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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045880/a-model-for-link-pruning-to-establish-correctly-polarized-and-oriented-tip-links-in-hair-bundles
#1
Nathan Tompkins, Kateri J Spinelli, Dongseok Choi, Peter G Barr-Gillespie
Tip links are thought to gate the mechanically sensitive transduction channels of hair cells, but how they form during development and regeneration remains mysterious. In particular, it is unclear how tip links are strung between stereocilia so that they are oriented parallel to a single axis; why their polarity is uniform despite their constituent molecules' intrinsic asymmetry; and why only a single tip link is present at each tip-link position. We present here a series of simple rules that reasonably explain why these phenomena occur...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045872/the-detection-of-nanoscale-membrane-bending-with-polarized-localization-microscopy
#2
Abir M Kabbani, Christopher V Kelly
The curvature of biological membranes at the nanometer scale is critically important for vesicle trafficking, organelle morphology, and disease propagation. The initiation of membrane bending occurs at a length scale that is irresolvable by most superresolution optical microscopy methods. Here, we report the development of polarized localization microscopy (PLM), a pointillist optical imaging technique for the detection of nanoscale membrane curvature in correlation with single-molecule dynamics and molecular sorting...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045848/single-molecule-sequencing-reveals-the-chromosome-scale-genomic-architecture-of-the-nematode-model-organism-pristionchus-pacificus
#3
Christian Rödelsperger, Jan M Meyer, Neel Prabh, Christa Lanz, Felix Bemm, Ralf J Sommer
The nematode Pristionchus pacificus is an established model for integrative evolutionary biology and comparative studies with Caenorhabditis elegans. While an existing genome draft facilitated the identification of several genes controlling various developmental processes, its high degree of fragmentation complicated virtually all genomic analyses. Here, we present a de novo genome assembly from single-molecule, long-read sequencing data consisting of 135 P. pacificus contigs. When combined with a genetic linkage map, 99% of the assembly could be ordered and oriented into six chromosomes...
October 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045803/chitosan-based-trilayer-scaffold-for-multitissue-periodontal-regeneration
#4
E M Varoni, S Vijayakumar, E Canciani, A Cochis, L De Nardo, G Lodi, L Rimondini, M Cerruti
Periodontal regeneration is still a challenge for periodontists and tissue engineers, as it requires the simultaneous restoration of different tissues-namely, cementum, gingiva, bone, and periodontal ligament (PDL). Here, we synthetized a chitosan (CH)-based trilayer porous scaffold to achieve periodontal regeneration driven by multitissue simultaneous healing. We produced 2 porous compartments for bone and gingiva regeneration by cross-linking with genipin either medium molecular weight (MMW) or low molecular weight (LMW) CH and freeze-drying the resulting scaffolds...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045458/individual-differences-in-responsivity-to-social-rewards-insights-from-two-eye-tracking-tasks
#5
Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Anthony Haffey, Loredana Canzano, Christopher P Taylor, Eugene McSorley
Humans generally prefer social over nonsocial stimuli from an early age. Reduced preference for social rewards has been observed in individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). This preference has typically been noted in separate tasks that measure orienting toward and engaging with social stimuli. In this experiment, we used two eye-tracking tasks to index both of these aspects of social preference in in 77 typical adults. We used two measures, global effect and preferential looking time. The global effect task measures saccadic deviation toward a social stimulus (related to 'orienting'), while the preferential looking task records gaze duration bias toward social stimuli (relating to 'engaging')...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045454/insights-into-the-inhibited-form-of-the-redox-sensitive-sufe-like-sulfur-acceptor-csde
#6
Esther Peña-Soler, Juan Aranda, Miguel López-Estepa, Sara Gómez, Fernando Garces, Miquel Coll, Francisco J Fernández, Iñaki Tuñon, M Cristina Vega
Sulfur trafficking in living organisms relies on transpersulfuration reactions consisting in the enzyme-catalyzed transfer of S atoms via activated persulfidic S across protein-protein interfaces. The recent elucidation of the mechanistic basis for transpersulfuration in the CsdA-CsdE model system has paved the way for a better understanding of its role under oxidative stress. Herein we present the crystal structure of the oxidized, inactivated CsdE dimer at 2.4 Å resolution. The structure sheds light into the activation of the Cys61 nucleophile on its way from a solvent-secluded position in free CsdE to a fully extended conformation in the persulfurated CsdA-CsdE complex...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045157/denticity-and-mobility-of-the-carbonate-groups-in-amco3f-fluorocarbonates-a-study-on-kmnco3f-and-high-temperature-kcaco3f-polymorph
#7
Gwenaelle Rousse, Hania Ahouari, Vladimir Pomjakushin, Jean-Marie Tarascon, Nadir Recham, Artem M Abakumov
We report on a thorough structural study on two members of layered fluorocarbonates KMCO3F (M = Ca, Mn). The Ca-based member demonstrates a phase transition at ∼320 °C, evidenced for the first time. The crystal structure of the high temperature phase (HT-KCaCO3F) was solved using neutron powder diffraction. A new Mn-based phase KMnCO3F was synthesized, and its crystal structure was solved from electron diffraction tomography data and refined from a combination of X-ray synchrotron and neutron powder diffraction...
