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Reflex epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739759/reflex-anoxic-seizures-ras-in-an-adult-patient-a-separate-entity-from-epilepsy
#1
Laith Cebe, Harpreet Singh
Reflex anoxic seizures (RAS) are essential in the differential diagnosis of non-epileptic paroxysmal seizures. They are precipitated by vagally mediated brief cardiac asystole, which in turn leads to transient cerebral ischaemia. RAS are usually seen in infants and preschool children, but in this case happened in a middle-aged man. Our patient is a 61-year-old man who presented with sudden, repeated contractions of his left upper arm and urine incontinence, followed by loss of consciousness for about 30 s...
May 8, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727740/tap-seizures-in-infancy-a-critical-review
#2
REVIEW
Emanuela C Turco, Anna Andreolli, Francesco Pisani
Tap seizure is a type of reflex myoclonic epilepsy in which seizures are evoked mainly by unexpected tactile stimuli and which is classified among the electroclinical syndromes of infancy. This condition, whose onset is in the first two years of life, is characterized by excellent prognosis and is extremely rare. We reviewed all published articles and case reports on Reflex Myoclonic Epilepsies focusing on touch-induced seizures in order to clarify clinical and electroencephalographic findings. Our aim is to increase knowledge about this specific disorder in order to help pediatricians avoid extensive investigations when making their diagnosis and reassure parents regarding absence of long-term complications...
April 23, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665529/electroclinical-characteristics-and-syndromic-associations-of-eye-condition-related-visual-sensitive-epilepsies-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Kalyani Dilip Karkare, Ramshekhar N Menon, Ashalatha Radhakrishnan, Ajith Cherian, Sanjeev V Thomas
PURPOSE: The systematic study of visual phenomena such as eye closure (ECLS), eye-closed/fixation-off sensitivity (FOS) [terminology proposed as eye-condition sensitive (ECS) epilepsy] distinct from photosensitivity is rarely explored in literature. METHODS: Clinical, electroencephalographic (EEG) and imaging records of patients attending an epilepsy clinic were screened. Inclusion criterion was demonstrable electrographic visual sensitivitiy in the form of ECS parameters with/without photosensitivity...
March 30, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609418/central-regulation-of-micturition-and-its-association-with-epilepsy
#4
REVIEW
Hyun-Jong Jang, Min Jung Kwon, Kyung-Ok Cho
Micturition is a complex process involving the bladder, spinal cord, and the brain. Highly sophisticated central neural program controls bladder function by utilizing multiple brain regions, including pons and suprapontine structures. Periaqueductal grey, insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and medial prefrontal cortex are components of suprapontine micturition centers. Under pathologic conditions such as epilepsy, urinary dysfunction is a frequent symptom and it seems to be associated with increased suprapontine cortical activity...
March 2018: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579554/clinical-and-electrophysiological-findings-in-patients-with-phenylketonuria-and-epilepsy-reflex-features
#5
Senay Yildiz Celik, Nerses Bebek, Candan Gurses, Betul Baykan, Aysen Gokyigit
OBJECTIVE: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most common form of amino acid metabolism disorders with autosomal recessive inheritance. The brain damage can be prevented by early diagnosis and a phenylalanine-restricted diet. Untreated or late-treated patients may show mental retardation and other cognitive dysfunctions, as well as motor disability and/or epilepsy. METHODS: Three patients with PKU and epilepsy were recognized to have reflex epileptic features, and there were ten consecutive adult patients with PKU and epilepsy who were evaluated retrospectively...
March 23, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560754/precipitation-and-inhibition-of-seizures-in-focal-epilepsies
#6
Rūta Mameniškienė, Peter Wolf
There is growing awareness that reflex epileptic seizures offer unique insight into natural seizure generation in humans. In the last years, focus has mostly been on reflex seizures in generalized epilepsies whereas a comprehensive review of their role in focal epilepsies has been missing. Areas covered: This paper reviews reflex seizures strictly in focal epilepsies, not including focal reflex seizures in system epilepsies that also exist. They were categorized according to their triggers which can be sensory or cognitive, simple or complex...
March 21, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555355/clinical-and-electrographic-features-of-sunflower-syndrome
#7
Fiona M Baumer, Brenda E Porter
BACKGROUND: Sunflower Syndrome describes reflex seizures - typically eyelid myoclonia with or without absence seizures - triggered when patients wave their hands in front of the sun. While valproate has been recognized as the best treatment for photosensitive epilepsy, many clinicians now initially treat with newer medications; the efficacy of these medications in Sunflower Syndrome has not been investigated. We reviewed all cases of Sunflower Syndrome seen at our institution over 15 years to describe the clinical course, electroencephalogram (EEG), and treatment response in these patients...
