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NAD AND resveratrol AND sirtuin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590140/comparative-mitochondrial-based-protective-effects-of-resveratrol-and-nicotinamide-in-huntington-s-disease-models
#1
Luana Naia, Tatiana R Rosenstock, Ana M Oliveira, Sofia I Oliveira-Sousa, Gladys L Caldeira, Catarina Carmo, Mário N Laço, Michael R Hayden, Catarina R Oliveira, A Cristina Rego
Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent lysine deacetylase that regulates longevity and enhances mitochondrial metabolism. Both activation and inhibition of SIRT1 were previously shown to ameliorate neuropathological mechanisms in Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disease that selectively affects the striatum and cortex and is commonly linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, in this study, we tested the influence of resveratrol (RESV, a SIRT1 activator) versus nicotinamide (NAM, a SIRT1 inhibitor) in counteracting mitochondrial dysfunction in HD models, namely striatal and cortical neurons isolated from YAC128 transgenic mice embryos, HD human lymphoblasts, and an in vivo HD model...
September 2, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552971/slowing-ageing-by-design-the-rise-of-nad-and-sirtuin-activating-compounds
#2
Michael S Bonkowski, David A Sinclair
The sirtuins (SIRT1-7) are a family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent deacylases with remarkable abilities to prevent diseases and even reverse aspects of ageing. Mice engineered to express additional copies of SIRT1 or SIRT6, or treated with sirtuin-activating compounds (STACs) such as resveratrol and SRT2104 or with NAD(+) precursors, have improved organ function, physical endurance, disease resistance and longevity. Trials in non-human primates and in humans have indicated that STACs may be safe and effective in treating inflammatory and metabolic disorders, among others...
November 2016: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432859/vascular-smooth-muscle-sirtuin-1-protects-against-diet-induced-aortic-stiffness
#3
Jessica L Fry, Leona Al Sayah, Robert M Weisbrod, Isabelle Van Roy, Xiang Weng, Richard A Cohen, Markus M Bachschmid, Francesca Seta
Arterial stiffness, a major cardiovascular risk factor, develops within 2 months in mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet, serving as a model of human metabolic syndrome, and it is associated with activation of proinflammatory and oxidant pathways in vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells. Sirtuin-1 (SirT1) is an NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase regulated by the cellular metabolic status. Our goal was to study the effects of VSM SirT1 on arterial stiffness in the context of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Overnight fasting acutely decreased arterial stiffness, measured in vivo by pulse wave velocity, in mice fed HFHS for 2 or 8 months, but not in mice lacking SirT1 in VSM (SMKO)...
September 2016: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27146436/sirtuin-activation-as-a-therapeutic-approach-against-inborn-errors-of-metabolism
#4
Jeannette C Bleeker, Riekelt H Houtkooper
Protein acylation has emerged as a large family of post translational modifications in which an acyl group can alter the function of a wide variety of proteins, especially in response to metabolic stress. The acylation state is regulated through reversible acylation/deacylation. Acylation occurs enzymatically or non-enzymatically, and responds to acyl-CoA levels. Deacylation on the other hand is controlled through the NAD(+)-dependent sirtuin proteins. In several inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs), accumulation of acyl-CoAs, due to defects in amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways, can lead to hyperacylation of proteins...
July 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27035562/nampt-protects-against-6-hydroxydopamine-induced-neurotoxicity-in-pc12-cells-through-modulating-sirt1-activity
#5
Xiao-Dong Zou, Shao-Qing Guo, Zhi-Wei Hu, Wei-Lang Li
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) catalyzes the first rate‑limiting step in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) biosynthetic pathway in mammals, is a substrate for NAD+‑dependent enzymes, such as sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), and contributes to cell fate decisions. However, the role of NAMPT in PD has remained to be fully elucidated. In the present study, PC12 cells were treated with the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6‑OHDA) to establish an in vitro model of PD, following which an obvious inhibitory effect on the levels of NAMPT and NAD+ as well as the NAD+/NADH ratio was detected...