October 18, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044780/-hot-versus-cold-behavioral-cognitive-styles-motivational-dopaminergic-versus-cognitive-cholinergic-processing-of-a-pavlovian-cocaine-cue-in-sign-and-goal-tracking-rats
#8
Kyle K Pitchers, Louisa F Kane, Youngsoo Kim, Terry E Robinson, Martin Sarter
Discrete Pavlovian reward cues acquire more potent incentive motivational properties (incentive salience), in some animals (sign-trackers; STs) compared to others (goal trackers; GTs). Conversely, GTs appear to be better than STs in processing more complex contextual cues, perhaps reflecting their relatively greater bias for goal-directed cue processing. Here we investigated the activity of two major prefrontal neuromodulatory input systems, dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh), in response to a discrete Pavlovian cue that was previously paired with cocaine administration in STs and GTs...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044664/a-new-technique-of-surgical-planning-for-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-feasibility-assessment-of-shear-wave-elastography-to-tendon-of-semitendinosus-muscle
#9
Yoshiaki Itoigawa, Yuji Takazawa, Yuichiro Maruyama, Keiichi Yoshida, Tatsuo Sakai, Koichiro Ichimura, Kazuo Kaneko
There is currently no method to quantify the quality of the harvested graft before anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The purpose of the present study was to explore a method for measuring stiffness of the normal tendon of the semitendinosus muscle using shear wave elastography (SWE). Our investigation comprised two steps. First, we determined orientation of the semitendinosus tendon fibers in 20 lower legs of embalmed cadavers. Second, we investigated the feasibility of quantifying stiffness of the normal semitendinosus tendon by SWE in 24 subjects (48 legs: 24 male and 24 female subjects) in vivo...
October 17, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044651/weak-evidence-supports-intensive-task-oriented-early-intervention-with-parent-support-for-infants-with-or-at-high-risk-of-cerebral-palsy
#10
Margaret Wallen, Christine Imms, Brian Hoare, Susan Greaves
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044595/a-critical-interpretive-synthesis-use-of-the-occupational-justice-framework-in-research
#11
REVIEW
Tanya Elizabeth Benjamin-Thomas, Debbie Laliberte Rudman
BACKGROUND: The occupational justice framework was established in the late 1990s with an agenda to spur occupational therapists to take action against injustices pertaining to occupation. METHODS: A critical interpretive synthesis of 23 texts was undertaken to examine how the occupational justice framework has been utilised in research, with a particular focus on how such research is located on a knowledge to action continuum and the extent to which it enacts the call to remediate occupational injustices...
October 18, 2017: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044408/testing-a-positive-psychological-intervention-for-osteoarthritis
#12
Leslie R M Hausmann, Ada Youk, C Kent Kwoh, Said A Ibrahim, Michael J Hannon, Debra K Weiner, Rollin M Gallagher, Acacia Parks
Objective: Osteoarthritis is a leading cause of disability for which there is no cure. Psychosocial-oriented treatments are underexplored. We developed and tested an intervention to build positive psychological skills (e.g., gratitude) to reduce osteoarthritis symptom severity, including pain and functioning, and to improve psychosocial well-being in patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis. Design: Two-arm randomized design with six-month follow-up. Setting: An academic Veterans Affairs Medical Center...
October 1, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044362/personal-evolution-in-thighplasty-techniques-for-patients-following-massive-weight-loss
#13
Shelly M Xie, Kevin Small, Ran Stark, Ryan S Constantine, Jordan P Farkas, Jeffrey M Kenkel
Background: Lockwood described the importance of Colles' fascia anchoring in medial thighplasty to reduce morbidity associated with the procedure. However, this maneuver may still have complications including traumatic dissection, prolonged edema, and potential wound healing ramifications form increased tension. Alternatively, we suggest orienting tension in medial thighplasty for massive weight loss (MWL) patients in the horizontal vector rather than a vertical direction, negating the need for Colles' fascia anchoring...
