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Biomarkers in Concussion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706930/a-preliminary-report-on-brain-derived-extracellular-vesicle-as-novel-blood-biomarkers-for-sport-related-concussions
#1
Keisuke Kawata, Masato Mitsuhashi, Randy Aldret
The purpose of the study was to test the utility of unique panel of blood biomarkers as a means to reflect one's recovery process after sport-related neurotrauma. We established a panel of biomarkers that reacted positive with CD81 (extracellular vesicle marker) and various neuron- and glia-specific antigens [e.g., neurofilament light polypeptide (NF-L), tau, synaptosome-associated protein 25 (SNAP25), glial fibrillary acidic protein, and myelin basic protein]. We first evaluated test-retest reliabilities of brain-derived exosome markers, followed by an application of these markers in eight professional ice hockey players to detect cumulative neuronal burden from a single ice hockey season...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685283/blood-biomarkers-are-associated-with-brain-function-and-blood-flow-following-sport-concussion
#2
Alex P Di Battista, Nathan Churchill, Tom A Schweizer, Shawn G Rhind, Doug Richards, Andrew J Baker, Michael G Hutchison
BACKGROUND: Secondary injury pathophysiology after sport-related concussion (SRC) is poorly understood. Blood biomarkers may be a useful tool for characterizing these processes, yet there are limitations in their application as a single modality. Combining blood biomarker analysis with advanced neuroimaging may help validate their continued utility in brain injury research by elucidating important secondary injury mechanisms. Hence, the purpose of this study was to evaluate co-modulation between peripheral blood biomarkers and advanced functional brain imaging after SRC...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674994/a-cross-sectional-study-on-cerebral-hemodynamics-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-a-pediatric-population
#3
Corey M Thibeault, Samuel Thorpe, Michael J O'Brien, Nicolas Canac, Mina Ranjbaran, Ilyas Patanam, Artin Sarraf, James LeVangie, Fabien Scalzo, Seth J Wilk, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Robert B Hamilton
The microvasculature is prominently affected by traumatic brain injury (TBI), including mild TBI (concussion). Assessment of cerebral hemodynamics shows promise as biomarkers of TBI, and may help inform development of therapies aimed at promoting neurologic recovery. The objective of this study was to assess the evolution in cerebral hemodynamics observable with transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound in subjects suffering from a concussion at different intervals during recovery. Pediatric subjects between the ages of 14 and 19 years clinically diagnosed with a concussion were observed at different points post-injury...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538043/acute-concussion-making-the-diagnosis-and-state-of-the-art-management
#4
Matthew Eisenberg, Rebekah Mannix
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Concussion is an increasingly common injury in children. We aim to review the basic epidemiology and management of acute concussion and highlight recent studies that have contributed to our understanding of care for this injury. RECENT FINDINGS: While concussion is considered a 'mild' form of traumatic brain injury, recent evidence suggests that as many as 30% of children are still symptomatic 1 month after injury. Although there is increasing interest in finding objective measures of injury and recovery, emerging imaging and serum biomarkers are not ready for routine clinical use...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420083/an-investigation-of-neuroinjury-biomarkers-after-sport-related-concussion-from-the-subacute-phase-to-clinical-recovery
#5
Alex P Di Battista, Shawn G Rhind, Andrew J Baker, Rakesh Jetly, Jeff D Debad, Doug Richards, Michael G Hutchison
OBJECTIVES: To characterise a panel of neuroinjury-related blood biomarkers after sport-related concussion (SRC). We hypothesised significant differences in biomarker profiles between athletes with SRC and healthy controls at both subacute and medical clearance time points. METHODS: Thirty-eight interuniversity athletes were recruited over two athletic seasons (n = 19 SRC; n = 19 healthy matched-control). High-sensitivity immunoassay was used to evaluate 11 blood analytes at both the subacute phase after SRC and at medical clearance...
