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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458180/feature-guided-attentional-capture-cannot-be-prevented-by-spatial-filtering
#1
Nick Berggren, Martin Eimer
Feature-based control processes guide attention towards objects with target features in visual search. While these processes are assumed to operate globally across the entire visual field, it remains controversial whether target-matching objects at task-irrelevant locations can be excluded from attentional selection, especially when spatial attention is already narrowly focused elsewhere. We investigated whether probe stimuli at irrelevant lateral locations capture attention when they precede search displays where targets are defined either by a specific feature (colour or orientation) or by a colour/orientation conjunction by measuring N2pc components (an electrophysiological marker of attentional target selection) to these probes...
February 16, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457860/controlling-the-outgrowth-and-functions-of-neural-stem-cells-the-effect-of-surface-topography
#2
REVIEW
Chara Simitzi, Kanelina Karali, Anthi Ranella, Emmanuel Stratakis
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are self-renewing cells that generate the major cell types of the central nervous system, namely neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, during embryonic development and in the adult brain. NSCs reside in a complex niche where they are exposed to a plethora of signals, including both soluble and physical signals such as compressive and shear stresses, but also discontinuities and differences in morphology of the extracellular environment, termed as topographical features. Different approaches that incorporate artificial micro- and nano-scale surface topographical features have been developed aiming to recapitulate the in vivo NSC niche discontinuities and features, particularly for in vitro studies...
February 19, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457824/understanding-the-conformational-analysis-of-gababutin-based-hybrid-peptides
#3
Maruthi Konda, Rohit G Jadhav, Sayan Maiti, Shaikh M Mobin, Brice Kauffmann, Apurba K Das
Constrained γ-amino acid gababutin (Gbn) based peptides that form different conformations have been synthesized. Striving to rationalize the impact of side chain orientations framing tetrapeptide-based supramolecular organic frameworks and morphological entities, Gbn incorporated hybrid peptides Boc-Gbn-Aib-Aaa-Aib-OMe (where Aaa = Phe(F) for peptide 1, Leu(L) for peptide 2 and Tyr(Y) for peptide 3) were synthesized by changing the amino acid at the third position. The solution state dual folded conformation (C12 /C10 H-bonded) is probed by 2D NMR spectroscopy in support of a DMSO-d6 titration and VT NMR experiments...
February 19, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457817/electron-transfer-rate-analysis-of-a-site-specifically-wired-copper-oxidase
#4
Orr Schlesinger, Mor Pasi, Rambabu Dandela, Michael M Meijler, Lital Alfonta
Electron transfer kinetic parameters of site-specifically wired copper oxidase were investigated. The enzyme's orientation towards the electrode was controlled by incorporation of propargyl-l-lysine as a site-specific anchoring point. Herein, we demonstrate the importance of immobilization orientation and how it affects electron transfer efficiency and kinetics to each of the enzyme's two active sites.
February 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457731/synthesis-of-structurally-diverse-emissive-molecular-rotors-with-four-component-ugi-stators
#5
Ma Carmen García-González, Andres Aguilar-Granda, Angel Zamudio-Medina, Luis D Miranda, Braulio Rodríguez-Molina
The use of the multicomponent Ugi reaction to rapidly prepare a library of dumbbell-like molecular rotors is highlighted here. The synthetic strategy consisted on the atom-economic access to fifteen bulky and structurally-diverse iodinated stators, which were cross coupled to the 1,4-diethynylphenylene rotator. From those experiments, up to six rotors 1a-c and 1l-n were obtained, with yields ranging from 35 to 69 % per coupled C-C bond. In addition to the frameworks diversity, five of these compounds showed Aggregate-Enhanced Emission properties thanks to their conjugated 1,4-bis-[(phenyl)ethynyl]benzene cores, a property that rises by increasing the water fraction (fw) in their THF solutions...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457729/assessing-interactions-between-a-polytopic-membrane-protein-and-lipid-bilayers-using-differential-scanning-calorimetry-and-solid-state-nmr
#6
James R Banigan, Maureen Leninger, Ampon Sae Her, Nathaniel J Traaseth
It is known that the lipid composition within a cellular membrane can influence membrane protein structure and function. In this Article, we investigated how structural changes to a membrane protein upon substrate binding can impact the lipid bilayer. To carry out this study, we reconstituted the secondary active drug transporter EmrE into a variety of phospholipid bilayers varying in headgroup and chain length and carried out differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and solid-state NMR experiments. The DSC results revealed a difference in cooperativity of the lipid phase transition for drug-free EmrE protonated at glutamic acid 14 (i...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457644/trajectories-of-frontal-brain-activity-and-socio-emotional-development-in-children
#7
Kristie L Poole, Diane L Santesso, Ryan J Van Lieshout, Louis A Schmidt
Asymmetric frontal brain activity is thought to reflect individual differences in approach- and avoidance-oriented motivation and emotional experience. Using a prospective longitudinal design, the authors investigated whether trajectories of frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry in children (Mage = 6.39 years at enrollment) predicted subjective, behavioral, and autonomic indices of socioemotional processes. Resting frontal EEG activity was measured across four separate repeated assessments spanning approximately 2 years...
