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nicotinic acid and fat oxidation

Amiya P Sinha-Hikim, Indrani Sinha-Hikim, Theodore C Friedman
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) poses a serious health hazard affecting 20-40% of adults in the general population in the USA and over 70% of the obese and extremely obese people. In addition to obesity, nicotine is recognized as a risk factor for NAFLD, and it has been reported that nicotine can exaggerate obesity-induced hepatic steatosis. The development of NAFLD has serious clinical complications because of its potential progression from simple hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Istvan Arany, Samuel Hall, Dustin K Reed, Mehul Dixit
Nicotine (NIC) exposure augments free fatty acid (FFA) deposition and oxidative stress, with a concomitant increase in the expression of the pro-oxidant p66shc. In addition, a decrease in the antioxidant manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) has been observed in the kidneys of mice fed a high‑fat diet. The present study aimed to determine whether the pro‑oxidant p66shc mediates NIC‑dependent increases in renal oxidative stress by augmenting the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and suppressing the FFA‑induced antioxidant response in cultured NRK52E renal proximal tubule cells...
September 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Jill J Leckey, Louise M Burke, James P Morton, John A Hawley
We determined the effect of suppressing lipolysis via administration of nicotinic acid (NA) on fuel substrate selection and half-marathon running capacity. In a single-blinded, Latin square design, 12 competitive runners completed four trials involving treadmill running until volitional fatigue at a pace based on 95% of personal best half-marathon time. Trials were completed in a fed or overnight fasted state: 1) carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion before (2 g CHO·kg(-1)·body mass(-1)) and during (44 g/h) [CFED]; 2) CFED plus NA ingestion [CFED-NA]; 3) fasted with placebo ingestion during [FAST]; and 4) FAST plus NA ingestion [FAST-NA]...
January 15, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Mina Elahy, Virginie Lam, Menuka M Pallebage-Gamarallage, Corey Giles, John C L Mamo, Ryusuke Takechi
INTRODUCTION: Emerging evidence suggests that integrity of blood-brain barrier (BBB) is pivotal to pathology and pathogenesis of vascular-based neurodegenerative disorders. We have recently reported BBB protective effects of nutraceutical agents with anti-inflammatory properties in an established dietary-induced BBB dysfunction model. Studies also reported that nicotine exhibits anti-oxidative/-inflammatory effects and improve cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. However there has been no studies reporting the effect of nicotine on high-fat-induced BBB dysfunction...
December 2015: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Rod Bilton
How have climate change and diet shaped the evolution of human energy metabolism, and responses to vitamin C, fructose and uric acid? Through the last three millennia observant physicians have noted the association of inappropriate diets with increased incidence of obesity, heart disease, diabetes and cancer, and over the past 300 years doctors in the UK observed that overeating increased the incidence of these diseases. Anthropological studies of the Inuit culture in the mid-nineteenth century revealed that humans can survive and thrive in the virtual absence of dietary carbohydrate...
2013: Science Progress
Indrani Sinha-Hikim, Theodore C Friedman, Chang-Sung Shin, Desean Lee, Rasheed Ivey, Amiya P Sinha-Hikim
Smoking is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The health risk associated with smoking can be exaggerated by obesity. We hypothesize that nicotine when combined with a high-fat diet (HFD) can also cause ectopic lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle, similar to recently observed hepatic steatosis. Adult C57BL6 male mice were fed a normal chow diet or HFD and received twice-daily ip injections of nicotine (0.75 mg/kg body weight) or saline for 10 weeks...
March 2014: Endocrinology
Na Niu, Shu-zhen Sun, Bo Han, Yi Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of nicotinic acid intervention on vascular endothelial dysfunction mediated by oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)/lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) in diet-induced obese immature rats and its possible mechanism through detecting the expression levels of ox-LDL and LOX-1 in abdominal aorta. METHODS: A model of diet-induced obese immature rats was established by high-fat diet. And 30 immature rats were divided randomly and equally into control (n = 10), high-fat (n = 10) and drug control (n = 10) groups...
