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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926579/cervical-screening-with-primary-hpv-testing-or-cytology-in-a-population-of-women-in-which-those-aged-33-years-or-younger-had-previously-been-offered-hpv-vaccination-results-of-the-compass-pilot-randomised-trial
#1
Karen Canfell, Michael Caruana, Val Gebski, Jessica Darlington-Brown, Stella Heley, Julia Brotherton, Dorota Gertig, Chloe J Jennett, Annabelle Farnsworth, Jeffrey Tan, C David Wrede, Philip E Castle, Marion Saville
BACKGROUND: Using primary human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for cervical screening increases detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplastic lesions and invasive cancer (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ [CIN2+]) compared to cytology, but no evaluation has been conducted in a population previously offered HPV vaccination. We aimed to assess colposcopy referral and CIN2+ detection rates for HPV-screened versus cytology-screened women in Australia's HPV-vaccinated population (by 2014, resident women ≤33 years had been age-eligible for HPV vaccination, with 3-dose uptake across age cohorts being about 50%-77%)...
September 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923935/retinoid-x-receptor-suppresses-a-metastasis-promoting-transcriptional-program-in-myeloid-cells-via-a-ligand-insensitive-mechanism
#2
Mate Kiss, Zsolt Czimmerer, Gergely Nagy, Pawel Bieniasz-Krzywiec, Manuel Ehling, Attila Pap, Szilard Poliska, Pal Boto, Petros Tzerpos, Attila Horvath, Zsuzsanna Kolostyak, Bence Daniel, Istvan Szatmari, Massimiliano Mazzone, Laszlo Nagy
Retinoid X receptor (RXR) regulates several key functions in myeloid cells, including inflammatory responses, phagocytosis, chemokine secretion, and proangiogenic activity. Its importance, however, in tumor-associated myeloid cells is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that deletion of RXR in myeloid cells enhances lung metastasis formation while not affecting primary tumor growth. We show that RXR deficiency leads to transcriptomic changes in the lung myeloid compartment characterized by increased expression of prometastatic genes, including important determinants of premetastatic niche formation...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922787/optimal-duration-of-extended-adjuvant-endocrine-therapy-for-early-breast-cancer-results-of-the-ideal-trial-boog-2006-05
#3
Erik J Blok, Judith R Kroep, Elma Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, Marjolijn Duijm-de Carpentier, Hein Putter, Joan van den Bosch, Eduard Maartense, A Elise van Leeuwen-Stok, Gerrit-Jan Liefers, Johan W R Nortier, Emiel J Th Rutgers, Cornelis J H van de Velde
Background: The optimal duration of extended endocrine therapy beyond five years after initial aromatase inhibitor-based adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer is still unknown. Therefore, we conducted a clinical trial to compare two different extended endocrine therapy durations. Methods: In the randomized phase III IDEAL trial, postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer were randomly allocated to either 2...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922731/shikonin-suppresses-pulmonary-fibroblasts-proliferation-and-activation-by-regulating-akt-and-p38-mapk-signaling-pathways
#4
Yunjuan Nie, Yaoyao Yang, Jian Zhang, Guowei Cai, Yanhua Chang, Gaoshang Chai, Chongyong Guo
Fibroblast is believed to be the primary effector in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a progressive lung disorder characterized by aberrant tissue remodeling and the formation of fibroblastic foci. Due to the complicated etiology and mechanism, there are few effective drugs for this fatal disease. Shikonin (SHI), which is the major ingredient isolated from the plant Lithospermum Erythrorhizon, has long been used as traditional medicine for many diseases including inflammation and cancer. The roles of SHI in attenuating skin scar and renal fibrosis by reducing TGFβ1-stimulated fibroblast activation are also reported...
