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niacin and cholesterol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919356/lipoprotein-a-cholesterol-levels-estimated-by-vertical-auto-profile-correlate-poorly-with-lp-a-mass-in-hyperlipidemic-subjects-implications-for-clinical-practice-interpretation-of-lp-a-mediated-risk
#1
Calvin Yeang, Paul C Clopton, Sotirios Tsimikas
BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is generally measured as total mass of the entire particle or as apolipoprotein(a) particle number. OBJECTIVE: The cholesterol content of Lp(a) [Lp(a)-C)] can be estimated by the vertical auto profile (VAP) method. We assessed whether this is an accurate surrogate measurement of Lp(a) mass. METHODS: VAP-Lp(a)-C and VAP-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) estimated by the VAP technique, Lp(a) mass, oxidized phospholipids on apolipoprotein B-100 (OxPL-apoB) that primarily reflect OxPL on Lp(a), and HDL-C measured by enzymatic methods were measured in 552 hypercholesterolemic patients at baseline and 24 weeks after therapy with niacin monotherapy (N = 118), ezetimibe/simvastatin monotherapy (n = 155), or ezetimibe/simvastatin (10/20 mg) + niacin (to 2 g) (N = 279) in a randomized, double-blind trial...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891663/extended-release-niacin-increases-anti-apoa-i-antibodies-that-block-the-anti-oxidant-effect-of-hdl-c-the-explore-clinical-trial
#2
J R Batuca, M C Amaral, C Favas, F S Paula, P R J Ames, A L Papoila, J Delgado Alves
AIMS: Extended Release-Niacin (ERN) is the most effective agent for increasing high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Having previously identified anti-HDL antibodies, we investigated whether ERN affected the antioxidant capacity of HDL and whether ERN was associated with the production of antibodies against HDL (aHDL) and apolipoprotein A-I (aApoA-I). METHODS: Twenty-one patients older than 18 years, with HDL-C ≤ 40 mg/dL (men) or ≤ 50 mg/dL (women) were randomly assigned to receive daily ERN (n = 10) or placebo (n = 11) for two sequential 12-week periods, with 4 weeks of wash-out before cross-over...
November 27, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888906/-lipid-lowering-drugs-and-pcsk9
#3
Jesús Millán Núñez-Cortés, José M Mostaza Prieto
PCSK9 is a protease, synthesized mainly in the liver, which promotes the hepatic degradation of the LDL receptor and consequently decreases LDL receptor density and clearance of LDL particles. Statins inhibit HMG-CoA-reductase activity, an enzyme that catalyses an important step in hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis. The decrease of the hepatic intracellular cholesterol pool produced by these drugs upregulates the activity of the SREBP2 transcription factor, which subsequently stimulates the expression of the LDL receptor gene, an effect that is followed by an increase in the serum concentration of PCSK9...
May 2016: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864237/effect-of-selected-clinical-trial-publication-on-adjunctive-nonstatin-medication-prescribing-in-the-veterans-health-administration-system
#4
Krystal S Titus-Rains, Matthew A Cantrell, Jason A Egge, Bruce Alexander, Robert F Shaw, Tami R Argo
PURPOSE: The question of whether publication of selected clinical trials is temporally followed by changes in prescribing of adjunctive lipid-lowering medications was evaluated. METHODS: In this retrospective preanalysis and postanalysis, Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients 18 years or older who received a new or renewed order for any lipid-lowering medication between April 2, 2004, and September 2, 2014, were included. This period was chosen based on the publication dates of three trials investigating the efficacy of nonstatin medications: Simvastatin with or without Ezetimibe in Familial Hypercholesterolemia (ENHANCE, April 3, 2008), Effects of Combination Lipid Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (ACCORD Lipid, March 14, 2010), and Niacin in Patients with Low HDL Cholesterol Levels Receiving Intensive Statin Therapy (AIM-HIGH, December 15, 2011)...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799042/hdl-targeting-therapeutics-past-present-and-future
#5
Emile Zakiev, Ma Feng, Vasily Sukhorukov, Anatol Kontush
Large-scale epidemiological studies firmly established the association between low plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. This relationship is thought to reflect the key biological function of HDL, which involves reverse cholesterol transport from the arterial wall to the liver for further excretion from the body. Other aspects of the cardioprotective HDL functionality include antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-thrombotic, vasodilatory, anti-infectious and anti-diabetic activities...
October 27, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797643/modern-management-of-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#6
P Barton Duell, Ishwarlal Jialal
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common genetic disorder that can manifest clinically as both the severe homozygous (HoFH) form that often presents in childhood and the commoner heterozygous (HeFH) form that is typically identified in adults. The majority of genetic causes are due to defects in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor synthesis and action. Until recently, it was exceedingly difficult to achieve the goal of a 50% reduction in LDL-cholesterol or LDL-C < 70-100 in these patients. Established therapies include statins, niacin, bile-acid sequestrants, and ezetimibe in various combinations...
