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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531788/association-of-dietary-factors-with-severity-of-coronary-artery-disease
#1
Namita Mahalle, M K Garg, S S Naik, M V Kulkarni
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease has taken epidemic proportions during past decades. Cardiovascular risk factors contribute to progression of coronary lesions, worsening the patient's prognosis. This study was planned to analyze the association of dietary factors with severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Indian patients. METHODS: Three hundred patients with known coronary disease above the age of 25 years were included in this study. Blood samples were collected for biochemical markers...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503432/nutrient-patterns-and-risk-of-cataract-a-case-control-study
#2
Fatemeh Sedaghat, Matin Ghanavati, Parisa Nezhad Hajian, Sara Hajishirazi, Mehdi Ehteshami, Bahram Rashidkhani
AIM: To assess the relation between nutrient patterns and cataract risk. METHODS: This is a hospital-based case-control study with 97 cataract patients and 198 matched controls. Dietary consumption was collected through a valid food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Nutrient patterns were detected by applying factor analysis. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratio (ORs) and 95%CIs. RESULTS: We extracted 5 main nutrient patterns...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441155/do-triglyceride-lowering-drugs-decrease-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease
#3
Kevin C Maki, Mary R Dicklin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the evidence supporting a relationship between lowering triglycerides (TGs) and TG-rich lipoprotein cholesterol (TGRL-C) levels and reduced atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) event risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Data from observational investigations, including studies of genetic variants, provide evidence consistent with a causal relationship between elevations in TG and TGRL-C and greater risk for ASCVD. Randomized controlled trial evidence of ASCVD risk reduction with therapies that substantially lower TG and TGRL-C is limited by the fact that no large-scale trial results have been published from a study that enrolled subjects selected specifically on the basis of TG or TGRL-C elevation, although three such trials are underway or in the planning stages...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242176/2017-taiwan-lipid-guidelines-for-high-risk-patients
#4
REVIEW
Yi-Heng Li, Kwo-Chang Ueng, Jiann-Shing Jeng, Min-Ji Charng, Tsung-Hsien Lin, Kuo-Liong Chien, Chih-Yuan Wang, Ting-Hsing Chao, Ping-Yen Liu, Cheng-Huang Su, Shih-Chieh Chien, Chia-Wei Liou, Sung-Chun Tang, Chun-Chuan Lee, Tse-Ya Yu, Jaw-Wen Chen, Chau-Chung Wu, Hung-I Yeh
In Taiwan, the prevalence of hyperlipidemia increased due to lifestyle and dietary habit changes. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) are all significant predicting factors of coronary artery disease in Taiwan. We recognized that lipid control is especially important in patients with existed atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD), including coronary artery disease (CAD), ischemic stroke and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Because the risk of ASCVD is high in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), lipid control is also necessary in these patients...
February 24, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185213/hyperlipoproteinaemia-a-apheresis-and-emerging-therapies
#5
REVIEW
Anja Vogt
A high level of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is recognized as an independent and additional cardiovascular risk factor contributing to the risk of early onset and progressive course of cardiovascular disease (CVD). All lipid lowering medications in use mainly lower low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) with no or limited effect on levels of Lp(a). Niacin, the only component lowering Lp(a), is firstly often poorly tolerated and secondly not available anymore in many countries. A level of <50 mg/dl was recommended recently as the cut off level for clinical use and decision making...
March 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063740/high-density-lipoproteins-biology-epidemiology-and-clinical-management
#6
REVIEW
Hong Y Choi, Anouar Hafiane, Adel Schwertani, Jacques Genest
High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) have multiple pleiotropic effects against arteriosclerosis. Most are independent of the cholesterol mass within HDL particles. Yet, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) remains a biomarker to assess cardiovascular risk. Whereas the epidemiological association between HDL-C and cardiovascular risk is strong, graded and coherent across populations, Mendelian randomization studies cast doubt on whether HDL-C is causally related to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The apparent failure of HDL-C-raising therapies (fibrates, niacin, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors) raises questions about the HDL-C hypothesis...
March 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057839/niacin-promotes-cardiac-healing-after-myocardial-infarction-through-activation-of-the-myeloid-prostaglandin-d2-receptor-subtype-1
#7
Deping Kong, Juanjuan Li, Yujun Shen, Guizhu Liu, Shengkai Zuo, Bo Tao, Yong Ji, Ankang Lu, Michael Lazarus, Richard M Breyer, Ying Yu
Niacin is a well established drug used to lower cholesterol and prevent cardiovascular disease events. However, niacin also causes cutaneous flushing side effects due to release of the proresolution mediator prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). Recent randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that addition of niacin with laropiprant [a PGD2 receptor subtype 1 (DP1) blocker] to statin-based therapies does not significantly decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease events, but increases the risk of serious adverse events...