May 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26912655/sirtuin-3-sirt3-regulates-%C3%AE-smooth-muscle-actin-%C3%AE-sma-production-through-the-succinate-dehydrogenase-g-protein-coupled-receptor-91-gpr91-pathway-in-hepatic-stellate-cells
#6
Ying Hui Li, Dae Hee Choi, Eun Hye Lee, Su Ryeon Seo, Seungkoo Lee, Eun-Hee Cho
Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is an NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase. Recent studies have shown that SIRT3 expression is decreased in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Moreover, SIRT3 is a key regulator of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), which catalyzes the oxidation of succinate to fumarate. Increased succinate concentrations and the specific G protein-coupled receptor 91 (GPR91) are involved in the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). In this study, we aimed to establish whether SIRT3 regulated the SDH activity, succinate, and GPR91 expression in HSCs and an animal model of NAFLD...
May 6, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26872534/sirt1-is-essential-for-resveratrol-enhancement-of-hypoxia-induced-autophagy-in-the-type-2-diabetic-nephropathy-rat
#7
Liqun Ma, Rongguo Fu, Zhaoyang Duan, Jiamei Lu, Jie Gao, Lifang Tian, Zhian Lv, Zhao Chen, Jin Han, Lining Jia, Li Wang
Type 2 diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious end-stage kidney disease worldwide. Multiple studies demonstrate that resveratrol (RSV) has a beneficial effect on DN. However, whether RSV-induced improvement in kidney function in diabetes is due to the regulation of autophagy remains unclear. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying RSV-mediated protection against DN in diabetic rats, with a special focus on the role of NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) in regulating autophagy. We found that long-term RSV treatment in rats promoted Sirt1 expression and improved related metabolic levels in the diabetic kidney...
April 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26845555/resveratrol-as-a-potential-therapeutic-candidate-for-the-treatment-and-management-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Nady Braidy, Bat-Erdene Jugder, Anne Poljak, Tharusha Jayasena, Hussein Mansour, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Perminder Sachdev, Ross Grant
Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) is a naturally occurring phytochemical present in red wine, grapes, berries, chocolate and peanuts. Clinically, resveratrol has exhibited significant antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and anti-cancer properties. Although resveratrol was first isolated in 1940, it was not until the last decade that it was recognised for its potential therapeutic role in reducing the risk of neurodegeneration, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in particular. AD is the primary cause of progressive dementia...
2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26717002/gestational-diabetes-induces-alterations-of-sirtuins-in-fetal-endothelial-cells
#9
Juan Gui, Arne Potthast, Anne Rohrbach, Katja Borns, Anibh M Das, Frauke von Versen-Höynck
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes (GDM) has long-term consequences for the offspring. Sirtuins (SIRTs) are associated with vascular and metabolic functions. We studied the impact of GDM on SIRT activity and expression in fetal endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from pregnancies complicated by GDM. METHODS: ECFCs and HUVECs were isolated from cord and cord blood of 10 uncomplicated pregnancies (NPs) and 10 GDM pregnancies...
May 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26609312/the-combination-of-resveratrol-and-quercetin-attenuates-metabolic-syndrome-in-rats-by-modifying-the-serum-fatty-acid-composition-and-by-upregulating-sirt-1-and-sirt-2-expression-in-white-adipose-tissue
#10
Ana Elena Peredo-Escárcega, Verónica Guarner-Lans, Israel Pérez-Torres, Sergio Ortega-Ocampo, Elizabeth Carreón-Torres, Vicente Castrejón-Tellez, Eulises Díaz-Díaz, María Esther Rubio-Ruiz
Resveratrol (RSV) and quercetin (QRC) modify energy metabolism and reduce cardiovascular risk factors included in the metabolic syndrome (MetS). These natural compounds upregulate and activate sirtuins (SIRTs), a family of NAD-dependent histone deacetylases. We analyzed the effect of two doses of a commercial combination of RSV and QRC on serum fatty acid composition and their regulation of SIRTs 1-3 and PPAR-γ expression in white adipose tissue. MetS was induced in Wistar rats by adding 30% sucrose to drinking water for five months...