November 12, 2013: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Nicholas D Oakes, Ann Kjellstedt, Pia Thalén, Bengt Ljung, Nigel Turner
To test the roles of lipid oversupply versus oxidation in causing tissue lipid accumulation associated with insulin resistance/obesity, we studied in vivo fatty acid (FA) metabolism in obese (Obese) and lean (Lean) Zucker rats. Indices of local FA utilization and storage were calculated using the partially metabolizable [9,10-(3)H]-(R)-2-bromopalmitate ((3)H-R-BrP) and [U-(14)C]-palmitate ((14)C-P) FA tracers, respectively. Whole-body FA appearance (R a ) was estimated from plasma (14)C-P kinetics. Whole-body FA oxidation rate (R ox) was assessed using (3)H2O production from (3)H-palmitate infusion, and tissue FA oxidative capacity was evaluated ex vivo...
2013: Journal of Lipids
Nicholas E Kimber, David Cameron-Smith, Sean L McGee, Mark Hargreaves
The mechanisms facilitating increased skeletal muscle fat oxidation following prolonged, strenuous exercise remain poorly defined. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of plasma free fatty acid (FFA) availability on intramuscular malonyl-CoA concentration and the regulation of whole-body fat metabolism during a 6-h postexercise recovery period. Eight endurance-trained men performed three trials, consisting of 1.5 h high-intensity and exhaustive exercise, followed by infusion of saline, saline + nicotinic acid (NA; low FFA), or Intralipid and heparin [high FFA (HFA)]...
June 2013: Journal of Applied Physiology
Asaf A Qureshi, Xiu Qin Guan, Julia C Reis, Christopher J Papasian, Sandra Jabre, David C Morrison, Nilofer Qureshi
BACKGROUND: Altered immune function during ageing results in increased production of nitric oxide (NO) and other inflammatory mediators. Recently, we have reported that NO production was inhibited by naturally-occurring proteasome inhibitors (quercetin, δ-tocotrienol, and riboflavin) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, and thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6 mice. In a continuous effort to find more potent, non-toxic, commercially available, naturally-occurring proteasome inhibitors that suppress inflammation, the present study was carried out to describe the inhibition of NF-κB activation and NO, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and iNOS expression by trans-resveratrol, trans-pterostilbene, morin hydrate, and nicotinic acid in LPS-induced RAW 264...
July 10, 2012: Lipids in Health and Disease
K Yuan, R D Shaver, S J Bertics, M Espineira, R R Grummer
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a rumen-protected niacin product (RPN; 65% nicotinic acid; NiaShure, Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY) on lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, and performance of transition dairy cows. Thirty nonlactating multiparous Holstein cows in late gestation were paired according to expected calving date and randomly assigned to 12 g/cow per day of RPN product or to an unsupplemented control (CON) diet. Treatment diets were fed from 21 d before expected calving through 21 d after parturition...
May 2012: Journal of Dairy Science
Mehdi Toghyani, Majid Toghyani, Mahmoud Shivazad, Abbasali Gheisari, Ramin Bahadoran
This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with Cr nicotinate and Cr chloride and their optimum inclusion rate on performance, carcass traits, meat oxidative stability, serum metabolites, hematological parameters, and liver chromium concentration in heat-stressed broilers. A total number of 420, 1-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to seven treatments with four replicates of 15 chicks. The dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 500, 1,000, and 1,500 μg/kg Cr in the form of Cr nicotinate and Cr chloride...
May 2012: Biological Trace Element Research
Clara C Blad, Kashan Ahmed, Ad P IJzerman, Stefan Offermanns
The hydroxy-carboxylic acid (HCA) receptors HCA(1), HCA(2), and HCA(3) were previously known as GPR81, GPR109A, and GPR109B, respectively, or as the nicotinic acid receptor family. They form a cluster of G protein-coupled receptors with high sequence homology. Recently, intermediates of energy metabolism, all HCAs, have been reported as endogenous ligands for each of these receptors. The HCA receptors are predominantly expressed on adipocytes and mediate the inhibition of lipolysis by coupling to G(i)-type proteins...
2011: Advances in Pharmacology
Stefan Offermanns, Steven L Colletti, Timothy W Lovenberg, Graeme Semple, Alan Wise, Adriaan P IJzerman
The G-protein-coupled receptors GPR81, GPR109A, and GPR109B share significant sequence homology and form a small group of receptors, each of which is encoded by clustered genes. In recent years, endogenous ligands for all three receptors have been described. These endogenous ligands have in common that they are hydroxy-carboxylic acid metabolites, and we therefore have proposed that this receptor family be named hydroxy-carboxylic acid (HCA) receptors. The HCA(1) receptor (GPR81) is activated by 2-hydroxy-propanoic acid (lactate), the HCA(2) receptor (GPR109A) is a receptor for the ketone body 3-hydroxy-butyric acid, and the HCA(3) receptor (GPR109B) is activated by the β-oxidation intermediate 3-hydroxy-octanoic acid...