December 2016: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793642/role-of-niacin-in-current-clinical-practice-a-systematic-review
#7
Aakash Garg, Abhishek Sharma, Parasuram Krishnamoorthy, Jalaj Garg, Deepti Virmani, Toishi Sharma, Giulio Stefanini, John B Kostis, Debabrata Mukherjee, Ekaterina Sikorskaya
BACKGROUND: Niacin, a potent high-density lipoprotein cholesterol-raising drug, seems an attractive approach to reduce cardiac events in patients with or at risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, previous evidence for niacin has been challenged recently by negative outcomes in 2 large, randomized, controlled trials comparing niacin to placebo with background statin therapy. We studied the currently available evidence for the role of niacin treatment for reducing the risk of cardiovascular events in current practice...
October 26, 2016: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749370/recent-explanatory-trials-of-the-mode-of-action-of-drug-therapies-on-lipoprotein-metabolism
#8
Dick C Chan, P Hugh R Barrett, Gerald F Watts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dysregulated lipoprotein metabolism leads to increased plasma concentrations of atherogenic lipoproteins. We highlight the findings from recent studies of the effect of lipid-regulating therapies on apolipoprotein metabolism in humans employing endogenous labelling with stable isotopically labelled isotopomers. RECENT FINDINGS: Fish oil supplementation and niacin treatment both reduce fasting and postprandial triglyceride levels by decreasing the hepatic secretion of VLDL-apoB-100 (apoB) and apoB-48-containing chylomicron particles in obese and/or type 2 diabetes...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710158/hypertriglyceridemia-the-importance-of-identifying-patients-at-risk
#9
Pamela A Kushner, Michael E Cobble
This review aims to explain risk factors, consequences, and management strategies recommended for patients with hypertriglyceridemia. A search of PubMed was performed: 'Hypertriglyceridemia'[Majr], limited to English-language and published in the 5 years up to April 2016. Abstracts of the 680 results were screened for inclusion. Reference lists of publications included were also screened for inclusion. Approximately 25% of the United States population has elevated (≥150 mg/dL) triglycerides (TG) putting them at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and pancreatitis...
November 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703849/atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-require-increased-dietary-levels-of-b-vitamins-when-fed-diets-with-high-inclusion-of-plant-based-ingredients
#10
Gro-Ingunn Hemre, Erik-Jan Lock, Pål Asgeir Olsvik, Kristin Hamre, Marit Espe, Bente Elisabeth Torstensen, Joana Silva, Ann-Cecilie Hansen, Rune Waagbø, Johan S Johansen, Monica Sanden, Nini H Sissener
Aiming to re-evaluate current recommendations for nutrient supplementations when Atlantic salmon are fed diets based on plant ingredients, two regression experiments, with parr and post-smolt, were conducted. A control diet was included to evaluate if ingredients supplied sufficient nutrients without any added nutrient package (NP). The nutrient package consisted of vitamins B, C, E, minerals, cholesterol, methionine, taurine and histidine. This paper focus on B-vitamins. In parr, growth, health and welfare parameters responded on NP additions, but this was not observed in the seawater stage...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678425/mortality-reduction-in-patients-treated-with-long-term-intensive-lipid-therapy-25-year-follow-up-of-the-familial-atherosclerosis-treatment-study-observational-study
#11
Xue-Qiao Zhao, Binh An P Phan, Joseph Davis, Daniel Isquith, Alice A Dowdy, Suzanne Boltz, Moni Neradilek, Erik A Monick, Andrew Brockenbrough, Ellen E Hus-Frechette, John J Albers, B Greg Brown
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) begins early in life and is associated with both the number of risk factors present and length of exposure to these risk factors including hyperlipidemia. OBJECTIVES: The clinical benefit of intensive lipid therapy over 25 years was investigated in the Familial Atherosclerosis Treatment Study-Observational Study. METHODS: Of 175 coronary artery disease subjects with mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) of 191 mg/dL and mean age of 50 years, who completed the randomized and placebo-controlled Familial Atherosclerosis Treatment Study, 100 chose receiving lipid management by their physicians (usual care [UC]) and 75 elected to receive an intensive treatment [IT] for lipid management with lovastatin (40 mg/d), niacin (2...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673306/association-between-lowering-ldl-c-and-cardiovascular-risk-reduction-among-different-therapeutic-interventions-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Michael G Silverman, Brian A Ference, Kyungah Im, Stephen D Wiviott, Robert P Giugliano, Scott M Grundy, Eugene Braunwald, Marc S Sabatine
IMPORTANCE: The comparative clinical benefit of nonstatin therapies that reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between lowering LDL-C and relative cardiovascular risk reduction across different statin and nonstatin therapies. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched (1966-July 2016). The key inclusion criteria were that the study was a randomized clinical trial and the reported clinical outcomes included myocardial infarction (MI)...