2015: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26479742/resveratrol-sirtuins-and-viruses
#11
REVIEW
Tao Yang, Shugang Li, Xuming Zhang, Xiaowu Pang, Qinlu Lin, Jianzhong Cao
Resveratrol is a natural phenolic product found in some plants in response to stress and has been linked to the many health benefits of red wine. Over the past several decades, a great deal of research has identified diverse biological roles associated with resveratrol, including anti-oxidant, anti-proliferation, anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, anti-fungal, and antiviral activities. Such biological activities of resveratrol are likely mediated through multiple cellular targets or pathways, such as sirtuins, a family of NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases...
November 2015: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26440162/effect-of-resveratrol-and-lipoic-acid-on-sirtuin-regulated-expression-of-metabolic-genes-in-bovine-liver-and-muscle-slice-cultures
#12
Y Ghinis-Hozumi, L González-Dávalos, A Antaramian, F Villarroya, E Piña, A Shimada, A Varela-Echavarría, O Mora
Sirtuins (Sirt) are NAD-dependent deacetylases that are activated by the antioxidants resveratrol (RSV) and lipoic acid (LA). The objective of this study was to determine in bovine liver and muscle slice cultures the effect of RSV and LA treatment on the expresssion of Sirt1, Sirt3, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PPARGC1A), and the forkhead box O transcription factors FoxO1 and FoxO3 as well as other factors involved in glucose and lipid metabolism and related to Sirt activity...
August 2015: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26109052/structural-basis-for-allosteric-substrate-dependent-stimulation-of-sirt1-activity-by-resveratrol
#13
Duanfang Cao, Mingzhu Wang, Xiayang Qiu, Dongxiang Liu, Hualiang Jiang, Na Yang, Rui-Ming Xu
Sirtuins with an extended N-terminal domain (NTD), represented by yeast Sir2 and human SIRT1, harbor intrinsic mechanisms for regulation of their NAD-dependent deacetylase activities. Elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms is crucial for understanding the biological functions of sirtuins and development of potential therapeutics. In particular, SIRT1 has emerged as an attractive therapeutic target, and the search for SIRT1-activating compounds (STACs) has been actively pursued. However, the effectiveness of a class of reported STACs (represented by resveratrol) as direct SIRT1 activators is under debate due to the complication involving the use of fluorogenic substrates in in vitro assays...
June 15, 2015: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25965594/sirt1-suppresses-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-an-insight-into-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-response-mechanism
#14
Rong Guo, Weijing Liu, Baoxin Liu, Buchun Zhang, Weiming Li, Yawei Xu
BACKGROUND: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-dependent apoptosis had been shown to occur in the hearts of people with diabetes, although the exact mechanisms are unclear. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, is known to play a role in diabetes-related complications as well as ER-stress. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and ER stress-induced apoptosis in H9C2 cardiomyocyte. METHODS: Diabetic rats were established by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 50mg/kg) with high-fat diet...
July 15, 2015: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25924011/resveratrol-induced-premature-senescence-is-associated-with-dna-damage-mediated-sirt1-and-sirt2-down-regulation
#15
Mehtap Kilic Eren, Ayten Kilincli, Özkan Eren
The natural polyphenolic compound resveratrol (3,4,5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) has broad spectrum health beneficial activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-cancer, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective effects. Remarkably, resveratrol also induces apoptosis and cellular senescence in primary and cancer cells. Resveratrol's anti-aging effects both in vitro and in vivo attributed to activation of a (NAD)-dependent histone deacetylase family member sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) protein. In mammals seven members (SIRT1-7) of sirtuin family have been identified...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25909427/sirt1-mediates-a-primed-response-to-immune-challenge-after-traumatic-lung-injury
#16
Lane M Smith, Jonathan D Wells, Vidula T Vachharajani, Barbara K Yoza, Charles E McCall, J Jason Hoth
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary contusion (PC) is a common, potentially lethal injury that results in priming for exaggerated inflammatory responses to subsequent immune challenge like infection (second hit). The molecular mechanism of priming and the second hit phenomenon after PC remain obscure. With the use of a mouse model of PC, this study explores the role of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an NAD+-dependent deacetylase, in priming for a second hit after injury. METHODS: With the use of a mouse model of PC, injury-primed second-hit host responses were tested at 24 hours after PC by (1) in vivo infectious challenge of injured mice or (2) ex vivo inflammatory challenge of isolated immune cells from injured mice...
