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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327400/a-vitamin-b12-conjugate-of-exendin-4-improves-glucose-tolerance-without-associated-nausea-or-hypophagia-in-rodents
#1
Elizabeth G Mietlicki-Baase, Claudia G Liberini, Jayme L Workinger, Ron L Bonaccorso, Tito Borner, David J Reiner, Kieran Koch-Laskowski, Lauren E McGrath, Rinzin Lhamo, Lauren M Stein, Bart C De Jonghe, George G Holz, Christian L Roth, Robert P Doyle, Matthew R Hayes
AIMS: While pharmacological glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists are FDA-approved for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity, a major side effect is nausea/malaise. We recently developed a conjugate of vitamin B12 bound to the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 (Ex4), which displays enhanced proteolytic stability and retention of GLP-1R agonism. Here, we evaluate whether the conjugate (B12-Ex4) can improve glucose tolerance without producing anorexia and malaise. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the effects of systemic B12-Ex4 and unconjugated Ex4 on food intake and body weight change, oral glucose tolerance, and nausea/malaise in male rats, and on intraperitoneal glucose tolerance in mice...
January 12, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318504/oral-vitamin-b12-supplementation-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-a-systematic-review
#2
Kamal K Mahawar, Alastair Reid, Yitka Graham, Lindes Callejas-Diaz, Chetan Parmar, William Rj Carr, Neil Jennings, Rishi Singhal, Peter K Small
BACKGROUND: Many respectable guidelines recommend lifelong vitamin B12 injections for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) patients in the absence of lack of consensus on the efficacy of oral route of prophylaxis and the appropriate doses needed for this purpose. The purpose of this review was to examine the published English language scientific literature in accordance with PRISMA principles to find out if orally given vitamin B12 is adequate for prophylactic purposes in RYGB patients and the appropriate dosages needed for this purpose if it is...
January 9, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189512/the-efficacy-of-oral-vitamin-b12-replacement-for-nutritional-vitamin-b12-deficiency
#3
Rabia G Sezer, Abdulkadir Bozaykut, Handan A Akoğlu, Gül N Özdemir
Standard treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency has not been well established in childhood, the ideal amount of supplemental vitamin B12 is not clear. Vitamin B12 deficiency is classically treated with intramuscular injections. In this study, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of oral therapy in children with vitamin B12 deficiency. Patients with serum cobalamin concentrations <300 pg/mL aged between 6 months to 18 years were included in this prospective study. Children were treated orally either with a combination of multivitamin tablet daily or vitamin B12 ampules...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104950/-89-zr-cobalamin-pet-tracer-synthesis-cellular-uptake-and-use-for-tumor-imaging
#4
Akhila N W Kuda-Wedagedara, Jayme L Workinger, Ebba Nexo, Robert P Doyle, Nerissa Viola-Villegas
Vitamin B12, or cobalamin (Cbl), is an essential nutrient. Acquisition, transport, and cellular internalization of Cbl are dependent on specific binding proteins and associated receptors. The circulating transport protein transcobalamin (TC) promotes cellular uptake via binding to specific receptors such as CD320, a receptor upregulated in several cancer cell lines. In this study, we report the successful synthesis of (89)Zirconium-labeled Cbl that was derivatized with desferrioxamine ((89)Zr-Cbl). We document the purity of the tracer and its binding to TC compared with that of unmodified cyano-Cbl (CN-Cbl)...