March 3, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492135/intractable-yawning-as-a-predominant-symptom-of-temporal-lobe-ganglioglioma-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#8
Raja K Kutty, Jacob Paul Alapatt, Aparna Govindan
Yawning, a physiologic reflex exhibited by vertebrates, is seldom noticed as a symptom of a disease. Not too often is a patient aware of it as a symptom, unless it is of such a distressing nature to seek attention. In this situation, to distinguish between normal and abnormal behavior would pose a diagnostic dilemma for the attending physician. Intractable yawning has been a presenting symptom of many pathologic states such as stroke, epilepsy, and migraine. Literature is sparse regarding intractable yawning caused by tumors of the brain...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465899/electroclinical-and-prognostic-characteristics-of-epilepsy-patients-with-photosensitivity
#9
Hülya Olgun Yazar, Günay Gül, Tamer Yazar, Fulya Eren, Demet-Yandım Kuscu, Dursun Kirbas
Background and purpose: Epilepsy with photosensitivity (PSE) is one of the reflex epilepsy types with pathophysiology still unexplained. In our study we aimed to evaluate the clinical, electroencephalogram (EEG) and prognosis of patients with PSE diagnosis. Methods: A total of 44 patients with PSE diagnosis according to international classification were included in this retrospective and cross-sectional study. The age, gender, syndrome, clinical and EEG characteristics of patients, and treatment response were investigated...
January 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444763/somatosensory-reflex-epilepsy-simultaneous-video-eeg-monitoring-and-surface-emg
#10
Kyoung Jin Hwang, Dae Won Seo, Seong Bong Hong, Eun Yeon Joo
Somatosensory reflex epilepsy is induced by repetitive cutaneous contact of a circumscribed body area with a tight time-lock between somatosensory stimulation and seizure. We describe the case of a 27-year-old man with seizures induced by repetitive tapping on the sole of the right foot. Simultaneous video-EEG monitoring and surface electromyography was performed during a seizure triggered by repetitive tapping on the right sole aspect using a hammer. Stimulation produced a tingling sensation on the right sole that extended to the right lower leg...
February 1, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416935/familial-cortical-myoclonic-tremor-and-epilepsy-an-enigmatic-disorder-from-phenotypes-to-pathophysiology-and-genetics-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Tom van den Ende, Sarvi Sharifi, Sandra M A van der Salm, Anne-Fleur van Rootselaar
Background: Autosomal dominant familial cortical myoclonic tremor and epilepsy (FCMTE) is characterized by distal tremulous myoclonus, generalized seizures, and signs of cortical reflex myoclonus. FCMTE has been described in over 100 pedigrees worldwide, under several different names and acronyms. Pathological changes have been located in the cerebellum. This systematic review discusses the clinical spectrum, treatment, pathophysiology, and genetic findings. Methods: We carried out a PubMed search, using a combination of the following search terms: cortical tremor, myoclonus, epilepsy, benign course, adult onset, familial, and autosomal dominant; this resulted in a total of 77 studies (761 patients; 126 pedigrees) fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria...
2018: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403278/reflex-epilepsy-triggers-and-management-strategies
#12
REVIEW
Zeynep Vildan Okudan, Çiğdem Özkara
Reflex epilepsies (REs) are identified as epileptic seizures that are consistently induced by identifiable and objective-specific triggers, which may be an afferent stimulus or by the patient's own activity. RE may have different subtypes depending on the stimulus characteristic. There are significant clinical and electrophysiologic differences between different RE types. Visual stimuli-sensitive or photosensitive epilepsies constitute a large proportion of the RE and are mainly related to genetic causes. Reflex epilepsies may present with focal or generalized seizures due to specific triggers, and sometimes seizures may occur spontaneously...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377096/delayed-myelination-and-neurodevelopment-in-male-seizure-prone-versus-seizure-resistant-rats
#13
Pragati Sharma, Kim L Powell, Mary E Wlodek, Terence J O'Brien, Krista L Gilby
OBJECTIVE: Aberrant myelination and developmental delay have been reported in epilepsy. However, it is unclear whether these are linked to intrinsic mechanisms that support a predisposition toward seizures and the development of epilepsy. Thus, we compared rates of myelination and neurodevelopment in male rats selectively bred for enhanced susceptibility to kindling epileptogenesis (FAST) with male rats bred for resistance (SLOW). METHODS: Myelin-specific gene expression was compared in the brainstem, cerebellum, and cerebral hemisphere of FAST and SLOW rats on postnatal days (PNDs) 5, 11, 17, 23, and 90 to determine strain-specific myelination rates...
April 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291205/topiramate-induced-peripheral-neuropathy-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#14
Sherifa Ahmed Hamed
Drug-induced peripheral neuropathy had been rarely reported as an adverse effect of some antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) at high cumulative doses or even within the therapeutic drug doses or levels. We describe clinical and diagnostic features of a patient with peripheral neuropathy as an adverse effect of chronic topiramate (TPM) therapy. A 37-year-old woman was presented for the control of active epilepsy (2010). She was resistant to some AEDs as mono- or combined therapies (carbamazepine, sodium valproate, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine and lamotrigine)...