May 2015: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25863291/nad-dependent-sirt1-deactivation-has-a-key-role-on-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-apoptosis
#17
Arianna Cattelan, Giulio Ceolotto, Sergio Bova, Mattia Albiero, Maniselvan Kuppusamy, Sara De Martin, Andrea Semplicini, Gian Paolo Fadini, Saula Vigili de Kreutzenberg, Angelo Avogaro
Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) leads to severe organ injury and dysfunction. Sirtuins (SIRTs) are a family of histone deacetylases (HDACs) that require nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) for the deacetylation reaction. SIRTs play a major role in counteracting cellular stress and apoptosis. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of heart protection against apoptosis by SIRTs and the molecular pathways involved in SIRTs regulation and function in a rat model of IR injury. Hearts of male Wistar-Kyoto rats were subjected to 30-min ischemia followed by reperfusion up to 6h...
July 2015: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25858853/leucine-amplifies-the-effects-of-metformin-on-insulin-sensitivity-and-glycemic-control-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#18
Lizhi Fu, Antje Bruckbauer, Fenfen Li, Qiang Cao, Xin Cui, Rui Wu, Hang Shi, Michael B Zemel, Bingzhong Xue
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The Sirt1/AMPK signaling pathway is a key sensor of energy status and regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. Leucine (Leu) activates Sirt1 by lowering its Km for NAD(+) and potentiates other sirtuin/AMPK-activators, resulting in improvement of insulin sensitivity. Since metformin (Met) converges on this pathway, we hypothesized that leucine would amplify its gluco-regulatory effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of Leu (24 g/kg diet)+Met (0...
July 2015: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25849131/resveratrol-activates-duodenal-sirt1-to-reverse-insulin-resistance-in-rats-through-a-neuronal-network
#19
Clémence D Côté, Brittany A Rasmussen, Frank A Duca, Melika Zadeh-Tahmasebi, Joseph A Baur, Mira Daljeet, Danna M Breen, Beatrice M Filippi, Tony K T Lam
Resveratrol improves insulin sensitivity and lowers hepatic glucose production (HGP) in rat models of obesity and diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms for these antidiabetic effects remain elusive. One process that is considered a key feature of resveratrol action is the activation of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in various tissues. However, the low bioavailability of resveratrol raises questions about whether the antidiabetic effects of oral resveratrol can act directly on these tissues...
May 2015: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25840356/nio-nanoparticles-induce-apoptosis-through-repressing-sirt1-in-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#20
Wei-Xia Duan, Min-Di He, Lin Mao, Feng-Hua Qian, Yu-Ming Li, Hui-Feng Pi, Chuan Liu, Chun-Hai Chen, Yong-Hui Lu, Zheng-Wang Cao, Lei Zhang, Zheng-Ping Yu, Zhou Zhou
With application of nano-sized nickel-containing particles (Nano-Ni) expanding, the health concerns about their adverse effects on the pulmonary system are increasing. However, the mechanisms for the pulmonary toxicity of these materials remain unclear. In the present study, we focused on the impacts of NiO nanoparticles (NiONPs) on sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a NAD-dependent deacetylase, and investigated whether SIRT1 was involved in NiONPs-induced apoptosis. Although the NiONPs tended to agglomerate in fluid medium, they still entered into the human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and released Ni(2+) inside the cells...
July 15, 2015: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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