychosis-indication-for-enhanced-stress-reactivity-in-women
#3
Sarah Ittig, Erich Studerus, Ulrike Heitz, Stephanie Menghini-Müller, Katharina Beck, Laura Egloff, Letizia Leanza, Christina Andreou, Anita Riecher-Rössler
BACKGROUND: Hyperprolactinemia is a known side effect of antipsychotics. In recent reports it has also been shown in antipsychotic-naïve at-risk mental state (ARMS) and first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients. Prolactin is not only involved in reproduction and lactation, but is also synthesized in response to stress. As stress is thought to play an important role in the onset and relapse of schizophrenia, the aim of this study was to further elucidate the influence of prolactin in emerging psychosis...
February 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213128/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-human-testis-reveals-system-wide-molecular-and-cellular-pathways-associated-with-non-obstructive-azoospermia
#4
Mehdi Alikhani, Mehdi Mirzaei, Marjan Sabbaghian, Pouria Parsamatin, Razieh Karamzadeh, Samane Adib, Niloofar Sodeifi, Mohammad Ali Sadighi Gilani, Masoud Zabet-Moghaddam, Lindsay Parker, Yunqi Wo, Vivek Gupta, Paul A Haynes, Hamid Gourabi, Hossein Baharvand, Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh
: Male infertility accounts for half of the infertility problems experienced by couples. Azoospermia, having no measurable level of sperm in seminal fluid, is one of the known conditions resulting in male infertility. In order to elucidate the complex molecular mechanisms causing male azoospermia, label-free quantitative shotgun proteomics was carried out on testicular tissue specimens from patients with obstructive azoospermia and non-obstructive azoospermia, including maturation arrest (MA) and Sertoli cell only syndrome (SCOS)...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212056/parenting-intentions-among-transgender-individuals
#5
Samantha L Tornello, Henny Bos
PURPOSE: We know very little about how transgender people create their families and the issues involved in these decisions. This qualitative study explored the parenting intentions and desires of 32 self-identified transgender individuals who want to become parents in the future. METHODS: Data were collected using an open-ended survey with 32 transgender men and transgender women regarding when and how they want to become parents in the future. RESULTS: We found that transgender individuals expressed specific desires for parenthood, such as biological relatedness and barriers to parenthood, such as physical limitations or lack of legal protections, which influence how transgender individuals choose to become parents in the future...
February 17, 2017: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211501/high-resolution-3d-imaging-of-whole-organ-after-clearing-taking-a-new-look-at-the-zebrafish-testis
#6
Maxence Frétaud, Laurie Rivière, Élodie De Job, Stéphanie Gay, Jean-Jacques Lareyre, Jean-Stéphane Joly, Pierre Affaticati, Violette Thermes
Zebrafish testis has become a powerful model for reproductive biology of teleostean fishes and other vertebrates and encompasses multiple applications in applied and basic research. Many studies have focused on 2D images, which is time consuming and implies extrapolation of results. Three-dimensional imaging of whole organs recently became an important challenge to better understand their architecture and allow cell enumeration. Several protocols have thus been developed to enhance sample transparency, a limiting step for imaging large biological samples...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208755/micrornas-new-insight-in-modulating-follicular-atresia-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Tesfaye Worku, Zia Ur Rehman, Hira Sajjad Talpur, Dinesh Bhattarai, Farman Ullah, Ngabu Malobi, Tesfaye Kebede, Liguo Yang
Our understanding of the post-transcriptional mechanisms involved in follicular atresia is limited; however, an important development has been made in understanding the biological regulatory networks responsible for mediating follicular atresia. MicroRNAs have come to be seen as a key regulatory actor in determining cell fate in a wide range of tissues in normal and pathological processes. Profiling studies of miRNAs during follicular atresia and development have identified several putative miRNAs enriched in apoptosis signaling pathways...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208089/low-dose-toxicity-of-biogenic-silver-nanoparticles-fabricated-by-swertia-chirata-on-root-tips-and-flower-buds-of-allium-cepa
#8
Nirlipta Saha, S Dutta Gupta
Chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (chem-AgNPs) have been assessed extensively to show adverse effects on plant cells but the role of biologically synthesized nanoparticles (bio-AgNPs) at lower concentrations and their toxicological impact on plant cells have not been sufficiently studied. In this study, bio-AgNPs were prepared using aqueous leaf extracts of Swertia chirata. This AgNPs showed absorption peak at 440nm of the visible spectrum. TEM analysis revealed that the average size of AgNPs were 20nm and mainly spherical in shape...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203244/pistil-transcriptome-analysis-to-disclose-genes-and-gene-products-related-to-aposporous-apomixis-in-hypericum-perforatum-l