February 19, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457602/examination-of-previously-published-data-to-identify-patterns-in-the-social-representation-of-loud-music-in-young-adults-across-countries
#8
Vinaya Manchaiah, Fei Zhao, Susan Oladeji, Pierre Ratinaud
Purpose: The current study was aimed at understanding the patterns in the social representation of loud music reported by young adults in different countries. Materials and Methods: The study included a sample of 534 young adults (18-25 years) from India, Iran, Portugal, United Kingdom, and United States. Participants were recruited using a convince sampling, and data were collected using the free association task. Participants were asked to provide up to five words or phrases that come to mind when thinking about "loud music...
January 2018: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457477/enabling-choice-recovery-and-participation-evidence-based-early-intervention-support-for-psychosocial-disability-in-the-national-disability-insurance-scheme
#9
Laura Hayes, Lisa Brophy, Carol Harvey, Juan Jose Tellez, Helen Herrman, Eoin Killackey
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify the most effective interventions for early intervention in psychosocial disability in the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) through an evidence review. METHODS: A series of rapid reviews were undertaken to establish possible interventions for psychosocial disability, to develop our understanding of early intervention criteria for the NDIS and to determine which interventions would meet these criteria. RESULTS: Three interventions (social skills training, supported employment and supported housing) have a strong evidence base for effectiveness in early intervention in people with psychosocial disability, with the potential for adoption by the NDIS...
February 1, 2018: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457447/effects-of-chain-orientation-in-self-organized-buffer-layers-based-on-poly-3-alkylthiophene-s-for-organic-photovoltaics
#10
Fanji Wang, Kazuhito Hashimoto, Hiroshi Segawa, Keisuke Tajima
Surface-segregated monolayers (SSMs) based on two poly(3-alkylthiophene)s with semifluoroalkyl groups at either the side chains (P3DDFT) or one end of the main chain (P3BT-F17) were used as self-organized buffer layers at the electrode interfaces in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs). Both of the SSMs greatly shifted the vacuum levels of the BHJ films at the surface due to the aligned permanent dipole moments of the semifluoroalkyl chains. Hole extraction in the BHJ of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) became more efficient in the presence of the P3DDFT buffer layer, resulting in an improved power conversion efficiency...
February 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457306/functional-characterization-of-collaterals-in-the-human-gingiva-by-laser-speckle-contrast-imaging
#11
Réka Fazekas, Eszter Molnár, Zsolt Lohinai, Elek Dinya, Zsuzsanna Tóth, Péter Windisch, János Vág
OBJECTIVES: The rate of blood flow between the various areas of the gingiva in resting position and under challenge is unknown. In the present study, the Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) method was used to map spatial and temporal changes in gingival blood flow after transient compression. METHODS: Horizontal, vertical and papilla base compressions were applied on the attached gingiva in 21 healthy patients (13 women, 8 men). LSCI was used to determine dynamic changes in regional blood flow during a five-second occlusion interval and subsequent reperfusion for twenty minutes...
February 19, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457180/multiscale-design-of-zno-nanostructured-photocatalysts
#12
A Ramirez-Canon, M Medina-Llamas, M Vezzoli, D Mattia
A systematic investigation of the photocatalytic activity (PCA) of nanostructured ZnO films showed how this is directly affected by the films' morphology at different scales, from the macroscale morphology of films (e.g. thickness and surface area), to the microscale feature arrangement (e.g. aligned vs. randomly oriented structures or interpenetrated ones), to the nanoscale structure (e.g. crystal size and orientation). The interest in immobilizing photocatalysts in water treatment stems from concerns about the potential toxicity of their slurry form, which requires expensive downstream removal...
February 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457158/structural-and-dynamic-properties-of-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium-bis-trifluoromethanesulfonyl-imide-mica-and-graphite-interfaces-revealed-by-molecular-dynamics-simulation
#13
Yasuyuki Yokota, Hiroo Miyamoto, Akihito Imanishi, Kouji Inagaki, Yoshitada Morikawa, Ken-Ichi Fukui
It has been observed that the properties of room temperature ionic liquids near solid substrates are different from those of bulk liquids, and these properties play an important role in the development of catalysts, lubricants, and electrochemical devices. In this paper, we report microscopic studies of ionic liquid/solid interfaces performed using molecular dynamics simulations. The structural and dynamic properties of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (BMIM-TFSI) on mica and graphite interfaces were thoroughly investigated to elucidate the microscopic origins of the formation of layered structures at the interfaces...