October 31, 2017: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068997/atypical-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-induced-by-cblc-subtype-of-methylmalonic-academia-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
REVIEW
Minguang Chen, Jieqiu Zhuang, JianHuan Yang, Dexuan Wang, Qing Yang
RATIONALE: Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is a common organic acidemia, mainly due to methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM) or its coenzyme cobalamin (VitB12) metabolic disorders. Cobalamin C (CblC) type is the most frequent inborn error of cobalamin metabolism; it can develop symptoms in childhood and often combine multisystem damage, which leads to methylmalonic acid, propionic acid, methyl citrate, and other metabolites abnormal accumulation, causing nerve, liver, kidney, bone marrow, and other organ damage...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950662/the-antineoplastic-busulphan-impairs-peritubular-and-leydig-cells-and-vitamin-b12-stimulates-spermatogonia-proliferation-and-prevents-busulphan-induced-germ-cell-death
#6
Estela Sasso-Cerri, Bárbara Oliveira, Fabiane de Santi, Flávia L Beltrame, Breno H Caneguim, Paulo S Cerri
Busulphan (Bu), an alkylating agent used for bone marrow and spermatogonial stem cell transplantation (SSCT), impairs Sertoli (SC) cells, which are necessary for the spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) homing during transplantation. As Leydig (LC) and peritubular myoid (PMC) cells are essential for SC support and maintenance of spermatogonial niche, we evaluated the impact of Bu on the LC and PMC structural integrity. Vitamin B12 (B12) has demonstrated beneficial effects against drug-induced testicular changes; thus, we also examined whether this vitamin is able to stimulate spermatogonia mitotic activity and prevent Bu-induced germ cell death...
November 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898907/effects-of-cobalamin-vitamin-b12-on-gentamicin-induced-nephrotoxicity-in-rat
#7
Saeed Hajihashemi, Zeinab Hamidizad, Ali Rahbari, Fatemeh Ghanbari, Zohre Aghaee Motealeghi
Background The main side effect of gentamicin is nephrotoxicity. The effect of cobalamin (Cob) was investigated on gentamicin nephrotoxicity in rats. Methods Renal injury induced by i.p. injection of gentamicin (100 mg/kg) for 8 consecutive days. Cobalamin (6 mg/kg/day, i.p) treatment was done for 8 consecutive days as co-treatment and post-treatment protocol. Results Cobalamin significantly increased creatinine clearance levels and renal blood flow which were reduced by gentamicin. Also, cobalamin significantly improved serum electrolytes (sodium and potassium) levels which were disturbed by gentamicin...
September 12, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780092/whole-body-propionate-and-glucose-metabolism-of-multiparous-dairy-cows-receiving-folic-acid-and-vitamin-b12-supplements
#8
M Duplessis, H Lapierre, B Ouattara, N Bissonnette, D Pellerin, J-P Laforest, C L Girard
This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12 on glucose and propionate metabolism. Twenty-four multiparous cows were assigned according to a complete block design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement to one of the following treatments: (1) saline 0.9% NaCl, (2) 320 mg of folic acid, (3) 10 mg of vitamin B12, or (4) 320 mg of folic acid and 10 mg of vitamin B12. Intramuscular injections were given weekly from 3 wk before the expected calving date until 9 wk postpartum...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711333/b12-deficiency-leading-to-marked-poikilocytosis-versus-true-schistocytosis-a-pernicious-problem
#9
James A Hall, James Mason, Julia Choi, Mark Holguin
Severe vitamin B12 deficiency is caused most commonly by autoimmune atrophic gastritis leading to loss of intrinsic factor. Vitamin B12 deficiency leading to megaloblastic anemia and demyelinating central nervous system disease is well known; however, a rare presentation of B12 deficiency described as pseudothrombotic microangiopathy is not well known. This complication presents with signs of mechanical hemolysis, elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), thrombocytopenia, and a low reticulocyte count, which can be incorrectly diagnosed as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and managed incorrectly...
June 20, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616214/high-dose-hydroxocobalamin-for-vasoplegic-syndrome-causing-false-blood-leak-alarm
#10
Wisit Cheungpasitporn, John Hui, Kianoush B Kashani, Erica D Wittwer, Robert C Albright, John J Dillon
Blood leak alarms are important safety features in a hemodialysis machine to protect patients from loss of blood through a rupture in the dialyzer membrane (true alarms). A false blood leak alarm can be triggered by air bubbles or detector malfunction (such as deposits of grease or scale). Hydroxocobalamin is an injectable form of vitamin B12 approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of confirmed or suspected cyanide toxicity. Due to observations of an increase in arterial pressure after high-dose hydroxocobalamin infusion for the treatment of acute cyanide poisoning, it has recently been reported as an off-label rescue treatment for post-cardiopulmonary bypass vasoplegic syndrome...