#9
Giulio Galla, Sara Zenoni, Linda Avesani, Lothar Altschmied, Paride Rizzo, Timothy F Sharbel, Gianni Barcaccia
Unlike sexual reproduction, apomixis encompasses a number of reproductive strategies, which permit maternal genome inheritance without genetic recombination and syngamy. The key biological features of apomixis are the circumvention of meiosis (i.e., apomeiosis), the differentiation of unreduced embryo sacs and egg cells, and their autonomous development in functional embryos through parthenogenesis, and the formation of viable endosperm either via fertilization-independent means or following fertilization with a sperm cell...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202600/neoteny-prolongation-of-youth-from-naked-mole-rats-to-naked-apes-humans
#10
REVIEW
Vladimir P Skulachev, Susanne Holtze, Mikhail Y Vyssokikh, Lora E Bakeeva, Maxim V Skulachev, Alexander V Markov, Thomas B Hildebrandt, Viktor A Sadovnichii
It has been suggested that highly social mammals, such as naked mole rats and humans, are long-lived due to neoteny (the prolongation of youth). In both species, aging cannot operate as a mechanism facilitating natural selection because the pressure of this selection is strongly reduced due to 1) a specific social structure where only the "queen" and her "husband(s)" are involved in reproduction (naked mole rats) or 2) substituting fast technological progress for slow biological evolution (humans). Lists of numerous traits of youth that do not disappear with age in naked mole rats and humans are presented and discussed...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202179/effects-of-melatonin-in-rats-in-the-initial-third-stage-of-pregnancy-exposed-to-sub-lethal-doses-of-herbicides
#11
Lécio Leone de Almeida, Álvaro Aguiar Coelho Teixeira, Anísio Francisco Soares, Franklin Magliano da Cunha, Valdemiro Amaro da Silva, Leucio Duarte Vieira Filho, Valéria Wanderley-Teixeira
: Exposure to the herbicides Paraquat (PQ) and Roundup(®) may cause cell lesions due to an increase in oxidative stress levels in different biological systems, even in the reproductive system. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the possible changes in reproductive parameters and hepatic, as well as its prevention by simultaneous application of melatonin. METHODS: Thirty-five female rats at the age of 3 months were divided into seven groups: three groups exposed to sub-lethal doses of the herbicides PQ (50mg/kg) and Roundup(®) (500mg/kg) (n=5, G2, G3 and G4); three groups exposed to herbicides and simultaneous treatment with 10mg/kg of Melatonin (n=5, G5, G6 and G7) and control group (n=5, G1) from the first to the seventh day of pregnancy...
February 12, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198918/artificial-diet-for-laboratory-rearing-of-condylorrhiza-vestigialis-guen%C3%A3-e-1854-lep-crambidae
#12
Lucas S Campos, Aloisio Coelho, José Roberto P Parra
The Brazilian Poplar Moth, Condylorrhiza vestigialis (Guenée), compromises the wood productivity of poplar trees (Populus sp.), mainly affecting the matchstick industry in southern Brazil. Considering the lack of information on rearing techniques for this insect, the objective of this study was to develop an artificial diet to rear C. vestigialis with biological characteristics similar to the wild insects. A properly diet will enable bio-ecological studies and biological control programs using the baculovirus Condylorrhiza vestigialis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (CvMNPV)...
February 9, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196398/factors-of-influence-and-social-correlates-of-parturition-in-captive-campbell-s-monkeys-case-study-and-breeding-data
#13
Alban Lemasson, Ronan Jubin, Philippe Bec, Martine Hausberger
How nonhuman primates deal with birth, at the moment of delivery, and during the following days, remains poorly explored because of the unpredictability of this event, particularly for forest-dwelling arboreal species. Available studies highlight intra- and interspecific variation which suggest flexibility of the timing of delivery, of behavior associated with labor contractions and parturition, and the social context and ambient noise surrounding delivery. Here, we present the findings of a two-decade survey of reproduction in a population of captive Campbell's monkeys...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196149/climatic-and-geographic-predictors-of-life-history-variation-in-eastern-massasauga-sistrurus-catenatus-a-range-wide-synthesis
#14
Eric T Hileman, Richard B King, John M Adamski, Thomas G Anton, Robyn L Bailey, Sarah J Baker, Nickolas D Bieser, Thomas A Bell, Kristin M Bissell, Danielle R Bradke, Henry Campa, Gary S Casper, Karen Cedar, Matthew D Cross, Brett A DeGregorio, Michael J Dreslik, Lisa J Faust, Daniel S Harvey, Robert W Hay, Benjamin C Jellen, Brent D Johnson, Glenn Johnson, Brooke D Kiel, Bruce A Kingsbury, Matthew J Kowalski, Yu Man Lee, Andrew M Lentini, John C Marshall, David Mauger, Jennifer A Moore, Rori A Paloski, Christopher A Phillips, Paul D Pratt, Thomas Preney, Kent A Prior, Andrew Promaine, Michael Redmer, Howard K Reinert, Jeremy D Rouse, Kevin T Shoemaker, Scott Sutton, Terry J VanDeWalle, Patrick J Weatherhead, Doug Wynn, Anne Yagi