March 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032426/lipoprotein-a-in-postmenopausal-women-assessment-of-cardiovascular-risk-and-therapeutic-options
#8
REVIEW
Panagiotis Anagnostis, Spyridon Karras, Irene Lambrinoudaki, John C Stevenson, Dimitrios G Goulis
INTRODUCTION: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], a low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-like particle, has been independently associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in various populations, such as postmenopausal women. The purpose of this narrative review is to present current data on the role of Lp(a) in augmenting CVD risk in postmenopausal women and focus on the available therapeutic strategies. METHODS: PubMed was searched for English language publications until November 2015 under the following terms: "therapy" OR "treatment" AND ["lipoprotein (a)" OR "Lp(a)"] AND ("postmenopausal women" OR "menopausal women" OR "menopause")...
December 2016: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919356/lipoprotein-a-cholesterol-levels-estimated-by-vertical-auto-profile-correlate-poorly-with-lp-a-mass-in-hyperlipidemic-subjects-implications-for-clinical-practice-interpretation-of-lp-a-mediated-risk
#9
Calvin Yeang, Paul C Clopton, Sotirios Tsimikas
BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is generally measured as total mass of the entire particle or as apolipoprotein(a) particle number. OBJECTIVE: The cholesterol content of Lp(a) [Lp(a)-C)] can be estimated by the vertical auto profile (VAP) method. We assessed whether this is an accurate surrogate measurement of Lp(a) mass. METHODS: VAP-Lp(a)-C and VAP-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) estimated by the VAP technique, Lp(a) mass, oxidized phospholipids on apolipoprotein B-100 (OxPL-apoB) that primarily reflect OxPL on Lp(a), and HDL-C measured by enzymatic methods were measured in 552 hypercholesterolemic patients at baseline and 24 weeks after therapy with niacin monotherapy (N = 118), ezetimibe/simvastatin monotherapy (n = 155), or ezetimibe/simvastatin (10/20 mg) + niacin (to 2 g) (N = 279) in a randomized, double-blind trial...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891663/extended-release-niacin-increases-anti-apolipoprotein-a-i-antibodies-that-block-the-antioxidant-effect-of-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-the-explore-clinical-trial
#10
Joana R Batuca, Marta C Amaral, Catarina Favas, Filipe S Paula, Paul R J Ames, Ana L Papoila, José Delgado Alves
AIMS: Extended-release niacin (ERN) is the most effective agent for increasing high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Having previously identified anti-HDL antibodies, we investigated whether ERN affected the antioxidant capacity of HDL and whether ERN was associated with the production of antibodies against HDL (aHDL) and apolipoprotein A-I (aApoA-I). METHODS: Twenty-one patients older than 18 years, with HDL-C ≤40 mg dl(-1) (men) or ≤50 mg dl(-1) (women) were randomly assigned to receive daily ERN (n = 10) or placebo (n = 11) for two sequential 12-week periods, with 4 weeks of wash-out before cross-over...
May 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888906/-lipid-lowering-drugs-and-pcsk9
#11
Jesús Millán Núñez-Cortés, José M Mostaza Prieto
PCSK9 is a protease, synthesized mainly in the liver, which promotes the hepatic degradation of the LDL receptor and consequently decreases LDL receptor density and clearance of LDL particles. Statins inhibit HMG-CoA-reductase activity, an enzyme that catalyses an important step in hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis. The decrease of the hepatic intracellular cholesterol pool produced by these drugs upregulates the activity of the SREBP2 transcription factor, which subsequently stimulates the expression of the LDL receptor gene, an effect that is followed by an increase in the serum concentration of PCSK9...
May 2016: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864237/effect-of-selected-clinical-trial-publication-on-adjunctive-nonstatin-medication-prescribing-in-the-veterans-health-administration-system
#12
Krystal S Titus-Rains, Matthew A Cantrell, Jason A Egge, Bruce Alexander, Robert F Shaw, Tami R Argo
PURPOSE: The question of whether publication of selected clinical trials is temporally followed by changes in prescribing of adjunctive lipid-lowering medications was evaluated. METHODS: In this retrospective preanalysis and postanalysis, Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients 18 years or older who received a new or renewed order for any lipid-lowering medication between April 2, 2004, and September 2, 2014, were included. This period was chosen based on the publication dates of three trials investigating the efficacy of nonstatin medications: Simvastatin with or without Ezetimibe in Familial Hypercholesterolemia (ENHANCE, April 3, 2008), Effects of Combination Lipid Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (ACCORD Lipid, March 14, 2010), and Niacin in Patients with Low HDL Cholesterol Levels Receiving Intensive Statin Therapy (AIM-HIGH, December 15, 2011)...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799042/hdl-targeting-therapeutics-past-present-and-future
#13
Emile Zakiev, Ma Feng, Vasily Sukhorukov, Anatol Kontush
Large-scale epidemiological studies firmly established the association between low plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. This relationship is thought to reflect the key biological function of HDL, which involves reverse cholesterol transport from the arterial wall to the liver for further excretion from the body. Other aspects of the cardioprotective HDL functionality include antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-thrombotic, vasodilatory, anti-infectious and anti-diabetic activities...
