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Reflex epilepsy

Kazuki Fukuma, Masafumi Ihara, Kotaro Miyashita, Rie Motoyama, Tomotaka Tanaka, Katsufumi Kajimoto, Akio Ikeda, Kazuyuki Nagatsuka
Mahjong, a game similar to bridge and chess in Western cultures, can cause reflex seizure. We report a case of Mahjong-induced seizures with the first documentation of ictal electroencephalography (EEG) findings, which showed secondarily generalized partial seizure of the right parietal origin.
October 2016: Clinical Case Reports
Roisin Bartlam, Rajiv Mohanraj
BACKGROUND: Seizures can lead to cardiac arrhythmias by a number of mechanisms including activation/inhibition of cortical autonomic centers, increase in vagal tone through activation of brainstem reflex centers, and respiratory failure. Ictal asystole (IA) is a potential mechanism underlying sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). We analyzed the clinical features of 5 patients who developed IA requiring pacemaker implantation. METHODS: Patients with ictal arrhythmias were identified from the video-telemetry and ambulatory EEG database at Greater Manchester Neurosciences Centre, as well as an independent epilepsy residential care facility...
October 13, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Srinivasa P Kommajosyula, Marcus E Randall, Srinivasan Tupal, Carl L Faingold
Patients with epilepsy are at risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). The most common series of events in witnessed cases of SUDEP is a generalized convulsive seizure followed by terminal apnea. Risk factors for SUDEP include prolonged postictal depression (PID), as well as alcohol abuse. The present study examined these issues in a genetic epilepsy model that exhibits generalized convulsive audiogenic seizures (AGSz) but rarely exhibits seizure-induced death, the genetically epilepsy-prone rats (GEPR-9s)...
October 7, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Junpei Koge, Shintaro Hayashi, Hiroo Yamaguchi, Takahisa Tateishi, Hiroyuki Murai, Jun-Ichi Kira
A 37-old-male with a history of early childhood mental retardation was admitted to our hospital. He experienced recurrent syncopes at 23 years old, and at age 35 gait disturbance and hearing impairment developed gradually and worsened over time. His grandparents were in a consanguineous marriage. He was of short stature and absent of tendon xanthomas. Neurological examinations revealed scanning speech, dysphagia, right sensorineural hearing loss, spasticity in both upper and lower extremities, and spastic gait...
September 28, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Sachin Sureshbabu, Dinesh Nayak, Sudhir Peter, Chindripu Sobhana, Gaurav Mittal, Vikash Aggarwal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
Rita Citraro, Emilio Russo, Antonio Leo, Roberto Russo, Carmen Avagliano, Michele Navarra, Antonio Calignano, Giovambattista De Sarro
We evaluated the effects of ACEA (selective cannabinoid (CB)1 receptor agonist), WIN 55,212-2 mesylate (WIN; non-selective CB1 and CB2 receptor agonist) and N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA; an endogenous fatty acid of ethanolamide) in DBA/2 mice, a genetic model of reflex audiogenic epilepsy. PEA, ACEA or WIN intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration decreased the severity of tonic-clonic seizures. We also studied the effects of PEA, WIN or ACEA after co-administration with NIDA-41020 (CB1 receptor antagonist) or GW6471 (PPAR-α antagonist) and compared the effects of WIN, ACEA and PEA in order to clarify their mechanisms of action...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Elena Gatta, Aroldo Cupello, Mario Di Braccio, Giancarlo Grossi, Mauro Robello, Francesca Scicchitano, Emilio Russo, Giovambattista De Sarro
Herein, we tested in a model of generalized reflex epilepsy in mice different 1,4-benzodiazepines and 1,5-benzodiazepines with agonistic activity at the GABAA receptor population contributing to the peak component of the chloride current elicited by GABA in cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) in culture. The substances have all higher lipophilia than clobazam, an antiepileptic drug well known and used in human therapy. This ensures that they all can pass relatively easily the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The benzodiazepines were administered intraperitoneally (i...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Pasquale Striano, Federico Zara
The term 'cortical tremor' was first introduced by Ikeda and colleagues to indicate a postural and action-induced shivering movement of the hands which mimics essential tremor, but presents with the electrophysiological findings of cortical reflex myoclonus. The association between autosomal dominant cortical tremor, myoclonus and epilepsy (ADCME) was first recognized in Japanese families and is now increasingly reported worldwide, although it is described using different acronyms (BAFME, FAME, FEME, FCTE and others)...