June 2011: Pharmacological Reviews
Kehkashan Parveen, Mohd Rashid Khan, Mohd Mujeeb, Waseem A Siddiqui
Abnormal regulation of glucose and impaired carbohydrate utilization that result from a defective or deficient insulin are the key pathogenic events in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Experimental and clinical studies have shown the antidiabetic effects of Pycnogenol (PYC). However, the protective effects of PYC on the liver, a major metabolic organ which primarily involves in glucose metabolism and maintains the normal blood glucose level in T2DM model have not been studied. The present study evaluated the beneficial effect of PYC, French maritime pine bark extract, on hyperglycemia and oxidative damage in normal and diabetic rats...
July 30, 2010: Chemico-biological Interactions
Susanne T Andersen, Tina D Jeppesen, Tanja Taivassalo, Marie-Louise Sveen, Katja Heinicke, Ronald G Haller, John Vissing
BACKGROUND: The major fuel for exercising muscle at low exercise intensities is fat. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of fat metabolism in McArdle disease (also known as glycogen storage disease type V), an inborn error of muscle glycogenolysis, by manipulating free fatty acid availability for oxidation during exercise. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. SETTING: Hospitalized care. PATIENTS: Ten patients (8 men and 2 women) with McArdle disease...
June 2009: Archives of Neurology
Anthony Fardet, Rafael Llorach, Jean-François Martin, Catherine Besson, Bernard Lyan, Estelle Pujos-Guillot, Augustin Scalbert
Unbalanced diets generate oxidative stress commonly associated with the development of diabetes, atherosclerosis, obesity and cancer. Dietary flavonoids have antioxidant properties and may limit this stress and reduce the risk of these diseases. We used a metabolomic approach to study the influence of catechin, a common flavonoid naturally occurring in various fruits, wine or chocolate, on the metabolic changes induced by hyperlipidemic diets. Male Wistar rats ( n = 8/group) were fed during 6 weeks normolipidemic (5% w/w) or hyperlipidemic (15 and 25%) diets with or without catechin supplementation (0...
June 2008: Journal of Proteome Research
Sushil K Jain, Justin L Rains, Jennifer L Croad
Chromium (Cr(3+)) supplementation facilitates normal protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism, and is widely used by the public in many countries. This study examined the effect of chromium niacinate (Cr-N) or chromium picolinate (Cr-P) supplementation on lipid peroxidation (LP), TNF-alpha, IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1)), cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG) in diabetic rats. Diabetes (D) was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by streptozotocin (STZ) (ip, 65 mg/kg BW). Control buffer, Cr-N, or Cr-P (400 microg Cr/kg BW) was administered by gavages daily for 7 weeks...
October 15, 2007: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
R M Menon, M H Adams, M A González, D S Tolbert, J H Leu, E A Cefali
OBJECTIVE: To characterize plasma and urine pharmacokinetics of niacin and its metabolites after oral administration of 2,000 mg of extended-release (ER) niacin in healthy male volunteers. METHODS: Niacin ER was administered to 12 healthy male subjects following a low-fat snack. Plasma was collected for 12 h post dose and was analyzed for niacin, nicotinuric acid (NUA), nicotinamide (NAM) and nicotinamide-N-oxide (NNO). Urine was collected for 96 h post dose and analyzed for niacin and its metabolites, NUA, NAM, NNO, N-methylnicotinamide (MNA) and N-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2PY)...
August 2007: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Ragaa H M Salama, Ahmed Y A Nassar, Allam A M Nafady, Hesham H T Mohamed
BACKGROUND: Fatty liver is the accumulation of fat in liver cells, which leads to disruption of the normal liver structure and function. METHODS: A non-alcoholic fatty liver rat model received copper (Cu) (I)-nicotinate complex [CuCl(HNA)2] for 4 weeks. RESULTS: Clinical signs and histopathological examinations showed obvious improvements in rats that received Cu complex who were continuously on an (HCFF) diet than those returned to standard diet with Cu complex...
May 2007: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
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