June 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538514/long-term-outcome-of-4-patients-with-transcobalamin-deficiency-caused-by-2-novel-tcn2-mutations
#11
Marwan Nashabat, Gustavo Maegawa, Peter H Nissen, Ebba Nexo, Hussain Al-Shamrani, Mohammed Al-Owain, Majid Alfadhel
Cobalamin (vitamin B12 [Cbl]) is an essential cofactor for many biochemical pathways. Transcobalamin (TC) is required to internalize Cbl into the cells through membrane receptor-mediated endocytosis. Cbl is then processed in the cytoplasm and mitochondria by complementation factors leading to its active metabolites; methylcobalamin and 5-deoxyadenosyl-cobalamin. Deficiency of TC results in an elevation in methylmalonic acid and homocysteine. Patients usually present with macrocytic anemia, pancytopenia, failure to thrive, gastrointestinal symptoms, and neurological dysfunction...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537576/an-infant-and-mother-with-severe-b12-deficiency-vitamin-b12-status-assessment-should-be-determined-in-pregnant-women-with-anaemia
#12
A Sobczyńska-Malefora, R Ramachandran, D Cregeen, E Green, P Bennett, D J Harrington, H A Lemonde
The vitamin B12 status of infants depends on maternal B12 status during pregnancy, and during lactation if breastfed. We present a 9-month-old girl who was admitted to the metabolic unit for assessment of developmental delay. She was exclusively breastfed and the introduction of solids at 5 months was unsuccessful. Investigations revealed pancytopenia, undetectable B12 and highly elevated methylmalonic acid and homocysteine. Methylmalonic acid and homocysteine normalised following B12 injections. Marked catch-up of developmental milestones was noted after treatment with B12...
August 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508256/the-role-of-micronutrients-in-alopecia-areata-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Jordan M Thompson, Mehwish A Mirza, Min Kyung Park, Abrar A Qureshi, Eunyoung Cho
Alopecia areata (AA) is a common, non-scarring form of hair loss caused by immune-mediated attack of the hair follicle. As with other immune-mediated diseases, a complex interplay between environment and genetics is thought to lead to the development of AA. Deficiency of micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals may represent a modifiable risk factor associated with development of AA. Given the role of these micronutrients in normal hair follicle development and in immune cell function, a growing number of investigations have sought to determine whether serum levels of these nutrients might differ in AA patients, and whether supplementation of these nutrients might represent a therapeutic option for AA...
May 15, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485779/effects-of-vitamin-b12-on-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-induced-by-isoflurane-anesthesia-in-rats
#14
H-Y Sha, J-B Zhao, M-X Sha, S-M Guo
OBJECTIVE: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is a clinical syndrome associated with cognitive decline in patients after anesthesia. This study aimed to investigate the effect of VB12 (Vitamin B12), a kind of necessary micronutrients promoting the growth and development of the nervous system, on cognitive dysfunction induced by isoflurane anesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen-month-old rats were exposed to or were not exposed to 1.4% isoflurane for 2 h. Two hours before isoflurane exposure, rats in groups with VB12 were injected intramuscularly with VB12 at 10 or 20 μg...
April 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457771/-vitamin-b12-levels-in-the-patient-population-attending-an-urban-health-centre-in-madrid
#15
M Camarero-Shelly
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin B12 levels are usually measured in Primary Care when the patients have symptoms or risk factors associated with its deficiency, mostly in the elderly. However, no evidence has been found to support the recommendation of screening in the general population. The aim of this study is to assess the relevance of having extended the screening of vitamin B12 deficiency to a younger population, after observing an increase in the prescription of this injected vitamin in a population under 65 years, by analysing the vitamin B12 values obtained...
