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Reproductive Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440928/microplastics-as-contaminants-in-commercially-important-seafood-species
#1
David Santillo, Kathryn Miller, Paul Johnston
The ingestion of microplastic fragments, spheres, and fibers by marine mollusks, crustaceans, and fish, including a number of commercially important species, appears to be a widespread and pervasive phenomenon. Evidence is also growing for direct impacts of microplastic ingestion on physiology, reproductive success and survival of exposed marine organisms, and transfer through food webs, although the ecological implications are not yet known. Concerns also remain over the capacity for microplastics to act as vectors for harmful chemical pollutants, including plastic additives and persistent organic pollutants, although their contribution must be evaluated alongside other known sources...
May 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440581/the-toxicity-of-silver-to-soil-organisms-exposed-to-silver-nanoparticles-and-silver-nitrate-in-biosolids-amended-field-soil
#2
Alexander H Jesmer, Jessica R Velicogna, Dina M Schwertfeger, Richard P Scroggins, Juliska I Princz
The use of engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is widespread, with expected release to the terrestrial environment through the application of biosolids onto agricultural lands. The toxicity of AgNP and AgNO3 (as ionic Ag(+) ) to plant (Elymus lanceolatus and Trifolium pratense) and soil invertebrate (Eisenia andrei and Folsomia candida) species was assessed using silver-amended biosolids applied to a natural sandy loam soil. Bioavailable Ag(+) in soil samples was estimated using an ion-exchange technique applied to KNO3 soil extracts while exposure to dispersible AgNP was verified by single particle-ICP-MS and TEM-EDS analysis...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439457/pollinator-diversity-and-reproductive-success-of-epipactis-helleborine-l-crantz-orchidaceae-in-anthropogenic-and-natural-habitats
#3
Agnieszka Rewicz, Radomir Jaskuła, Tomasz Rewicz, Grzegorz Tończyk
BACKGROUND: Epipactis helleborine is an Eurasian orchid species which prefers woodland environments but it may also spontaneously and successfully colonise human-made artificial and disturbed habitats such as roadsides, town parks and gardens. It is suggested that orchids colonising anthropogenic habitats are characterised by a specific set of features (e.g., large plant size, fast flower production). However, as it is not well known how pollinator diversity and reproductive success of E...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438562/first-successful-vitrification-of-salmonid-ovarian-tissue
#4
Jelena Lujić, Zoran Marinović, Simona Sušnik Bajec, Ida Djurdjevič, Eszter Kása, Béla Urbányi, Ákos Horváth
Due to a lack of cryopreservation protocols for fish eggs and embryos, alternative techniques which will enable storage of female genetic resources are crucial for future development of reproduction management in conservation biology and aquaculture. Experiments were conducted to develop an optimal vitrification protocol for cryopreservation of brown trout Salmo trutta juvenile ovarian tissue. Needle immersed vitrification (NIV) method was used where ovaries were pinned on an acupuncture needle, passaged through equilibration and vitrification solutions containing different combinations and concentrations of methanol (MeOH), propylene glycol (PG) and dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) and subsequently plunged into liquid nitrogen...
April 21, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434412/molecular-characterization-and-transcriptional-analysis-of-the-female-enriched-chondroitin-proteoglycan-2-of-toxocara-canis
#5
G X Ma, R Q Zhou, L Hu, Y L Luo, Y F Luo, H H Zhu
Toxocara canis is an important but neglected zoonotic parasite, and is the causative agent of human toxocariasis. Chondroitin proteoglycans are biological macromolecules, widely distributed in extracellular matrices, with a great diversity of functions in mammals. However, there is limited information regarding chondroitin proteoglycans in nematode parasites. In the present study, a female-enriched chondroitin proteoglycan 2 gene of T. canis (Tc-cpg-2) was cloned and characterized. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was employed to measure the transcription levels of Tc-cpg-2 among tissues of male and female adult worms...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433375/mosaicism-between-trophectoderm-and-inner-cell-mass
#6
REVIEW
Antonio Capalbo, Laura Rienzi
Defining the actual incidence and prevalence of mosaicism in human blastocysts still remains a difficult task. The small amount of evidence generated by animal and human studies does not support the existence of mechanisms involved in developmental arrest, clonal depletion, or aneuploidy rescue for abnormal cells in euploid/aneuploid embryos during preimplantation development. However, studies in humans are mainly descriptive and lack functional evidence. Understanding the biological mechanisms that beset preimplantation differentiation holds the potential to reveal the role of aneuploidies and gene dosage imbalances in cell fate decision, providing important clues on the origin and evolution of embryonic mosaicism...
April 19, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432809/the-honeybee-as-a-model-insect-for-developmental-genetics
#7
REVIEW
A G Cridge, M R Lovegrove, J G Skelly, S E Taylor, G E L Petersen, R C Cameron, P K Dearden
Honeybees are an important component of modern agricultural systems, and a fascinating and scientifically engrossing insect. Honeybees are not commonly used as model systems for understanding development in insects despite their importance in agriculture. Honeybee embryogenesis, while being superficially similar to Drosophila, is molecularly very different, especially in axis formation and sex determination. In later development, much of honeybee biology is modified by caste development, an as yet poorly understood, but excellent, system to study developmental plasticity...