September 27, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613388/synergistic-combinatorial-antihyperlipidemic-study-of-selected-natural-antioxidants-modulatory-effects-on-lipid-profile-and-endogenous-antioxidants
#13
Peer Abdul Hannan, Jamshaid Ali Khan, Irfan Ullah, Safi Ullah
BACKGROUND: Hyperlipidemia, a major pathological condition associated with disrupted lipid levels and physiological redox homeostasis. The excessive release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to enhanced lipid peroxidation, aggravated atherosclerosis and oxidative stress. Integration of natural antioxidant blends in alone or with conventional treatments can alleviate these issues synergistically contributing least side effects. Published literature reported the efficacy of natural antioxidants as individual and in combinations in various conditions but less data is available on their evaluation in low dose ratio blends particularly in hypercholesterolemic diet...
2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578122/triglyceride-lowering-therapies-reduce-cardiovascular-disease-event-risk-in-subjects-with-hypertriglyceridemia
#14
Kevin C Maki, John R Guyton, Carl E Orringer, Ian Hamilton-Craig, Dominik D Alexander, Michael H Davidson
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular outcomes trials of fibrates, niacin, or omega-3 fatty acids alone, or added to a statin, have not consistently demonstrated reduced risk, but larger, statistically significant clinical benefits have been reported in subgroups with elevated triglycerides (TG) and/or elevated TG plus low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). OBJECTIVE: To perform a meta-analysis of the effects of therapies targeting TG and TG-rich lipoprotein cholesterol on cardiovascular disease event risk in subjects with elevated TG or elevated TG paired with low HDL-C...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529331/nutrient-patterns-and-their-relationship-to-metabolic-syndrome-in-iranian-adults
#15
Sayyed Saeid Khayyatzadeh, Mohsen Moohebati, Mohsen Mazidi, Amir Avan, Maryam Tayefi, Seyed Mohammad Reza Parizadeh, Mahmoud Ebrahimi, Alireza Heidari-Bakavoli, Mahmoud Reza Azarpazhooh, Habibollah Esmaily, Gordon A Ferns, Mohsen Nematy, Mohammad Safarian, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing globally. It is associated with a significant risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relationship between adherence to several different dietary patterns and the presence of MetS was explored in an Iranian population sample of 5764 subjects. RESULTS: We observed that the prevalence of MetS was 13% and 18% in men and women, respectively...
October 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498088/nonstatins-and-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-pcsk9-inhibitors-role-in-non-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#16
Jennifer G Robinson
After maximizing statin and lifestyle adherence, some patients may benefit from additional low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering. The potential for net benefit from added therapy can inform nonstatin decision-making. Considering patient risk and the LDL-C level on statin, the additional potential cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction benefit from further lowering LDL-C depends on the magnitude of LDL-C lowering from the nonstatin. Ezetimibe is the only nonstatin shown to reduce atherosclerotic CVD events added to a statin, albeit modestly, since it modestly reduces LDL-C by about 20%...
September 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497506/the-re-emergence-of-lipoprotein-a-in-a-broader-clinical-arena
#17
Sotirios Tsimikas
Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a genetic, independent and likely causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS). Lp(a) levels are primarily genetically determined and tend to fluctuate only mildly around a pre-determined level. In primary care settings, one Lp(a) measurement can reclassify up to 40% of patients in intermediate risk score categories. In secondary care settings, recent data from the JUPITER and AIM-HIGH trials demonstrate that elevated Lp(a) remains part of the "residual risk" despite achievement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels <70 mg/dL...
September 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497504/statin-intolerance-a-literature-review-and-management-strategies
#18
David R Saxon, Robert H Eckel
Statin intolerance is a commonly encountered clinical problem for which useful management strategies exist. Although many patients report statin-related muscle symptoms, studies indicate that the majority of these patients can tolerate a statin upon re-challenge. Alternative statin dosing strategies are an effective way to modify and reintroduce statin therapy for patients reporting adverse symptoms. Correction of vitamin D deficiency and hypothyroidism may improve statin tolerability in some patients. CoQ10 supplementation has been found to be of no benefit for statin-related muscle symptoms in most recent clinical trials...
September 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478390/switching-from-epa-dha-omega-3-acid-ethyl-esters-to-high-purity-epa-icosapent-ethyl-in-a-statin-treated-patient-with-persistent-dyslipidemia-and-high-cardiovascular-risk-a-case-study
#19
James R Crandell
Cardiovascular (CV) risk may remain despite statin treatment, and there is a need to address this risk with add-on therapy. The lipid effects of two different prescription omega-3 fatty acid therapies are described in a 55-year-old statin- and niacin-treated female with severe dyslipidemia and high CV risk. The patient was initially treated with omega-3-acid ethyl esters (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid) 4 g/day. Due to persistently elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), she was switched to icosapent ethyl (high-purity EPA ethyl ester) 4 g/day...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432076/managing-dyslipidaemia-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#20
REVIEW
Auryan Szalat, Ronen Durst, Eran Leitersdorf
Glucose-control has a modest beneficial effect on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thus, managing other atherogenic risk factors including hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol and moderately elevated LDL-cholesterol levels with increased small dense LDL-cholesterol fraction, is crucial. Insulin resistance is a key pathophysiologic factor in this population. Treatment starts with lifestyle modifications, but current best programmes have not translated into positive cardiovascular outcomes...
June 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
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