October 27, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797643/modern-management-of-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#14
P Barton Duell, Ishwarlal Jialal
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common genetic disorder that can manifest clinically as both the severe homozygous (HoFH) form that often presents in childhood and the commoner heterozygous (HeFH) form that is typically identified in adults. The majority of genetic causes are due to defects in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor synthesis and action. Until recently, it was exceedingly difficult to achieve the goal of a 50% reduction in LDL-cholesterol or LDL-C < 70-100 in these patients. Established therapies include statins, niacin, bile-acid sequestrants, and ezetimibe in various combinations...
December 2016: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793642/role-of-niacin-in-current-clinical-practice-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Aakash Garg, Abhishek Sharma, Parasuram Krishnamoorthy, Jalaj Garg, Deepti Virmani, Toishi Sharma, Giulio Stefanini, John B Kostis, Debabrata Mukherjee, Ekaterina Sikorskaya
BACKGROUND: Niacin, a potent high-density lipoprotein cholesterol-raising drug, seems an attractive approach to reduce cardiac events in patients with or at risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, previous evidence for niacin has been challenged recently by negative outcomes in 2 large, randomized, controlled trials comparing niacin to placebo with background statin therapy. We studied the currently available evidence for the role of niacin treatment for reducing the risk of cardiovascular events in current practice...
February 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749370/recent-explanatory-trials-of-the-mode-of-action-of-drug-therapies-on-lipoprotein-metabolism
#16
Dick C Chan, P Hugh R Barrett, Gerald F Watts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dysregulated lipoprotein metabolism leads to increased plasma concentrations of atherogenic lipoproteins. We highlight the findings from recent studies of the effect of lipid-regulating therapies on apolipoprotein metabolism in humans employing endogenous labelling with stable isotopically labelled isotopomers. RECENT FINDINGS: Fish oil supplementation and niacin treatment both reduce fasting and postprandial triglyceride levels by decreasing the hepatic secretion of VLDL-apoB-100 (apoB) and apoB-48-containing chylomicron particles in obese and/or type 2 diabetes...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710158/hypertriglyceridemia-the-importance-of-identifying-patients-at-risk
#17
REVIEW
Pamela A Kushner, Michael E Cobble
This review aims to explain risk factors, consequences, and management strategies recommended for patients with hypertriglyceridemia. A search of PubMed was performed: 'Hypertriglyceridemia'[Majr], limited to English-language and published in the 5 years up to April 2016. Abstracts of the 680 results were screened for inclusion. Reference lists of publications included were also screened for inclusion. Approximately 25% of the United States population has elevated (≥150 mg/dL) triglycerides (TG) putting them at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and pancreatitis...
November 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703849/atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-require-increased-dietary-levels-of-b-vitamins-when-fed-diets-with-high-inclusion-of-plant-based-ingredients
#18
Gro-Ingunn Hemre, Erik-Jan Lock, Pål Asgeir Olsvik, Kristin Hamre, Marit Espe, Bente Elisabeth Torstensen, Joana Silva, Ann-Cecilie Hansen, Rune Waagbø, Johan S Johansen, Monica Sanden, Nini H Sissener
Aiming to re-evaluate current recommendations for nutrient supplementations when Atlantic salmon are fed diets based on plant ingredients, two regression experiments, with parr and post-smolt, were conducted. A control diet was included to evaluate if ingredients supplied sufficient nutrients without any added nutrient package (NP). The nutrient package consisted of vitamins B, C, E, minerals, cholesterol, methionine, taurine and histidine. This paper focus on B-vitamins. In parr, growth, health and welfare parameters responded on NP additions, but this was not observed in the seawater stage...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678425/mortality-reduction-in-patients-treated-with-long-term-intensive-lipid-therapy-25-year-follow-up-of-the-familial-atherosclerosis-treatment-study-observational-study
#19
Xue-Qiao Zhao, Binh An P Phan, Joseph Davis, Daniel Isquith, Alice A Dowdy, Suzanne Boltz, Moni Neradilek, Erik A Monick, Andrew Brockenbrough, Ellen E Hus-Frechette, John J Albers, B Greg Brown
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) begins early in life and is associated with both the number of risk factors present and length of exposure to these risk factors including hyperlipidemia. OBJECTIVES: The clinical benefit of intensive lipid therapy over 25 years was investigated in the Familial Atherosclerosis Treatment Study-Observational Study. METHODS: Of 175 coronary artery disease subjects with mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) of 191 mg/dL and mean age of 50 years, who completed the randomized and placebo-controlled Familial Atherosclerosis Treatment Study, 100 chose receiving lipid management by their physicians (usual care [UC]) and 75 elected to receive an intensive treatment [IT] for lipid management with lovastatin (40 mg/d), niacin (2...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673306/association-between-lowering-ldl-c-and-cardiovascular-risk-reduction-among-different-therapeutic-interventions-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Michael G Silverman, Brian A Ference, Kyungah Im, Stephen D Wiviott, Robert P Giugliano, Scott M Grundy, Eugene Braunwald, Marc S Sabatine
IMPORTANCE: The comparative clinical benefit of nonstatin therapies that reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between lowering LDL-C and relative cardiovascular risk reduction across different statin and nonstatin therapies. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched (1966-July 2016). The key inclusion criteria were that the study was a randomized clinical trial and the reported clinical outcomes included myocardial infarction (MI)...
September 27, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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