September 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921531/a-naive-bayes-algorithm-for-tissue-origin-diagnosis-tod-bayes-of-synchronous-multifocal-tumors-in-the-hepatobiliary-and-pancreatic-system
#5
Weiqin Jiang, Yifei Shen, Yongfeng Ding, Chuyu Ye, Yi Zheng, Peng Zhao, Lulu Liu, Zhou Tong, Linfu Zhou, Shuo Sun, Xingchen Zhang, Lisong Teng, Michael P Timko, Longjiang Fan, Weijia Fang
Synchronous multifocal tumors are common in the hepatobiliary and pancreatic system but because of similarities in their histological features, oncologists have difficulty in identifying their precise tissue clonal origin through routine histopathological methods. To address this problem and assist in more precise diagnosis, we developed a computational approach for tissue origin diagnosis based on naive Bayes algorithm (TOD-Bayes) using ubiquitous RNA-Seq data. Massive tissue-specific RNA-Seq data sets were first obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and ∼1,000 feature genes were used to train and validate the TOD-Bayes algorithm...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919394/concomitant-chemotherapy-and-radiotherapy-with-sbrt-boost-for-unresectable-stage-iii-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-phase-i-study
#6
Kristin A Higgins, Rathi N Pillai, Zhengjia Chen, Sibo Tian, Chao Zhang, Pretesh Patel, Suchita Pakkala, Jay Shelton, Seth D Force, Felix G Fernandez, Conor E Steuer, Taofeek K Owonikoko, Suresh S Ramalingam, Jeffrey D Bradley, Walter J Curran
PURPOSE: Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) is now the standard of care in medically inoperable stage I non-small cell lung cancer, yielding high rates of local control. It is unknown if SBRT can be safely utilized in the locally advanced NSCLC setting. This multi-institution phase I study evaluated the safety of 44 Gy conventionally fractionated thoracic radiation with concurrent chemotherapy plus a dose escalated SBRT boost to both the primary tumor and involved mediastinal lymph nodes...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917545/effects-of-acarbose-on-cardiovascular-and-diabetes-outcomes-in-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease-and-impaired-glucose-tolerance-ace-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#7
Rury R Holman, Ruth L Coleman, Juliana C N Chan, Jean-Louis Chiasson, Huimei Feng, Junbo Ge, Hertzel C Gerstein, Richard Gray, Yong Huo, Zhihui Lang, John J McMurray, Lars Rydén, Stefan Schröder, Yihong Sun, Michael J Theodorakis, Michal Tendera, Lynne Tucker, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Yidong Wei, Wenying Yang, Duolao Wang, Dayi Hu, Changyu Pan
BACKGROUND: The effect of the α-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease and impaired glucose tolerance is unknown. We aimed to assess whether acarbose could reduce the frequency of cardiovascular events in Chinese patients with established coronary heart disease and impaired glucose tolerance, and whether the incidence of type 2 diabetes could be reduced. METHODS: The Acarbose Cardiovascular Evaluation (ACE) trial was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 4 trial, with patients recruited from 176 hospital outpatient clinics in China...
September 12, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916723/fibroblast-growth-factor-2-fgf2-regulates-cytoglobin-expression-and-activation-of-human-hepatic-stellate-cells-via-jnk-signaling
#8
Misako Sato-Matsubara, Tsutomu Matsubara, Atsuko Daikoku, Yoshinori Okina, Lisa Longato, Krista Rombouts, Le Thi Thanh Thuy, Jun Adachi, Takeshi Tomonaga, Kazuo Ikeda, Katsutoshi Yoshizato, Massimo Pinzani, Norifumi Kawada
Cytoglobin (CYGB) belongs to the mammalian globin family and is exclusively expressed in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in the liver. In addition to its gas-binding ability, CYGB is relevant to hepatic inflammation, fibrosis, and cancer because of its antioxidative properties; however, the regulation of CYGB gene expression remains unknown. Here, we sought to identify factors that induce CYGB expression in HSCs and to clarify the molecular mechanism involved. We used the human HSC cell line HHSteC and primary human HSCs isolated from intact human liver tissues...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910237/effects-of-once-weekly-exenatide-on-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-type-2-diabetes
#9
Rury R Holman, M Angelyn Bethel, Robert J Mentz, Vivian P Thompson, Yuliya Lokhnygina, John B Buse, Juliana C Chan, Jasmine Choi, Stephanie M Gustavson, Nayyar Iqbal, Aldo P Maggioni, Steven P Marso, Peter Öhman, Neha J Pagidipati, Neil Poulter, Ambady Ramachandran, Bernard Zinman, Adrian F Hernandez
Background The cardiovascular effects of adding once-weekly treatment with exenatide to usual care in patients with type 2 diabetes are unknown. Methods We randomly assigned patients with type 2 diabetes, with or without previous cardiovascular disease, to receive subcutaneous injections of extended-release exenatide at a dose of 2 mg or matching placebo once weekly. The primary composite outcome was the first occurrence of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke...