2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416525/patient-specific-alterations-in-co-2-cerebrovascular-responsiveness-in-acute-and-sub-acute-sports-related-concussion
#6
W Alan C Mutch, Michael J Ellis, Lawrence N Ryner, Patrick J McDonald, Marc P Morissette, Philip Pries, Marco Essig, David J Mikulis, James Duffin, Joseph A Fisher
Background: Preliminary studies suggest that sports-related concussion (SRC) is associated with alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation. Here, we use advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to measure CBF and cerebrovascular responsiveness (CVR) in individual SRC patients and healthy control subjects. Methods: 15 SRC patients (mean age = 16.3, range 14-20 years) and 27 healthy control subjects (mean age = 17.6, range 13-21 years) underwent anatomical MRI, pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) MRI and model-based prospective end-tidal targeting (MPET) of CO2 during blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) MRI...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396300/traumatic-brain-injury-and-alzheimer-s-disease-the-cerebrovascular-link
#7
REVIEW
Jaime Ramos-Cejudo, Thomas Wisniewski, Charles Marmar, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Mony J de Leon, Silvia Fossati
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are devastating neurological disorders, whose complex relationship is not completely understood. Cerebrovascular pathology, a key element in both conditions, could represent a mechanistic link between Aβ/tau deposition after TBI and the development of post concussive syndrome, dementia and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). In addition to debilitating acute effects, TBI-induced neurovascular injuries accelerate amyloid β (Aβ) production and perivascular accumulation, arterial stiffness, tau hyperphosphorylation and tau/Aβ-induced blood brain barrier damage, giving rise to a deleterious feed-forward loop...
February 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373947/reduced-functional-connectivity-in-adults-with-persistent-post-concussion-symptoms-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#8
Lia M Hocke, Chris C Duszynski, Chantel T Debert, Diane Dleikan, Jeff F Dunn
Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), accounts for ∼80% of all TBIs across North America. The majority of mTBI patients recover within days to weeks; however, 14-36% of the time, acute mTBI symptoms persist for months or even years and develop into persistent post-concussion symptoms (PPCS). There is a need to find biomarkers in patients with PPCS, to improve prognostic ability and to provide insight into the pathophysiology underlying chronic symptoms. Recent research has pointed toward impaired network integrity and cortical communication as a biomarker...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338452/an-update-on-diagnostic-and-prognostic-biomarkers-for-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Kevin K Wang, Zhihui Yang, Tian Zhu, Yuan Shi, Richard Rubenstein, J Adrian Tyndall, Geoff T Manley
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major worldwide neurological disorder of epidemic proportions. To date, there are still no FDA-approved therapies to treat any forms of TBI. Encouragingly, there are emerging data showing that biofluid-based TBI biomarker tests have the potential to diagnose the presence of TBI of different severities including concussion, and to predict outcome. Areas covered: The authors provide an update on the current knowledge of TBI biomarkers, including protein biomarkers for neuronal cell body injury (UCH-L1, NSE), astroglial injury (GFAP, S100B), neuronal cell death (αII-spectrin breakdown products), axonal injury (NF proteins), white matter injury (MBP), post-injury neurodegeneration (total Tau and phospho-Tau), post-injury autoimmune response (brain antigen-targeting autoantibodies), and other emerging non-protein biomarkers...
February 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318971/-phenserine-and-inhibiting-pre-programmed-cell-death-in-pursuit-of-a-novel-intervention-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Robert E Becker, Nigel H Greig, Debomoy K Lahiri, Joseph Bledsoe, Sarah Majercik, Clive Ballard, Dag Aarsland, Lon S Schneider, Douglas Flanagan, Ramprakash Govindarajan, Mary Sano, Luigi Ferrucci, Dimitrios Kapogiannis
BACKGROUND: Concussion (mild) and other moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) share overlapping neuropathologies, including neuronal pre-programmed cell death (PPCD), and clinical impairments and disabilities. Multiple clinical trials targeting mechanisms based on the Amyloid Hypothesis of AD have so far failed, indicating that it is prudent for new drug developments to also pursue mechanisms independent of the Amyloid Hypothesis. To address these issue, we have proposed the use of an animal model of concussion/TBI as a supplement to AD transgenic mice to provide an indication of an AD drug candidate's potential for preventing PPCD and resulting progression towards dementia in AD...
