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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774380/-thyroid-and-pregnancy
#1
REVIEW
K A Iwen, H Lehnert
During pregnancy thyroid hormones have profound effects on embryonal/fetal development and maternal health. Therefore, thyroid gland disorders should be immediately diagnosed and adequately treated. Pregnancy-specific physiological alterations during pregnancy cause changes in the reference interval for thyroid-stimulating hormone levels and trimester-specific thresholds must be taken into account. This article summarizes the most important diagnostic and therapeutic aspects before, during and after pregnancy...
May 17, 2018: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771756/thyrotropin-receptor-antibodies-an-overview
#2
Anupam Kotwal, Marius Stan
PURPOSE: Thyroid autoimmunity affects approximately 5% of the population, and its investigation relies heavily on the use of autoantibodies. Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) autoantibodies (TRAb) play a central role in the evaluation of Graves disease (GD), Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) and pretibial myxedema (PTM). However, there is still controversy regarding overall TRAb assay diagnostic accuracy and their prognostic utility. METHODS: We reviewed and analyzed the literature reporting TRAb assays and their clinical utility...
May 2, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706030/preconception-management-of-thyroid-dysfunction
#3
Onyebuchi E Okosieme, Ishrat Khan, Peter N Taylor
Uncorrected thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy has well recognised deleterious effects on fetal and maternal health. The early gestation period is one of critical fetal vulnerability during which maternal thyroid dysfunction may have lasting repercussions. Accordingly, a pragmatic preconception strategy is key for ensuring optimal thyroid disease outcomes in pregnancy. Preconception planning in women with hypothyroidism should pre-empt and mirror the adaptive changes of the thyroid gland by careful levothyroxine dose adjustments to ensure adequate fetal thyroid hormone delivery in pregnancy...
April 29, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693263/clinical-associations-of-maternal-thyroid-function-with-fetal-brain-development-epidemiological-interpretation-and-overview-of-available-evidence
#4
Tim I M Korevaar, Henning Tiemeier, Robin P Peeters
TH is an important regulator of metabolism, growth and development in practically all tissues of the human body. During pregnancy, major changes occur in thyroid physiology including an increase in TH binding globulins, an increase in TH degradation by thyroid degrading enzymes (due to placental expression of type 3 deiodinase) and an increase in thyroid stimulation through high concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Both overt hypothyroidism and Graves' hyperthyroidism, which occur in approximately 0...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605392/prediction-of-neonatal-hyperthyroidism
#5
Maïa Banigé, Michel Polak, Dominique Luton
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether it is possible to identify the neonatal predictors of neonatal hyperthyroidism at the presymptomatic stage of the disease. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective multicenter study in 10 maternity units was based on the medical records of all patients monitored for a pregnancy between January 1, 2007, and January 1, 2014. Among 280 000 births, 2288 medical records of women with thyroid dysfunction were selected and screened. Of these, 415 women had Graves disease and were positive for thyrotropin receptor antibody during pregnancy, and were included...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589552/evaluation-and-management-of-the-child-with-thyrotoxicosis
#6
Alexander K C Leung, Alexander A C Leung
BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled thyrotoxicosis, especially in early infancy, may cause irreversible damage to the central nervous system as well as profound effects on the function of many organs. Thyrotoxicosis has multiple etiologies and treatment depends on the underlying etiology. An accurate diagnosis is essential so that appropriate treatment can be initiated without undue delay. OBJECTIVE: To review in depth the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of children with thyrotoxicosis...
March 26, 2018: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584590/maternal-thyroid-function-in-early-pregnancy-and-child-neurodevelopmental-disorders-a-danish-nationwide-case-cohort-study
#7
Stine Linding Andersen, Stig Andersen, Peter Vestergaard, Jørn Olsen
BACKGROUND: Maternal thyroid dysfunction may adversely affect fetal brain development, but more evidence is needed to refine this hypothesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential fetal programming by abnormal maternal thyroid function on child neurodevelopmental disorders. METHODS: The design was a case-cohort study within the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003). From the eligible cohort of 71,706 women, a random 12% sub-cohort (n = 7624) was selected, and all women (n = 2276) whose child was diagnosed with seizures, specific developmental disorder (SDD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) up to December 31, 2010, were identified...