Elucidating how life history traits vary geographically is important to understanding variation in population dynamics. Because many aspects of ectotherm life history are climate-dependent, geographic variation in climate is expected to have a large impact on population dynamics through effects on annual survival, body size, growth rate, age at first reproduction, size-fecundity relationship, and reproductive frequency. The Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus) is a small, imperiled North American rattlesnake with a distribution centered on the Great Lakes region, where lake effects strongly influence local conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195584/live-birth-in-an-archosauromorph-reptile
#15
Jun Liu, Chris L Organ, Michael J Benton, Matthew C Brandley, Jonathan C Aitchison
Live birth has evolved many times independently in vertebrates, such as mammals and diverse groups of lizards and snakes. However, live birth is unknown in the major clade Archosauromorpha, a group that first evolved some 260 million years ago and is represented today by birds and crocodilians. Here we report the discovery of a pregnant long-necked marine reptile (Dinocephalosaurus) from the Middle Triassic (∼245 million years ago) of southwest China showing live birth in archosauromorphs. Our discovery pushes back evidence of reproductive biology in the clade by roughly 50 million years, and shows that there is no fundamental reason that archosauromorphs could not achieve live birth...
February 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195203/reproductive-strategies-of-the-coral-turbinaria-reniformis-in-the-northern-gulf-of-aqaba-red-sea
#16
Hanna Rapuano, Itzchak Brickner, Tom Shlesinger, Efrat Meroz-Fine, Raz Tamir, Yossi Loya
Here we describe for the first time the reproductive biology of the scleractinian coral Turbinaria reniformis studied during three years at the coral reefs of Eilat and Aqaba. We also investigated the possibility of sex change in individually tagged colonies followed over a period of 12 years. T. reniformis was found to be a stable gonochorist (no detected sex change) that reproduces by broadcast spawning 5-6 nights after the full moon of June and July. Spawning was highly synchronized between individuals in the field and in the lab...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194826/mapping-out-p38mapk
#17
Elizabeth A Bonney
To generate new hypotheses, sometimes a "systems" approach is needed. In this review, I focus on the mitogen-activated kinase p38 because it has been recently shown to play an important role in the developmental programing and senescence of normal and stressed reproductive tissues. What follows is an overview of (i) pathways of p38 activation and their involvement in basic biological processes, (ii) evidence that p38 is involved in the homeostasis of reproductive tissues, (iii) how focus on p38 can be incorporated into investigation of normal and stressed pregnancies...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193317/identification-of-differentially-expressed-placental-transcripts-during-multiple-gestations-in-the-eurasian-beaver-castor-fiber-l
#18
A Lipka, L Paukszto, M Majewska, J P Jastrzebski, K Myszczynski, G Panasiewicz, B Szafranska
The Eurasian beaver is one of the largest rodents that, despite its high impact on the environment, is a non-model species that lacks a reference genome. Characterising genes critical for pregnancy outcome can serve as a basis for identifying mechanisms underlying effective reproduction, which is required for the success of endangered species conservation programs. In the present study, high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to analyse global changes in the Castor fiber subplacenta transcriptome during multiple pregnancy...
February 14, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191554/emergence-through-delicate-balance-between-the-steric-factor-and-molecular-orientation-a-highly-bright-and-photostable-dna-marker-for-real-time-monitoring-of-cell-growth-dynamics
#19
Pankaj Gaur, Ajay Kumar, Reena Dalal, Shalmoli Bhattacharyya, Subrata Ghosh
Due to its remarkable structural and optical stability in biological milieu, a newly developed small molecule based DNA marker with high brightness (Φ = 0.51, brightness = 26 300 M(-1) cm(-1)) and almost zero toxicity has been explored. For the first time to our knowledge, this approach has provided real-time monitoring of growth and reproductive potency of living cells beyond nine days.
February 13, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190728/juvenile-hormone-suppresses-resistance-to-infection-in-mated-female-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
Robin A Schwenke, Brian P Lazzaro
Hormonal signaling provides metazoans with the ability to regulate development, growth, metabolism, immune defense, and reproduction in response to internal and external stimuli. The use of hormones as central regulators of physiology makes them prime candidates for mediating allocation of resources to competing biological functions (i.e., hormonal pleiotropy) [1]. In animals, reproductive effort often results in weaker immune responses (e.g., [2-4]), and this reduction is sometimes linked to hormone signaling (see [5-7])...
February 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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