April 22, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431764/seasonal-monitoring-of-blue-mussel-mytilus-spp-populations-in-a-harbor-area-a-focus-on-responses-to-environmental-factors-and-chronic-contamination
#8
C Lacroix, E Duvieilbourg, N Guillou, J Guyomarch, C Bassoulet, D Moraga, G Chapalain, M Auffret
Coastal waters corresponding to macrotidal systems are among the most variable marine biotopes. Sessile animals as bivalve mollusks may however be found forming intertidal beds at high densities, as allowed by full adaptation to local conditions. A better knowledge of adaptive responses to environmental factors is required to foresee possible adverse effects of global change. At the sub-cellular level, transcriptional responses are among the earliest signals of environmental disturbances and they can reveal subtle and meaningful changes in organism exposed to stress...
April 12, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431521/a-reference-floral-transcriptome-of-sexual-and-apomictic-paspalum-notatum
#9
Juan Pablo A Ortiz, Santiago Revale, Lorena A Siena, Maricel Podio, Luciana Delgado, Juliana Stein, Olivier Leblanc, Silvina C Pessino
BACKGROUND: Paspalum notatum Flügge is a subtropical grass native to South America, which includes sexual diploid and apomictic polyploid biotypes. In the past decade, a number of apomixis-associated genes were discovered in this species through genetic mapping and differential expression surveys. However, the scarce information on Paspalum sequences available in public databanks limited annotations and functional predictions for these candidates. RESULTS: We used a long-read 454/Roche FLX+ sequencing strategy to produce robust reference transcriptome datasets from florets of sexual and apomictic Paspalum notatum genotypes and delivered a list of transcripts showing differential representation in both reproductive types...
April 21, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428841/reproductive-traits-associated-with-species-turnover-of-amphibians-in-amazonia-and-its-andean-slopes
#10
Octavio Jiménez-Robles, Juan M Guayasamin, Santiago R Ron, Ignacio De la Riva
Assembly of ecological communities is important for the conservation of ecosystems, predicting perturbation impacts, and understanding the origin and loss of biodiversity. We tested how amphibian communities are assembled by neutral and niche-based mechanisms, such as habitat filtering. Species richness, β-diversities, and reproductive traits of amphibians were evaluated at local scale in seven habitats at different elevation and disturbance levels in Wisui Biological Station, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador, on the foothills of the Cordillera del Kutukú; and at regional scale using 109 localities across evergreen forests of Amazonia and its Andean slopes (0-3,900 m a...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428391/the-interaction-of-human-population-food-production-and-biodiversity-protection
#11
REVIEW
Eileen Crist, Camilo Mora, Robert Engelman
Research suggests that the scale of human population and the current pace of its growth contribute substantially to the loss of biological diversity. Although technological change and unequal consumption inextricably mingle with demographic impacts on the environment, the needs of all human beings-especially for food-imply that projected population growth will undermine protection of the natural world. Numerous solutions have been proposed to boost food production while protecting biodiversity, but alone these proposals are unlikely to staunch biodiversity loss...
April 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425469/in-plastico-laboratory-material-newness-affects-growth-and-reproduction-of-daphnia-magna-reared-in-50-ml-polypropylene-tubes
#12
Marek Cuhra, Thomas Bøhn, Petr Cuhra
Plastic laboratory materials are found to affect vital parameters of the waterflea Daphnia magna. The main responsible factor is defined as "newness" of the materials. Juvenile D. magna were raised individually in; a) new laboratory-standard 50 ml polypropylene tubes, and; b) identical tubes which had been washed and aerated for several weeks. Newness had significant effects on growth and fecundity of D. magna. New tubes caused delayed maturation, reduced reproduction and reduced growth when compared to washed and re-used tubes of the same commercial brand...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424618/pharmacological-and-biochemical-characterization-of-tlqp-21-activation-of-a-binding-site-on-cho-cells
#13
Laura Molteni, Laura Rizzi, Elena Bresciani, Roberta Possenti, Pamela Petrocchi Passeri, Corrado Ghè, Giampiero Muccioli, Jean-Alain Fehrentz, Pascal Verdié, Jean Martinez, Robert J Omeljaniuk, Giuseppe Biagini, Anna Binda, Ilaria Rivolta, Vittorio Locatelli, Antonio Torsello
VGF is a propeptide of 617 amino acids expressed throughout the central and the peripheral nervous system. VGF and peptides derived from its processing have been found in dense core vesicles and are released from neuronal and neuroendocrine cells via the regulated secretory pathway. Among VGF-derived neuropeptides, TLQP-21 (VGF(556-576)) has raised a huge interest and is one of most studied. TLQP-21 is a multifunctional neuropeptide involved in the control of several physiological functions, potentially including energy homeostasis, pain modulation, stress responsiveness and reproduction...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424471/human-luteinizing-hormone-and-chorionic-gonadotropin-display-biased-agonism-at-the-lh-and-lh-cg-receptors
#14
Laura Riccetti, Romain Yvinec, Danièle Klett, Nathalie Gallay, Yves Combarnous, Eric Reiter, Manuela Simoni, Livio Casarini, Mohammed Akli Ayoub