April 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544795/associations-of-maternal-iodine-status-and-thyroid-function-with-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-in-henan-province-of-china
#8
Jin Yang, Yang Liu, Hongjie Liu, Heming Zheng, Xiaofeng Li, Lin Zhu, Zhe Wang
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to explore the effects of maternal iodine status and thyroid diseases on adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted on 2347 pregnant women, who provided 2347 urinary samples tested for iodine, 1082 serum samples tested for thyroid function, and 2347 questionnaires about demographic information. Their pregnancy outcomes were recorded and compared between different urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and thyroid function groups...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507751/graves-hyperthyroidism-in-pregnancy-a-clinical-review
#9
REVIEW
Caroline T Nguyen, Elizabeth B Sasso, Lorayne Barton, Jorge H Mestman
Background: Graves' hyperthyroidism affects 0.2% of pregnant women. Establishing the correct diagnosis and effectively managing Graves' hyperthyroidism in pregnancy remains a challenge for physicians. Main: The goal of this paper is to review the diagnosis and management of Graves' hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. The paper will discuss preconception counseling, etiologies of hyperthyroidism, thyroid function testing, pregnancy-related complications, maternal management, including thyroid storm, anti-thyroid drugs and the complications for mother and fetus, fetal and neonatal thyroid function, neonatal management, and maternal post-partum management...
2018: Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494342/hyperthyroidism-in-an-infant-of-a-mother-with-autoimmune-hypothyroidism-with-positive-tsh-receptor-antibodies
#10
Kriti Joshi, Margaret Zacharin
BACKGROUND: Neonatal hyperthyroidism is rare, seen in infants of mothers with Graves' disease (GD), with transplacental transfer of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) antibodies (TRAbs). We describe a neonate with severe hyperthyroidism due to TRAbs, born to a mother with autoimmune hypothyroidism. CASE PRESENTATION: A baby boy born preterm at 35 weeks had irritability, tachycardia and proptosis after birth. The mother had autoimmune hypothyroidism, from age 10, with thyroxine replacement and normal thyroid function throughout her pregnancy...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463525/maternal-thyroid-function-and-child-educational-attainment-prospective-cohort-study
#11
Scott M Nelson, Caroline Haig, Alex McConnachie, Naveed Sattar, Susan M Ring, George D Smith, Debbie A Lawlor, Robert S Lindsay
OBJECTIVE: To determine if first trimester maternal thyroid dysfunction is a critical determinant of child scholastic performance and overall educational attainment. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: 4615 mother-child pairs with an available first trimester sample (median 10 weeks gestation, interquartile range 8-12). EXPOSURES: Free thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, and thyroid peroxidase antibodies assessed as continuous measures and the seven clinical categories of maternal thyroid function...
February 20, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319359/secondary-and-tertiary-preventions-of-thyroid-disease
#12
Fereidoun Azizi, Ladan Mehran, Farhad Hosseinpanah, Hossein Delshad, Atieh Amouzegar
INTRODUCTION: Secondary and tertiary preventions are concerned with the recognition of the disease process in a very early stage and delay in progression to complete disease and minimization of complications and the impact of illness. METHODS: All articles related to secondary and tertiary prevention of thyroid diseases were reviewed. Using related key words, articles published between 2001 and 2015 were evaluated, categorized, and analyzed. RESULTS: In secondary prevention, congenital hypothyroidism and subclinical hypo and hyperthyroidism are equally important...
January 10, 2018: Endocrine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284889/anaesthetic-implications-of-severe-hyperthyroidism-secondary-to-molar-pregnancy-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#13
Srinivasan Swaminathan, Roshin Ann James, Rashmi Chandran, Reesha Joshi
Pregnant women with gestational trophoblastic disease have an increased likelihood to develop hyperthyroidism secondary to increased secretion of human chorionic gonadotropin. Most of these cases of hyperthyroidism remain undiagnosed and may present as a thyrotoxic crisis during the perioperative period. Pregnant patients with gestational trophoblastic disease should be always evaluated for hyperthyroidism, and in cases of severe hyperthyroidism, antithyroid treatment should be initiated before evacuation of the mole...
October 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246752/autoimmune-thyroid-disease-during-pregnancy
#14
REVIEW
Simone De Leo, Elizabeth N Pearce
Understanding of changes in thyroid function and the consequences of thyroid disease during pregnancy has rapidly grown in the past two decades, and revised American Thyroid Association guidelines on this topic were published in 2017. This Review explores the association between thyroid autoimmunity and complications during and after pregnancy. Thyroid autoimmunity refers to the presence of antibodies to thyroperoxidase or thyroglobulin, or thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAbs), or a combination of these, and is present in up to 18% of pregnant women...