September 14, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905808/patient-with-metastatic-breast-cancer-presenting-as-acute-cholecystitis-with-one-year-survival-on-hormonotherapy
#10
Mateusz Zamkowski, Michał Kąkol, Wojciech Makarewicz, Jerzy Ropel, Maciej Bobowicz
Breast cancer has high metastatic potential with distant metastases involving mainly lungs, liver and bones. Less frequently it gives distant spread to other organs. Herein we would like to present a very rare case of an acute cholecystitis which turned out to be a metastatic breast cancer in previously healthy woman. A female patient, 64-years old, presented to the emergency department with symptoms of biliary colic and acute abdomen. During the emergency cholecystectomy, we diagnosed the gallbladder empyema with thickened wall...
August 31, 2017: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905108/a-randomized-phase-ii-trial-of-erlotinib-vs-s-1-as-a-third-or-fourth-line-therapy-for-patients-with-wild-type-egfr-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-hot1002
#11
Yasuyuki Ikezawa, Hajime Asahina, Satoshi Oizumi, Masahiro Watanabe, Kei Takamura, Yasutaka Kawai, Noriyuki Yamada, Toshiyuki Harada, Ichiro Kinoshita, Yuka Fujita, Eisaku Miyauchi, Takahiro Ogi, Toraji Amano, Megumi Furuta, Jun Sakakibara-Konishi, Hiroshi Nishihara, Hirotoshi Dosaka-Akita, Hiroshi Isobe, Masaharu Nishimura
PURPOSE: A high proportion of patients with wild-type EGFR non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receive third-line therapy and beyond, with no prospective randomized trials addressing the issue. This study aimed to select the most suitable regimen as a third- or fourth-line therapy for wild-type EGFR NSCLC. METHODS: This multicenter, randomized phase II study in Japan included patients with recurrent or advanced NSCLC with wild-type or unknown EGFR, who progressed after two or three previous chemotherapies...
September 13, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903167/oncologic-safety-of-prophylactic-nipple-sparing-mastectomy-in-a-population-with-brca-mutations-a-multi-institutional-study
#12
James W Jakub, Anne Warren Peled, Richard J Gray, Rachel A Greenup, John V Kiluk, Virgilio Sacchini, Sarah A McLaughlin, Julia C Tchou, Robert A Vierkant, Amy C Degnim, Shawna Willey
Importance: Nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) offers superior cosmetic outcomes and has been gaining wide acceptance; however, its role among patients with BRCA mutations remains controversial. Objective: To report on the oncologic safety of NSM and provide evidence-based data to patients and health care professionals regarding preservation of the nipple-areolar complex during a risk-reducing mastectomy in a population with BRCA mutations. Design, Setting, and Participants: We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes of 9 institutions' experience with prophylactic NSM from 1968 to 2013 in a cohort of patients with BRCA mutations...
September 13, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902073/cryotherapy-reduces-progression-of-cervical-intraepithelial-neoplasia-grade-1-in-south-african-hiv-infected-women-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Cynthia Firnhaber, Avril Swarts, Bridgette Goeieman, Ntombi Rakhombe, Masangu Mulongo, Anna-Lise Williamson, Pam Michelow, Sibongile Ramotshela, Mark Faesen, Simon Levin, Timothy Wilkin
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected women are at increased risk of cervical cancer, especially in resource-limited countries. Cervical cancer prevention strategies focus treating cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). The management of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) in HIV-infected women is unknown. SETTING: HIV treatment clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa METHODS:: We randomized HIV-infected women with histologic cervical LSIL to cervical cryotherapy vs...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901481/silencing-of-histone-methyltransferase-nsd3-reduces-cell-viability-in-osteosarcoma-with-induction-of-apoptosis
#14
Zhiwei Liu, Lianhua Piao, Ming Zhuang, Xubin Qiu, Xiaoshuang Xu, Dawei Zhang, Mengmeng Liu, Ding Ren
NSD3 is a histone lysine methyltransferase that methylates histone H3 at lysine 36. NSD3 is located at chromosome 8p11.23, the locus that exhibits strong cancer relevance. Thus, NSD3 is likely involved in multiple human cancers. Nevertheless, its roles in human carcinogenesis remain unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that silencing of NSD3 in osteosarcoma, the most common primary bone cancer in children and adolescents, results in a marked decrease in the number of viable cancer cells, accompanied by increases in the cell population at the G2/M phase and the number of apoptotic cells...