September 1, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Zhidong Cen, Chunping Huang, Houmin Yin, Xueping Ding, Fei Xie, Xingjiao Lu, Zhiyuan Ouyang, Yuting Lou, Xia Qiu, Zhongjin Wang, Jianfeng Xiao, Meiping Ding, Wei Luo
OBJECTIVE: Familial cortical myoclonic tremor with epilepsy is a rare epilepsy syndrome. Herein, we report on nine Chinese familial cortical myoclonic tremor with epilepsy pedigrees to delineate its clinical and neurophysiological features. METHODS: Detailed clinical and neurophysiological data were obtained. Somatosensory evoked potential amplitudes and clinical profile were analyzed using multilevel statistical models. Age-at-onset anticipation was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis...
September 10, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Svetlana Gataullina, Julia Lauer-Zillhardt, Anna Kaminska, Louise Galmiche-Rolland, Nadia Bahi-Buisson, Clément Pontoizeau, Chris Ottolenghi, Olivier Dulac, Catherine Fallet-Bianco
We report the cases of a brother and a sister of nonconsanguineous parents who developed progressive microcephaly and had tremor, irritability, spasticity, startle reflexes, and permanent erratic myoclonus since birth. Focal clonic seizures, status epilepticus, and infantile spasms appeared later, during the first months of life, while erratic myoclonic jerks persisted. Electroencephalogram initially showed multifocal spikes that evolved into modified hypsarrhythmia and then discontinuous activity, evoking the progressive nature of the condition...
August 14, 2016: Neuropediatrics
Lehong Gao, Liping Li, Jing Ye, Xilin Zhu, Ning Shen, Xiating Zhang, Dequan Wang, Yu Gao, Hua Lin, Yuping Wang, Ying Liu
PURPOSE: Familial cortical myoclonic tremor with epilepsy (FCMTE) is an epileptic syndrome with autosomal dominant inheritance, of which four genetic subtypes (FCMTE1-4) have been reported. In the present study, we described the clinical and neurophysiologic features of a newly diagnosed Chinese FCMTE family, and investigated the genetic cause for this disease. METHODS: Clinical information was obtained from affected and normal individuals of an FCMTE family comprising 41 members...
October 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Anvesh Jackson, Louise Teo, Udaya Seneviratne
AIMS: (1) To delineate the challenges in seizure diagnosis in the first seizure clinic setting for adult patients of a teaching hospital, and (2) quantify the diagnostic accuracy of the referral source and the yield of routine investigations, including blood tests, EEGs, and neuroimaging. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients referred by the emergency department to the adult first seizure clinic and seen by the same epilepsy specialist between June 2007 and June 2011...
September 1, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
David Sánchez-Benito, Ricardo Gómez-Nieto, Sonia Hernández-Noriega, Adriana Andrade Batista Murashima, José Antonio Cortes de Oliveira, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Dolores E López, Miguel Angelo Hyppolito
The genetic audiogenic seizure hamster (GASH:Sal) is a model of a form of reflex epilepsy that is manifested as generalized tonic-clonic seizures induced by external acoustic stimulation. The morphofunctional alterations in the auditory system of the GASH:Sal that may contribute to seizure susceptibility have not been thoroughly determined. In this study, we analyzed the olivocochlear efferent system of the GASH:Sal from the organ of Corti, including outer and inner hair cells, to the olivocochlear neurons, including shell, lateral, and medial olivocochlear (LOC and MOC) neurons that innervate the cochlear receptor...