December 12, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162475/-thyrotropin-reference-ranges-during-pregnancy-in-the-province-of-huelva-spain
#15
A Ortega Carpio, I Vázquez Rico, M A Castaño López, L Duarte González, M Montilla Álvaro, A Ruiz Reina
OBJECTIVE: The correct diagnosis of hypothyroidism during pregnancy requires knowledge of the local trimester-specific thyrotropin (TSH) reference ranges. When these are not available, the guidelines recommend upper limits of 2.5, 3.0, and 3.0μU/ml for the 1(st), 2(nd), and 3(rd) trimesters, respectively. The aim is to establish the reference range for our local population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A population-based observational study was performed on healthy pregnant women from 11 healthcare centres in the province of Huelva...
November 18, 2017: Semergen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142837/preoperative-management-in-patients-with-graves-disease
#16
REVIEW
Eliana Piantanida
Graves' disease is the most frequent cause of hyperthyroidism in iodine-sufficient geographical areas and is characterized by the presence in patients' serum of autoantibodies directed against the thyrotropin receptor (TRAb) that cause overproduction and release of thyroid hormones. Clinical presentation results from both hyperthyroidism and underlying autoimmunity. The diagnosis is based on characteristic clinical features and biochemical abnormalities. If serum thyrotropin (TSH) is low, serum free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations should be measured to distinguish between subclinical (with normal circulating thyroid hormones) and overt hyperthyroidism (with increased circulating thyroid hormones)...
October 2017: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137470/controversies-in-management-of-hyperthyroidism-during-pregnancy
#17
Fereidoun Azizi, Atieh Amouzegar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130077/study-of-the-factors-leading-to-fetal-and-neonatal-dysthyroidism-in-children-of-patients-with-graves-disease
#18
Maïa Banigé, Candice Estellat, Valerie Biran, Luc Desfrere, Valerie Champion, Alexandra Benachi, Yves Ville, Marc Dommergues, Pierre-Henri Jarreau, Mostafa Mokhtari, Claire Boithias, Frederic Brioude, Laurent Mandelbrot, Pierre-François Ceccaldi, Delphine Mitanchez, Michel Polak, Dominique Luton
Context: Neonatal hyperthyroidism was first described in 1912 and in 1964 was shown to be linked to transplacental passage of maternal antibodies. Few multicenter studies have described the perinatal factors leading to fetal and neonatal dysthyroidism. Objective: To show how fetal dysthyroidism (FD) and neonatal dysthyroidism (ND) can be predicted from perinatal variables, in particular, the levels of anti-thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs) circulating in the mother and child...
June 2017: Journal of the Endocrine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067240/benign-thyroid-disease-in-pregnancy-a-state-of-the-art-review
#19
REVIEW
Efterpi Tingi, Akheel A Syed, Alexis Kyriacou, George Mastorakos, Angelos Kyriacou
Thyroid dysfunction is the commonest endocrine disorder in pregnancy apart from diabetes. Thyroid hormones are essential for fetal brain development in the embryonic phase. Maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy may have significant adverse maternal and fetal outcomes such as preterm delivery, preeclampsia, miscarriage and low birth weight. In this review we discuss the effect of thyroid disease on pregnancy and the current evidence on the management of different thyroid conditions in pregnancy and postpartum to improve fetal and neonatal outcomes, with special reference to existing guidelines on the topic which we dissect, critique and compare with each other...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025533/negative-%C3%AE-hcg-and-molar-pregnancy-the-hook-effect
#20
Isabel Lobo Antunes, Joana Curado, Ana Quintas, Alcides Pereira
Molar pregnancy, included in gestational trophoblastic disease, is a benign pathology with ability to metastasize, usually occurring with excessively high βhCG levels. Clinical scenario is usually a woman in extremes of reproductive age presenting with amenorrhoea, pain and vaginal blood loss; signs derived from high βhCG levels may be present (hyperthyroidism, hyperemesis). Diagnosis is based on a positive pregnancy test - usually a qualitative urinary test. The limitation of this test results from its inability to become positive in presence of markedly high levels of βhCG, saturating the antigens used - known as the 'hook effect'...
September 29, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
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