September 4, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892216/delayed-and-localized-pemphigus-vulgaris-after-breast-cancer-radiotherapy
#15
Hiu Kwan Carolyn Tang, Doreen Yin Hui Lee, Ian Thompson, John R Ingram, Natalie Stone, Girish K Patel
Breast cancer treatment involving ionizing radiation causes characteristic radiation dermatitis in the majority of patients. The DNA damaging effects of radiation can rarely predispose to primary inflammatory dermatoses, such as pemphigus vulgaris. In such cases, the disease presents with all the hallmarks of the primary dermatosis, but the eruption is limited to the field of irradiation and is often amenable to treatment. In contrast, occurrence of generalized pemphigus vulgaris in this setting may mean cancer recurrence...
September 11, 2017: Breast Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891195/prevalence-of-synchronous-bilateral-tonsil-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-retrospective-study
#16
Malene Sine Rokkjaer, Tejs Ehlers Klug
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of synchronous bilateral tonsil cancer remains unexplored. To date, only 38 cases have been described in the literature. With an aim to substantiate the Danish recommendation of performing bilateral tonsillectomy in patients with suspected or proven tonsil cancer and in patients with cervical carcinoma metastasis from an unknown primary tumour, the current study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of synchronous bilateral tonsil cancer. DESIGN: A retrospective review of all patients diagnosed with tonsil cancer in the period 2000-2015, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, was performed...
September 11, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887744/microrna-203-suppresses-proliferation-in-liver-cancer-associated-with-pik3ca-p38-mapk-c-jun-and-gsk3-signaling
#17
Annie Zhang, Jaganathan Lakshmanan, Amirreza Motameni, Brian G Harbrecht
Primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths, and alternative ways to treat this disease are urgently needed. In recent years, novel approaches to cancer treatment have been based on microRNAs, small non-coding RNA molecules that play a crucial role in cancer progression by regulating gene expression. Overexpression of some microRNAs has shown therapeutic potential, but whether or not this was the case for microRNA-203 (miR-203) in liver cancer was unknown...
September 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887543/the-oxidative-state-of-cysteine-thiol-144-regulates-the-sirt6-glucose-homeostat
#18
David Long, Hanzhi Wu, Allen W Tsang, Leslie B Poole, Barbara K Yoza, Xianfeng Wang, Vidula Vachharajani, Cristina M Furdui, Charles E McCall
Control of glucose homeostasis plays a critical role in health and lifespan and its dysregulation contributes to inflammation, cancer and aging. NAD + dependent Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is a glucose homeostasis regulator in animals and humans and its regulation at the molecular level is unknown. Here, we report that a cysteine thiol redox sensor contributes to the role of SIRT6 in controlling glucose homeostasis. Sulfenylation of SIRT6 occurs in THP1 cells and primary human promonocytes during inflammation and in splenocytes from mice with sepsis...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886115/androgen-receptor-mediated-downregulation-of-microrna-221-and-222-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#19
Bin Gui, Chen-Lin Hsieh, Philip W Kantoff, Adam S Kibel, Li Jia
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in cancer formation and progression by suppressing the production of key functional proteins at the post-transcriptional level in a sequence-specific manner. While differential expression of miRNAs is widely observed in cancers including prostate cancer (PCa), how these miRNAs are transcriptionally regulated is largely unknown. MiRNA-221 and miRNA-222 (miR-221/-222) are well-established oncogenes and overexpressed in breast, liver, pancreas, and lung cancer, but their expression and biological functions in PCa remain controversial...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878134/prevention-of-breast-cancer-skeletal-metastases-with-parathyroid-hormone
#20
Srilatha Swami, Joshua Johnson, Lance A Bettinson, Takaharu Kimura, Hui Zhu, Megan A Albertelli, Rachelle W Johnson, Joy Y Wu
Advanced breast cancer is frequently associated with skeletal metastases and accelerated bone loss. Recombinant parathyroid hormone [teriparatide, PTH(1-34)] is the first anabolic agent approved in the US for treatment of osteoporosis. While signaling through the PTH receptor in the osteoblast lineage regulates bone marrow hematopoietic niches, the effects of anabolic PTH on the skeletal metastatic niche are unknown. Here, we demonstrate, using orthotopic and intratibial models of 4T1 murine and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer tumors, that anabolic PTH decreases both tumor engraftment and the incidence of spontaneous skeletal metastasis in mice...
September 7, 2017: JCI Insight
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