August 1, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Frieda A Koopman, Sangeeta S Chavan, Sanda Miljko, Simeon Grazio, Sekib Sokolovic, P Richard Schuurman, Ashesh D Mehta, Yaakov A Levine, Michael Faltys, Ralph Zitnik, Kevin J Tracey, Paul P Tak
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a heterogeneous, prevalent, chronic autoimmune disease characterized by painful swollen joints and significant disabilities. Symptomatic relief can be achieved in up to 50% of patients using biological agents that inhibit tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or other mechanisms of action, but there are no universally effective therapies. Recent advances in basic and preclinical science reveal that reflex neural circuits inhibit the production of cytokines and inflammation in animal models...
July 19, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kang Min Park, Sung Eun Kim, Byung In Lee
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of card game-induced reflex epilepsy has not been determined so far. The aim of this study was to evaluate structural abnormalities using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis, which may give some clue about the pathogenesis in card game-induced reflex epilepsy. METHODS: The 3 subjects were diagnosed with card game-induced reflex epilepsy. Evaluation involved a structured interview to obtain clinical information and brain MRI. In VBM analysis, Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 running on the MATLAB platform was employed to analyze the structural differences between patients with card game-induced reflex epilepsy and age- and sex-matched control subjects...
2016: European Neurology
Kelly Cristina de Carvalho, Carina Gonçalves Pedroso Uchida, Mirian Salvadori Bittar Guaranha, Laura Maria F F Guilhoto, Peter Wolf, Elza Márcia Targas Yacubian
PURPOSE: Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a heterogeneous syndrome in which seizures can be precipitated not only by non-specific factors, such as sleep deprivation and stress, but also by specific stimuli, such as photic stimuli, eye-closure, praxis, and language. The presence of these reflex traits may indicate the hyperexcitability of different cortical areas, which may be reflected in patients' neuropsychological deficit profile. The objective of our study is to investigate the possible relations between JME endophenotypes and patients' cognitive performance...
August 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Sujit Jagtap, Ramshekhar Menon, Ajith Cherian, Neeraj Baheti, R Ashalatha, Sanjeev V Thomas
This study aimed to evaluate the clinical, video electroencephalographic and MRI attributes of patients with eating epilepsy (EE). Consecutive patients who were diagnosed with EE and underwent potential pre-surgical work-up from 2003 to 2012 formed the study cohort. Their electro-clinico-radiological and seizure outcome data were obtained from our prospectively maintained medical records. Out of 7094 patients who underwent evaluation for refractory seizures, 47 patients satisfied the criteria for EE. Twenty-three (48...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Henning Kristian Olberg, Tom Eichele, Thomas Schwarzlmüller, Jonas Lind, Ina Elen Hjelland, Bernt Andreas Engelsen
Reading epilepsy is a form of reflex-induced seizures. Two entities are postulated as part of a clinical spectrum; one anterior variant with jaw jerks and orofacial myoclonia and another posterior variant with visual symptoms and alexia or dyslexia. We present a case with suggestible evidence of both conditions coexisting within the same patient, a finding that, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported. The diagnosis in this specific case was contributed to by the patient searching the internet.
2016: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
Ritsuko Kohno, Haruhiko Abe, Naoki Akamatsu, David G Benditt
BACKGROUND: Ictal asystole (IA) is an infrequent complication of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but one that may cause transient loss of consciousness (T-LOC) similar to reflex syncope (particularly the vasovagal faint). Although IA-triggered T-LOC is relatively rare, its recognition is therapeutically important. However, while the need for anti-epileptic drugs (AeDs) is broadly accepted, cardiac pacing in IA is controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the need for cardiac pacing in the follow-up of IA patients being treated with AeDs...
August 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Güneş Altıokka-Uzun, Esme Ekizoğlu, Elif Kocasoy-Orhan, Nerses Bebek, Candan Gürses, Ayşen Gökyiğit, Ali Emre Öge, Betül Baykan
Eyelid myoclonia (EM) with or without absences are a rare type of generalized seizures associated with a variety of epilepsy syndromes with an unknown pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible contribution of the brainstem structures in this underrecognized special type of seizures. Sixteen consecutive patients with EM, diagnosed with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) according to International League Against Epilepsy 2010 criteria were included. Brainstem excitabilities were examined by blink reflex (BR) studies...
May 11, 2016: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
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