January 10, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282262/brain-health-and-healthy-ageing-in-retired-rugby-union-players-the-brain-study-study-protocol-for-an-observational-study-in-the-uk
#11
Valentina Gallo, Damien McElvenny, Catherine Hobbs, Donna Davoren, Huw Morris, Sebastian Crutch, Henrik Zetterberg, Nick C Fox, Simon Kemp, Matthew Cross, Nigel K Arden, Madeleine A M Davies, Andrea Malaspina, Neil Pearce
INTRODUCTION: Relatively little is known about the long-term health of former elite rugby players, or former sportspeople more generally. As well as the potential benefits of being former elite sportspersons, there may be potential health risks from exposures occurring during an individual's playing career, as well as following retirement. Each contact sport has vastly different playing dynamics, therefore exposing its players to different types of potential traumas. Current evidence suggests that these are not necessarily comparable in terms of pathophysiology, and their potential long-term adverse effects might also differ...
December 26, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245000/does-traumatic-brain-injury-hold-the-key-to-the-alzheimer-s-disease-puzzle
#12
Robert E Becker, Dimitrios Kapogiannis, Nigel H Greig
INTRODUCTION: Neurodegenerative disorders have been a graveyard for hundreds of well-intentioned efforts at drug discovery and development. Concussion and other traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) share many overlapping pathologies and possible clinical links. METHODS: We searched the literature since 1995 using MEDLINE and Google Scholar for the terms concussion, AD, and shared neuropathologies. We also studied a TBI animal model as a supplement to transgenic (Tg) mouse AD models for evaluating AD drug efficacy by preventing neuronal losses...
December 12, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239265/decreased-number-of-self-paced-saccades-in-post-concussion-syndrome-associated-with-higher-symptom-burden-and-reduced-white-matter-integrity
#13
Foad Taghdiri, Jonathan Chung, Samantha Irwin, Namita Multani, Apameh Tarazi, Ahmed Ebraheem, Mozghan Khodadadi, Ruma Goswami, Richard Wennberg, David Mikulis, Robin Green, Karen Davis, Charles Tator, Moshe Eizenman, Maria Carmela Tartaglia
The aim of this study was to examine the potential utility of a self-paced saccadic eye movement as a marker of post-concussion syndrome (PCS) and monitoring the recovery from PCS. Fifty-nine persistently symptomatic participants with at least two concussions performed the self-paced saccade (SPS) task. We evaluated the relationships between the number of SPSs and 1) number of self-reported concussion symptoms, and 2) integrity of major white matter (WM) tracts (as measured by fractional anisotropy [FA] and mean diffusivity) that are directly or indirectly involved in saccadic eye movements and often affected by concussion...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157855/imaging-the-role-of-myelin-in-concussion
#14
REVIEW
Alexander Mark Weber, Carlos Torres, Alexander Rauscher
Myelin water imaging (MWI) provides mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) researchers with a specific myelin biomarker and helps to further elucidate microstructural and microarchitectural changes of white matter after mTBI. Improvement of scanner hardware and software with the implementation of MWI across scanner platforms will likely result in increased research regarding the role of myelin in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Future research should include detailed investigation of myelin between 2 weeks and 2 months after injury, the use of MWI in moderate and severe TBI, and investigation of the role of myelin in chronic TBI...
February 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157852/imaging-of-concussion-in-young-athletes
#15
REVIEW
Jeffrey P Guenette, Martha E Shenton, Inga K Koerte
Conventional neuroimaging examinations are typically normal in concussed young athletes. A current focus of research is the characterization of subtle abnormalities after concussion using advanced neuroimaging techniques. These techniques have the potential to identify biomarkers of concussion. In the future, such biomarkers will likely provide important clinical information regarding the appropriate time interval before return to play, as well as the risk for prolonged postconcussive symptoms and long-term cognitive impairment...