December 16, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237663/progressive-myoclonic-epilepsy-and-horizontal-gaze-palsy-a-rare-aetiology
#15
Rajveer Singh, Aditya Choudhary, Amith S Kumar, Manoj Kumar Goyal
Gaucher's disease is a rare autosomal recessive, potentially fatal disorder but most common type among lysosomal storage disorders. The disease's incidence is around 1/40 000 to 1/60 000 births in the general population. A 32-year-old man, born out of non-consanguineous union, presented with generalised tonic-clonic seizures and myoclonus since 17 years of age. Seizures were noted to be resistant to multiple epileptic drugs. He developed gait imbalance, intentional tremor and dysarthria. Detailed examination revealed hepatosplenomegaly, bilateral pancerebellar signs with normal power, reflexes and sensory system...
December 13, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993753/electroencephalography-in-the-diagnosis-of-genetic-generalized-epilepsy-syndromes
#16
REVIEW
Udaya Seneviratne, Mark J Cook, Wendyl Jude D'Souza
Genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) consists of several syndromes diagnosed and classified on the basis of clinical features and electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities. The main EEG feature of GGE is bilateral, synchronous, symmetric, and generalized spike-wave complex. Other classic EEG abnormalities are polyspikes, epileptiform K-complexes and sleep spindles, polyspike-wave discharges, occipital intermittent rhythmic delta activity, eye-closure sensitivity, fixation-off sensitivity, and photoparoxysmal response...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984246/the-role-of-eeg-in-the-diagnosis-and-classification-of-the-epilepsy-syndromes-a-tool-for-clinical-practice-by-the-ilae-neurophysiology-task-force-part-1
#17
Michalis Koutroumanidis, Alexis Arzimanoglou, Roberto Caraballo, Sushma Goyal, Anna Kaminska, Pramote Laoprasert, Hirokazu Oguni, Guido Rubboli, William Tatum, Pierre Thomas, Eugen Trinka, Luca Vignatelli, Solomon L Moshé
The concept of epilepsy syndromes, introduced in 1989, was defined as "clusters of signs and symptoms customarily occurring together". Definition of epilepsy syndromes based on electro-clinical features facilitated clinical practice and, whenever possible, clinical research in homogeneous groups of patients with epilepsies. Progress in the fields of neuroimaging and genetics made it rapidly clear that, although crucial, the electro-clinical description of epilepsy syndromes was not sufficient to allow much needed development of targeted therapies and a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of seizures...
September 1, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979317/the-role-of-bk-channels-in-antiseizure-action-of-the-cb1-receptor-agonist-acea-in-maximal-electroshock-and-pentylenetetrazole-models-of-seizure-in-mice
#18
Sina Asaadi, Mohammad Jahanbakhshi, Mahmoud Lotfinia, Nima Naderi
The anticonvulsant effect of cannabinoid compound has been shown in various models of seizure. On the other hand, there are controversial findings about the role of large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Also, there is no data regarding the effect of co-administration of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor agonists and BK channels antagonists in the acute models of seizure in mice. In this study, the effect of arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA), a CB1 receptor agonist, and a BK channel antagonist, paxilline, either alone or in combination was investigated...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956448/psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures-in-children-and-adolescents-part-i-diagnostic-formulations
#19
Kasia Kozlowska, Catherine Chudleigh, Catherine Cruz, Melissa Lim, Georgia McClure, Blanche Savage, Ubaid Shah, Averil Cook, Stephen Scher, Pascal Carrive, Deepak Gill
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are a nonspecific, umbrella category that is used to collect together a range of atypical neurophysiological responses to emotional distress, physiological stressors and danger. Because PNES mimic epileptic seizures, children and adolescents with PNES usually present to neurologists or to epilepsy monitoring units. After a comprehensive neurological evaluation and a diagnosis of PNES, the patient is referred to mental health services for treatment. This study documents the diagnostic formulations - the clinical formulations about the probable neurophysiological mechanisms - that were constructed for 60 consecutive children and adolescents with PNES who were referred to our Mind-Body Rehabilitation Programme for treatment...
January 2018: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882919/a-randomised-controlled-cross-over-double-blind-pilot-study-protocol-on-thc-cbd-oromucosal-spray-efficacy-as-an-add-on-therapy-for-post-stroke-spasticity
#20
Lucio Marinelli, Maurizio Balestrino, Laura Mori, Luca Puce, Gian Marco Rosa, Laura Giorello, Antonio Currà, Francesco Fattapposta, Carlo Serrati, Carlo Gandolfo, Giovanni Abbruzzese, Carlo Trompetto
INTRODUCTION: Stroke is the most disabling neurological disorder and often causes spasticity. Transmucosal cannabinoids (tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (THC:CBD), Sativex) is currently available to treat spasticity-associated symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis. Cannabinoids are being considered useful also in the treatment of pain, nausea and epilepsy, but may bear and increased risk for cardiovascular events. Spasticity is often assessed with subjective and clinical rating scales, which are unable to measure the increased excitability of the monosynaptic reflex, considered the hallmark of spasticity...
September 7, 2017: BMJ Open
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