April 27, 2017: Semergen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421567/early-biomarker-response-and-patient-preferences-to-oral-and-intramuscular-vitamin-b12-substitution-in-primary-care-a-randomised-parallel-group-trial
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Corina Metaxas, Deborah Mathis, Cyrill Jeger, Kurt Eduard Hersberger, Isabelle Arnet, Philipp Walter
BACKGROUND: Vitamin B12 (VB12) deficiency can be treated with oral high-dose substitution or intramuscular (i.m.) injection of VB12. Whenever alternative routes of administration exist, patient preferences should be considered when choosing the treatment. We aimed to assess outpatient preferences towards oral or IM VB12 substitution and confirm noninferiority of early biomarker response with oral treatment, in a typical primary care population. METHODS: Prospective randomised nonblinded parallel-group trial...
April 19, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400198/vitamin-b12-loaded-buccoadhesive-films-as-a-noninvasive-supplement-in-vitamin-b12-deficiency-in%C3%A2-vitro-evaluation-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-comparative-study-with-intramuscular-injection
#17
Soad A Mohamad, Hatem A Sarhan, Hamdy Abdelkader, Heba F Mansour
This study aimed to formulate and evaluate vitamin B12-loaded buccal mucoadhesive hydrogel films. Various film formulations were prepared using chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol. The prepared films were characterized for thickness, weight variation, drug content, percentage moisture uptake and moisture content, surface pH, mechanical properties, in vitro release, and mucoadhesion. Vitamin B12 bioavailability from the optimized formulation was studied on rabbits by the aid of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351841/maternofetal-transport-of-vitamin-b12-role-of-tcblr-cd320-and-megalin
#18
Kaveri Arora, Jeffrey M Sequeira, Edward V Quadros
Vitamin B12 deficiency causes megaloblastic anemia and neurologic disorder in humans. Gene defects of transcobalamin (TC) and the transcobalamin receptor (TCblR), needed for cellular uptake of the TC-bound B12, do not confer embryonic lethality. TC deficiency can produce the hematologic and neurologic complications after birth, whereas TCblR/CD320 gene defects appear to produce mild metabolic changes. Alternate maternofetal transport mechanisms appear to provide adequate B12 to the fetus. To understand this mechanism, we evaluated the role of TC, TCblR/CD320, and megalin in maternofetal transport of B12 in a TCblR/CD320-knockout (KO) mouse...
July 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279793/identification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-conserved-46-kd-maltoporin-of-aeromonas-hydrophila-as-a-versatile-vaccine-candidate-in-european-eel-anguilla-anguilla
#19
Jianjun Feng, Peng Lin, Songlin Guo, Yuanyuan Jia, Yilei Wang, Frank Zadlock, Ziping Zhang
European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a crucial economic fish that has been plagued by Aeromonas hydrophila infections for many years. Vaccines that are cross-protective against multiple serotypes could provide an effective control against A. hydrophila-mediated diseases. The outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are highly immunogenic and capable of eliciting protective immune responses. This study reports the identification of a novel 46 kD maltoporin that is a conserved protective antigen for different serotypes of A...
May 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237602/effects-of-intramuscular-injections-of-folic-acid-vitamin-b12-or-both-on-lactational-performance-and-energy-status-of-multiparous-dairy-cows
#20
M Duplessis, H Lapierre, D Pellerin, J-P Laforest, C L Girard
The purpose of this experiment was to gain understanding on changes in energy partitioning when folic acid and vitamin B12 supplements, alone or combined, were given by weekly intramuscular injections from 3 wk before the expected calving date until 7 wk postpartum. Twenty-four multiparous cows were assigned to 6 blocks of 4 cows each according to previous 305-d lactation yield to either 0 or 320 mg of folic acid and 0 or 10 mg of vitamin B12 in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Plasma concentration of folates was increased by folic acid supplement, and this increase was greater with the combined supplement...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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