October 16, 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044193/effect-of-surface-and-internal-defects-on-the-mechanical-properties-of-metallic-glasses
#14
Sunghwan Kim, Seunghwa Ryu
Despite the significance of surface effects on the deformation behaviours of small-scale metallic glasses, systematic investigations on surface states are lacking. In this work, by employing atomistic simulations, we characterise the distributions of local inhomogeneity near surfaces created by casting and cutting, along with internal distributions in pristine and irradiated bulk specimens, and investigate the effects of inhomogeneity on the mechanical properties. The cast surface shows enhanced yield strength and degrees of shear localisation, while the cut surface shows the opposite effects, although the fraction of vibrational soft spots, known to indicate low-energy barriers for local rearrangement, is high near both surfaces...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044184/zebrafish-aversive-taste-co-receptor-is-expressed-in-both-chemo-and-mechanosensory-cells-and-plays-a-role-in-lateral-line-development
#15
Nazia Mojib, Jin Xu, Zinka Bartolek, Barry Imhoff, Nael A McCarty, Chong Hyun Shin, Julia Kubanek
Fishes rely on both chemical and tactile senses to orient themselves to avoid predators, and to detect and taste food. This is likely achieved by highly coordinated reception of signals by mechano- and chemosensory receptors in fish. A small co-receptor from zebrafish, receptor activity modifying protein (RAMP)-like triterpene glycoside receptor (RL-TGR), was previously found to be involved in recognition of triterpene glycosides, a family of naturally occurring compounds that act as chemical defenses in various prey species...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044180/evaluating-phenotype-driven-approaches-for-genetic-diagnoses-from-exomes-in-a-clinical-setting
#16
Reuben J Pengelly, Thahmina Alom, Zijian Zhang, David Hunt, Sarah Ennis, Andrew Collins
Next generation sequencing is transforming clinical medicine and genome research, providing a powerful route to establishing molecular diagnoses for genetic conditions; however, challenges remain given the volume and complexity of genetic variation. A number of methods integrate patient phenotype and genotypic data to prioritise variants as potentially causal. Some methods have a clinical focus while others are more research-oriented. With clinical applications in mind we compare results from alternative methods using 21 exomes for which the disease causal variant has been previously established through traditional clinical evaluation...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044131/growth-induced-in-plane-uniaxial-anisotropy-in-v2o3-ni-films
#17
Dustin A Gilbert, Juan Gabriel Ramírez, T Saerbeck, J Trastoy, Ivan K Schuller, Kai Liu, J de la Venta
We report on a strain-induced and temperature dependent uniaxial anisotropy in V2O3/Ni hybrid thin films, manifested through the interfacial strain and sample microstructure, and its consequences on the angular dependent magnetization reversal. X-ray diffraction and reciprocal space maps identify the in-plane crystalline axes of the V2O3; atomic force and scanning electron microscopy reveal oriented rips in the film microstructure. Quasi-static magnetometry and dynamic ferromagnetic resonance measurements identify a uniaxial magnetic easy axis along the rips...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044127/engineered-in-vitro-cell-line-mixtures-and-robust-evaluation-of-computational-methods-for-clonal-decomposition-and-longitudinal-dynamics-in-cancer
#18
Hossein Farahani, Camila P E de Souza, Raewyn Billings, Damian Yap, Karey Shumansky, Adrian Wan, Daniel Lai, Anne-Marie Mes-Masson, Samuel Aparicio, Sohrab P Shah
Characterization and quantification of tumour clonal populations over time via longitudinal sampling are essential components in understanding and predicting the response to therapeutic interventions. Computational methods for inferring tumour clonal composition from deep-targeted sequencing data are ubiquitous, however due to the lack of a ground truth biological data, evaluating their performance is difficult. In this work, we generate a benchmark data set that simulates tumour longitudinal growth and heterogeneity by in vitro mixing of cancer cell lines with known proportions...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044042/experimental-inoculation-of-oriental-river-prawn-macrobrachium-nipponense-with-white-spot-syndrome-virus-wssv
#19
Caiyuan Zhao, Hongtuo Fu, Shengming Sun, Hui Qiao, Wenyi Zhang, Shubo Jin, Sufei Jiang, Yiwei Xiong, Yongsheng Gong
The oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense is an economically important species that is widely farmed in China. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most devastating pathogens of the cultured shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, responsible for massive loss of its commercial products worldwide. We investigated the infectivity and pathogenicity of WSSV in adult M. nipponense using standardized conditions for L. vannamei. The median lethal dose of WSSV in adult M. nipponense was 103.84±0.06 copies g-1, which was about 1000-fold higher than in L...
October 18, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043879/use-of-an-objective-structured-clinical-exam-osce-for-early-identification-of-communication-skills-deficits-in-interns
#20
Mary Ellen J Goldhamer, Amy Cohen, Michelle Brooks, Eric A Macklin, John Patrick T Co, Debra Weinstein
INTRODUCTION: There is limited information about whether OSCE during GME orientation can identify trainee communication deficits before these become evident via clinical performance evaluations. METHODS: Ninety-seven interns matriculating to eight residency programs in six specialties at four hospitals participated in a nine-station communication skills OSCE. Ratings were based on the "Kalamazoo, adapted" communication skills checklist. Possible association with intern performance evaluations was assessed by repeated-measures logistic regression and ROC curves were generated...
October 18, 2017: Medical Teacher
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