Human luteinizing hormone (LH) and chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) have been considered biologically equivalent because of their structural similarities and their binding to the same receptor; the LH/CGR. However, accumulating evidence suggest that LH/CGR differentially responds to the two hormones triggering differential intracellular signaling and steroidogenesis. The mechanistic basis of such differential responses remains mostly unknown. Here, we compared the abilities of recombinant rhLH and rhCG to elicit cAMP, β-arrestin 2 activation, and steroidogenesis in HEK293 cells and mouse Leydig tumor cells (mLTC-1)...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423419/temperature-dependent-biological-and-demographic-parameters-of-coleomegilla-maculata-coleoptera-coccinellidae
#15
Juan A Morales-Ramos, M Guadalupe Rojas
Knowledge of the most suitable environmental conditions for an organism growth and development is a prerequisite for developing mass rearing technology. The temperature requirements for development and the optimal range of temperatures for growth and reproduction of Coleomegilla maculata De Geer were studied. The development time of individual C. maculata larvae was determined at 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 33, and 36 °C. Development times were converted to development rates and fitted to a nonlinear temperature-dependent model and to the linear day-degree model...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423240/biochemical-cellular-physiological-and-pathological-consequences-of-human-loss-of-n-glycolylneuraminic-acid
#16
Jonathan Okerblom, Ajit Varki
About 2-3 million years ago, Alu-mediated deletion of a critical exon in the CMAH gene became fixed in the hominin lineage ancestral to humans, possibly through a stepwise process of selection by pathogen targeting of the CMAH product (the sialic acid Neu5Gc), followed by reproductive isolation via female anti-Neu5Gc antibodies. Loss of CMAH has occurred independently in some other lineages, but is functionally intact in Old World primates, including our closest relatives, the chimpanzees. While the biophysical and biochemical ramifications of losing tens of millions of Neu5Gc hydroxyl groups at most cell surfaces remains poorly understood, there are multi-scale effects functionally relevant to both sides of the host-pathogen interface...
April 19, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423081/long-wavelength-sensitive-opsin-lws-gene-variability-in-neotropical-cichlids-teleostei-cichlidae
#17
Thomaz M C Fabrin, Sonia Maria A P Prioli, Alberto José Prioli
Cichlid fishes are an important group in evolutionary biology due to their fast speciation. This group depends widely of vision for feeding and reproduction. During the evolutionary process it plays a significant role in interspecific and intraspecific recognition and in its ecology. The molecular basis of vision is formed by the interaction of the protein opsin and retinal chromophore. Long-wavelength sensitive opsin (LWS) gene is the most variable among the opsin genes and it has an ecological significance...
January 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421609/description-and-quantitative-analysis-of-the-dentition-of-the-southern-thorny-skate-amblyraja-doellojuradoi
#18
REVIEW
G Delpiani, M C Spath, M Deli Antoni, M Delpiani
A description of the tooth morphology of 234 jaws from the southern thorny skate Amblyraja doellojuradoi in the south-west Atlantic Ocean is given. Seven rows of teeth were selected and length and width of each tooth in these rows were measured. It was found that functional series corresponds to the third teeth and the average width and length of these teeth were compared among jaws, maturity stages, sexes and rows. Generalized linear models were used to determine the subset of measures that most contribute to explain the variability between groups...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420808/sequence-variations-in-estrogen-receptor-1-and-2-genes-and-their-association-with-egg-production-traits-in-chinese-dagu-chickens
#19
Xiaotian Niu, Thobela Louis Tyasi, Ning Qin, Dehui Liu, Hongyan Zhu, Xiaoxia Chen, Fengwei Zhang, Shuguo Yuan, Rifu Xu
Estrogen receptors α (ESR1) and β (ESR2) play central roles in folliculogenesis, and therefore in reproductive biology. In the present study, two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the ESR1 and ESR2 genes using PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and DNA sequencing. One of the identified SNPs, a T1101C transition located within exon 4 of the ESR1 gene, was significantly associated with hen-housed egg production (HHEP) at 30, 43, 57 and 66 weeks of age (P<0.05), and egg weight (EW) at 30 weeks (P<0...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418431/body-burdens-sources-and-interrelations-of-selected-toxic-and-essential-elements-among-the-nine-cree-first-nations-of-eeyou-istchee-james-bay-region-of-northern-quebec-canada
#20
Evert Nieboer, Ian D Martin, Eric N Liberda, Eric Dewailly, Elizabeth Robinson, Leonard J S Tsuji
BACKGROUND: this article constitutes a report on the comprehensive Nituuchischaayihtitaau Aschii multi-community environment-and-health study conducted among the Cree peoples (Eeyouch) of northern Quebec, Canada. OBJECTIVES: to interpret observed concentrations of a suite of chemical elements in a multi-media biological monitoring study in terms of sources and predictors. METHODS: the concentrations of 5 essential and 6 toxic chemical elements were measured in whole blood, and/or in urine or hair by ICP-MS...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
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