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pediatric Prematurity

Kathleen Falster, Emily Banks, Sanja Lujic, Michael Falster, John Lynch, Karen Zwi, Sandra Eades, Alastair H Leyland, Louisa Jorm
BACKGROUND: Australian Aboriginal children experience a disproportionate burden of social and health disadvantage. Avoidable hospitalizations present a potentially modifiable health gap that can be targeted and monitored using population data. This study quantifies inequalities in pediatric avoidable hospitalizations between Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. METHODS: This statewide population-based cohort study included 1 121 440 children born in New South Wales, Australia, between 1 July 2000 and 31 December 2012, including 35 609 Aboriginal children...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
Roseanne J S Vliegenthart, Christine H Ten Hove, Wes Onland, Anton H L C van Kaam
BACKGROUND: Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is a common complication of preterm birth, for which caffeine is the first treatment of choice. In case of persistent AOP, doxapram has been advocated as an additional therapy. OBJECTIVE: To identify and appraise all existing evidence regarding efficacy and safety of doxapram use for AOP in infants born before 34 weeks of gestational age. METHODS: All studies reporting on doxapram use for AOP were identified by searching electronic databases, references from relevant studies, and abstracts from the Societies for Pediatric Research...
October 20, 2016: Neonatology
Justyna Rajchert, Monika Rosa, Joanna Pawłowska, Milosz Parczewski, Marta Wawrzynowicz-Syczewska
BACKGROUND Despite excellent transplantation results, there is a vulnerable period of time in the post-transplant management of pediatric liver recipients, which is the time when a child becomes an adolescent. This period of psychological distress influences compliance and may result in premature transplant failure and graft loss. We performed a retrospective review of pediatric liver transplant recipients, transferred to our service for adults, in order to identify key issues associated with transition into the adult care...
October 18, 2016: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
Nariman A Nawar, Phyllis R Sawyer
BACKGROUND Segmental absence of intestinal musculature is a well described entity in premature infants. It presents with peritonitis, bowel perforation, and obstruction. The diagnosis is based on pathologic observation of absence of intestinal musculature. Researchers hypothesized that this entity is a result of a vascular accident during embryogenesis. However, segmental absence of intestinal musculature is no longer limited to the pediatric population. Recently, a few cases have been described in adults with and without significant vascular diseases...
October 17, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Veronica Gomez-Lobo, Anne-Marie Amies Oelschlager
Disorders (differences) of sexual development encompass a variety of conditions with atypical development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex. Three of the most common differences of sex development conditions include congenital adrenal hyperplasia, complete androgen insensitivity, and Turner syndrome. Obstetrician-gynecologists who care for affected individuals in their practice must be familiar with the genetic, endocrine, and anatomic considerations of the most common conditions to provide optimal care...
October 6, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Renato T Stein, Louis J Bont, Heather Zar, Fernando P Polack, Caroline Park, Ami Claxton, Gerald Borok, Yekaterina Butylkova, Colleen Wegzyn
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major public health burden worldwide. We aimed to review the current literature on the incidence and mortality of severe RSV in children globally. METHODS: Systematic literature review and meta-analysis of published data from 2000 onwards, reporting on burden of acute respiratory infection (ARI) due to RSV in children. Main outcomes were hospitalization for severe RSV-ARI and death. RESULTS: Five thousand two hundred and seventy-four references were identified...
October 14, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Serdar Sadık Duran, Sultan Kavuncuoğlu, Ferhat Sarı, Esin Yıldız Aldemir, Nazlı Kavçık, Ferhat Demir
AIM: This study aimed to investigate the perinatal mortality rate with 37 864 deliveries which occured in two different periods in a single center, to compare the components of perinatal mortality and affecting factors with the results of the study related with perinatal mortality which we conducted in 1999 and to emphasize the precautions directed to reduce mortality rates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All live births and stillbirths which occurred in Bakırköy Obstetrics and Pediatrics Training and Research Hospital between January 2007 and December 2007 were evaluated...
September 2016: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
Jennifer F Ha, Waseem Ostwani, Glenn Green
INTRODUCTION: With the advent of improved neonatal and pediatric intensive care management, tracheostomy is increasingly performed in children requiring prolonged ventilation. Even though tracheostomy is generally a safe procedure, there remains mortality and morbidity associated with it. OBJECTIVE: We report a rare complication of a tracheostomy tube resulting in extensive erosion and posterior tracheal false pouch secondary to a large tracheostomy tube and high positive end expiratory pressure in a 12-month-old infant...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
M Cody O'Dell, Diego Jaramillo, Laura Bancroft, Laura Varich, Gregory Logsdon, Sabah Servaes
With increasing participation and intensity of training in youth sports in the United States, the incidence of sports-related injuries is increasing, and the types of injuries are shifting. In this article, the authors review sports injuries of the lower extremity, including both acute and overuse injuries, that are common in or specific to the pediatric population. Common traumatic injuries that occur in individuals of all ages (eg, tears of the acetabular labrum and anterior cruciate ligament) are not addressed, although these occur routinely in pediatric sports...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Zijo Begic, Edin Begic, Senka Mesihovic-Dinarevic, Izet Masic, Senad Pesto, Mirza Halimic, Almira Kadic, Amra Dobraca
OBJECTIVE: To show the place and role of continuous electrocardiographic twenty-four-hour ECG monitoring in daily clinical practice of pediatric cardiologists. METHODS: According to protocol, 2753 patients underwent dynamic continuous ECG Holter monitoring (data collected from the "Register of ECG Holter monitoring" of Pediatric Clinic, UCC Sarajevo in period April 2003- April 2015). RESULTS: There were 50,5% boys and 49,5% girls, aged from birth to 19 years (1,63% - neonates and infants, 2,6% - toddlers, 9,95% - preschool children, 35,5% - gradeschoolers and 50,3% children in puberty and adolescence)...