February 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144026/heart-rate-variability-and-implication-for-sport-concussion
#16
REVIEW
Scott A Bishop, Ryan T Dech, Przemyslaw Guzik, J Patrick Neary
Finding sensitive and specific markers for sports-related concussion is both challenging and clinically important. Such biomarkers might be helpful in the management of patients with concussion (i.e. diagnosis, monitoring and risk prediction). Among many parameters, blood flow-pressure metrics and heart rate variability (HRV) have been used to gauge concussion outcomes. Reports on the relation between HRV and both acute and prolonged concussion recovery are conflicting. While some authors report on differences in the low-frequency (LF) component of HRV during postural manipulations and postexercise conditions, others observe no significant differences in various HRV measures...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077582/neuroimaging-in-the-diagnosis-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-a-systematic-review
#17
Philip Sparks, Tim Lawrence, Stephan Hinze
OBJECTIVE: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative tauopathy associated with repeated subconcussive and concussive head injury. Clinical features include cognitive, behavioral, mood, and motor impairments. Definitive diagnosis is only possible at postmortem. Here, the utility of neuroimaging in the diagnosis of CTE is evaluated by systematically reviewing recent evidence for changes in neuroimaging biomarkers in suspected cases of CTE compared with controls. DATA SOURCES: Providing an update on a previous systematic review of articles published until December 2014, we searched for articles published between December 2014 and July 2016...
October 25, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064019/stability-of-mri-metrics-in-the-advanced-research-core-of-the-ncaa-dod-concussion-assessment-research-and-education-care-consortium
#18
Andrew S Nencka, Timothy B Meier, Yang Wang, L Tugan Muftuler, Yu-Chien Wu, Andrew J Saykin, Jaroslaw Harezlak, M Alison Brooks, Christopher C Giza, John Difiori, Kevin M Guskiewicz, Jason P Mihalik, Stephen M LaConte, Stefan M Duma, Steven Broglio, Thomas McAllister, Michael A McCrea, Kevin M Koch
The NCAA-DoD Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education (CARE) consortium is performing a large-scale, comprehensive study of sport related concussions in college student-athletes and military service academy cadets. The CARE "Advanced Research Core" (ARC), is focused on executing a cutting-edge investigative protocol on a subset of the overall CARE athlete population. Here, we present the details of the CARE ARC MRI acquisition and processing protocol along with preliminary analyzes of within-subject, between-site, and between-subject stability across a variety of MRI biomarkers...
October 24, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035978/use-of-blood-biomarkers-in-the-assessment-of-sports-related-concussion-a-systematic-review-in-the-context-of-their-biological-significance
#19
Brendan OʼConnell, Áine M Kelly, David Mockler, Matej Orešič, Karl Denvir, Garreth Farrell, Damir Janigro, Fiona Wilson
OBJECTIVES: To critically review current knowledge on the positive and negative predictive value of blood biomarkers for concussion; to illustrate the clinical and biological contexts that help evaluate the use of these markers in sport-related traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). METHODS: This systematic review was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. We reviewed the measurement, clinical utility, endpoint, and biological significance of blood biomarkers in concussion...
October 12, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975240/research-gaps-and-controversies-in-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Breton M Asken, Molly J Sullan, Steven T DeKosky, Michael S Jaffee, Russell M Bauer
Importance: Scientific and lay interest in negative outcomes associated with exposure to repetitive brain trauma (RBT) continues to strengthen. Concerns about the association between RBT and dementia began more than a century ago, but have resurfaced in the last decade with the more recently described chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a tauopathy associated with RBT that has become inextricably linked to conversations about sport-related concussion and mild traumatic brain injury...
October 1, 2017: JAMA Neurology
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