February 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457054/towards-a-whole-brain-model-of-perceptual-learning
#14
Marcello Maniglia, Aaron R Seitz
A hallmark of modern Perceptual Learning (PL) is the extent to which learning is specific to the trained stimuli. Such specificity to orientation, spatial location and even eye of training has been used as psychophysical evidence of the neural basis of learning. This argument that specificity of PL implies regionalization of brain plasticity implicitly assumes that examination of a singular locus of PL is an appropriate approach to understand learning. However, recent research shows that learning effects once thought to be specific depend on subtleties of the training paradigm and that within even a simple training procedure there are multiple aspects of the task and stimuli that are learned simultaneously...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457049/intestinal-obstruction-of-uncommon-cause-and-point-of-care-ultrasonography-where-do-we-stand
#15
Tiago Capela, Paula Sousa, Ana Caldeira, Eduardo Pereira
Malignant neoplasms of the small bowel, especially from the jejunum, are among the rarest types of cancer. Given its location, a delayed diagnosis is frequent and sometimes only made in an emergency context. The authors present a case of intestinal obstruction, where ultrasonography was pivotal in establishing a diagnosis. Point-of-care ultrasonography seems to be particularly sensitive in assessing emergency patients with abdominal pain, allowing effective orientation and saving human and technical resources...
January 2018: GE Portuguese Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456957/-is-cone-beam-computed-tomography-cbct-a-potential-imaging-tool-in-ent-practice-a-cross-sectional-survey-among-ent-surgeons-in-the-state-of-odisha-india
#16
S Lata, S K Mohanty, S Vinay, Abhaya Chandra Das, Sanjib Das, Priyadarshini Choudhury
This questioner survey aimed about awareness of the Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) machine and its various clinical applications in ENT, among the ENT surgeons in the state of Odisha. 150 questioner forms on CBCT were distributed to the all the participating ENT surgeons at a state level ENT conference, out of which the response rate was 110. The participants were asked to answer 30 multiple choice questions, which were divided into 3 parts; general information on CBCT, general approach to CBCT and practice related to CBCT...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456935/radiological-evaluation-of-cochlear-orientation-and-its-implications-in-cochlear-implantation
#17
Avvaru Satya Kiran, Ajoy Mathew Varghese, Aparna Irodi, Anjali Lepcha, John Mathew, Visalakshi Jeyaseelan
To test whether there are variations in cochlear orientation with respect to age and sex, and its relevance in cochlear implant surgery. Implant otologists rely upon the anatomic landmarks including the facial recess and round window niche and round window membrane for accessibility and placement of electrode array into scala tympani of basal turn of cochlea. Anecdotally, surgeons note variations in cochlear orientation with respect to age. Cochlear orientation studied radiologically by pre-operative CT scan of temporal bone can guide a Surgeon's approach to cochlear implantation...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456496/how-do-acquired-political-identities-influence-our-neural-processing-toward-others-within-the-context-of-a-trust-game
#18
Chien-Te Wu, Yang-Teng Fan, Ye-Rong Du, Tien-Tun Yang, Ho-Ling Liu, Nai-Shing Yen, Shu-Heng Chen, Ray-May Hsung
Trust is essential for mutually beneficial human interactions in economic exchange and politics and people's social identities notably have dramatic effects on trust behaviors toward others. Previous literature concerning social identities generally suggests that people tend to show in-group favoritism toward members who share the same identity. However, how our brains process signals of identity while facing uncertain situations in interpersonal interactions remains largely unclear. To address this issue, we performed an fMRI experiment with 54 healthy adults who belonged to two identity groups of opposing political orientations...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456268/evidence-for-ubiquitous-preferential-particle-orientation-in-representative-oceanic-shear-flows
#19
Aditya R Nayak, Malcolm N McFarland, James M Sullivan, Michael S Twardowski
In situ measurements were undertaken to characterize particle fields in undisturbed oceanic environments. Simultaneous, co-located depth profiles of particle fields and flow characteristics were recorded using a submersible holographic imaging system and an acoustic Doppler velocimeter, under different flow conditions and varying particle concentration loads, typical of those found in coastal oceans and lakes. Nearly one million particles with major axis lengths ranging from ∼14 μm to 11.6 mm, representing diverse shapes, sizes, and aspect ratios were characterized as part of this study...
January 2018: Limnology and Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456201/modular-radical-cross-coupling-with-sulfones-enables-access-to-sp-3-rich-fluoro-alkylated-scaffolds
#20
Rohan R Merchant, Jacob T Edwards, Tian Qin, Monika M Kruszyk, Cheng Bi, Guanda Che, Deng-Hui Bao, Wenhua Qiao, Lijie Sun, Michael R Collins, Olugbeminiyi O Fadeyi, Gary M Gallego, James J Mousseau, Philippe Nuhant, Phil S Baran
Cross-coupling chemistry is widely applied to carbon-carbon bond formation in the synthesis of medicines, agrochemicals, and other functional materials. Recently single-electron-induced variants of this reaction class have proven particularly useful in the formation of C(sp2 )-C(sp3 ) linkages, though certain compound classes have remained a challenge. Here we report the use of sulfones to activate the alkyl coupling partner in nickel-catalyzed radical cross-coupling with aryl zinc reagents. This method's tolerance of fluoroalkyl substituents proved particularly advantageous for the streamlined preparation of pharmaceutically-oriented fluorinated scaffolds that previously required multiple steps, toxic reagents, and non-modular retrosynthetic blueprints...
February 18, 2018: Science
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