July 16, 2016: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
W C M Viana, D Lambertz, E S Borges, A M O Neto, K M F T Lambertz, A Amaral
Among the radiotherapeutics' modalities, total body irradiation (TBI) is used as treatment for certain hematological, oncological and immunological diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of low-dose TBI on plasma concentration of total protein and albumin using prematurely and undernourished rats as animal model. For this, four groups with 9 animals each were formed: Normal nourished (N); Malnourished (M); Irradiated Normal nourished (IN); Irradiated Malnourished (IM). At the age of 28 days, rats of the IN and IM groups underwent total body gamma irradiation with a source of cobalt-60...
September 20, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Shelby R Hayes, Ashley J Vargas
: Goldenberg JZ, Lytvyn L, Steurich J, Parkin P, Mahant S, Johnston BC. Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea.Cochrane Database Syst Rev2015, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD004827. BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are frequently prescribed in children. They alter the microbial balance within the gastrointestinal tract, commonly resulting in antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Probiotics may prevent AAD via restoration of the gut microflora...
August 26, 2016: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
Erich M Gauger, Lauren L Casnovsky, Erica J Gauger, Deborah C Bohn, Ann E Van Heest
This study reviewed the clinical history and management of acquired growth arrest in the upper extremity in pediatric patients. The records of all patients presenting from 1996 to 2012 with radiographically proven acquired growth arrest were reviewed. Records were examined to determine the etiology and site of growth arrest, management, and complications. Patients with tumors or hereditary etiology were excluded. A total of 44 patients (24 boys and 20 girls) with 51 physeal arrests who presented at a mean age of 10...
September 29, 2016: Orthopedics
Stéphanie Fontaine Carbonnel, Pascal Rippert, Isabelle Poirot, Dominique Gachet, Capucine de Lattre, Carole Vuillerot
OBJECTIVE: Since 2005, in France, corticosteroid therapy is now widely used in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). This treatment has changed our practice of pediatric rehabilitation teams. We describe here our 10-year clinical experience in treating DMD patients by CS according to international guidelines i.e. prednisone 0.75mg/kg/day started from the plateau of motor function. MATERIALS/PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective study. Information was given on the expected effects and side effects...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Deanna E Johnson
BACKGROUND: The skin of extremely preterm infants is underdeveloped and has poor barrier function. Skin maintenance interventions initiated in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) have immediate and lifelong implications when the potential for infection, allergen sensitization, and altered aesthetic outcomes are considered. In addition, the high-level medical needs of extremely preterm infants demand skin-level medical interventions that too often result in unintended skin harm. PURPOSE: We describe the use of a harm prevention, or consequence-centered, approach to skin care, which facilitates safer practice for extremely premature infants...
October 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Christiane Al-Haddad, Maamoun Abdul Fattah, Larissa Smeets, Hani Tamim, Leila Dirani, Layal Safadieh, Durriyah Sinno, Lama Charafeddine
PURPOSE: To study ophthalmological outcomes of premature children with no retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and correlate with neurodevelopmental outcomes. METHODS: A total of 69 former preterm infants were evaluated at 2 to 7 years of age. Detailed ophthalmologic examinations were performed. Neurodevelopment was assessed using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. Another 69 healthy children served as controls...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
İlkay Erdoğan, Faik Sarıalioğlu
OBJECTIVE: Hemangiomas are tumors most commonly encountered in pediatric patients, and are frequently treated with propranolol. However, there are currently no standard methods for evaluating cardiac function in patients prior to propranolol treatment. The present study was designed to aid in the evaluation of pretreatment cardiac and effects of propranolol on vital signs in pediatric hemangioma patients. METHODS: A pediatric oncology specialist and a pediatric cardiology specialist examined all patients prior to initiation of propranolol treatment...
September 2016: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
Aurelia B Fu, Erica I Hodgman, Lorraine S Burkhalter, Rachel Renkes, Tamra Slone, Adam C Alder
BACKGROUND: Central venous access devices (CVADs) play an important role in the management of pediatric oncology patients; unfortunately, they are also associated with potentially serious complication rates. We hypothesized that, despite the significantly different disease courses typical of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myelogenous leukemia, there would be identifiable risk factors for premature CVAD removal. METHODS: We retrospectively studied clinical characteristics and procedure records for all patients admitted with a leukemia diagnosis at our institution from May 2009 to July 2014...
October 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
Elizabeth G Damato, Madeline C Haas, Pamela Czeck, Donna A Dowling, Sarah Gutin Barsman
BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of prematurity and low birth-weight places twin infants at increased risk for sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) and/or sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Risk for these SUID and SIDS is affected by a combination of nonmodifiable intrinsic risk factors and modifiable extrinsic stressors including infant care practices related to sleep. Although adherence to the full scope of American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2011 recommendations is intended to decrease risk, these recommendations are aimed at singleton infants and may require tailoring for families with multiple infants...
September 19, 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Shin-Hye Kim, Ju-Yeon Moon, Hironobu Sasano, Man Ho Choi, Mi-Jung Park
CONTEXT: Pediatric obesity has been related to hyperandrogenism and premature adrenarche in previous studies. However, little is known regarding the association between body fat mass and steroidogenic enzyme activities in children. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether body fat mass is associated with serum steroid profiles in girls. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS, AND SETTING: We enrolled 242 girls (125 prepubertal, 117 pubertal; aged 7-13 years). Early morning blood samples were drawn at a university hospital to measure serum steroid profiles using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and steroidogenic enzyme activities were assessed from the ratios of steroid metabolites...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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