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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108358/neurochemical-and-metabolic-effects-of-acute-and-chronic-alcohol-in-the-human-brain-studies-with-positron-emission-tomography
#1
REVIEW
Nora D Volkow, Corinde E Wiers, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Dardo Tomasi, Gene-Jack Wang, Ruben Baler
The use of Positron emission tomography (PET) to study the effects of acute and chronic alcohol on the human brain has enhanced our understanding of the mechanisms underlying alcohol's rewarding effects, the neuroadaptations from chronic exposure that contribute to tolerance and withdrawal, and the changes in fronto-striatal circuits that lead to loss of control and enhanced motivation to drink that characterize alcohol use disorders (AUD). These include studies showing that alcohol's reinforcing effects may result not only from its enhancement of dopaminergic, GABAergic and opioid signaling but also from its caloric properties...
January 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108228/a-preliminary-study-of-endocannabinoid-system-regulation-in-psychosis-distinct-alterations-of-cnr1-promoter-dna-methylation-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#2
Claudio D'Addario, Vincenzo Micale, Martina Di Bartolomeo, Tibor Stark, Mariangela Pucci, Alexandra Sulcova, Mariacarlotta Palazzo, Zuzana Babinska, Laura Cremaschi, Filippo Drago, A Carlo Altamura, Mauro Maccarrone, Bernardo Dell'Osso
Compelling evidence supports the involvement of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in psychosis vulnerability. We here evaluated the transcriptional regulation of ECS components in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from subjects suffering from bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and schizophrenia, focusing in particular on the effects of DNA methylation. We observed selective alterations of DNA methylation at the promoter of CNR1, the gene coding for the type-1 cannabinoid receptor, in schizophrenic patients (N=25) with no changes in any other disorder...
January 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107947/surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy-sers-as-a-method-for-the-toxicological-analysis-of-synthetic-cannabinoids
#3
Thaddeus Mostowtt, Bruce McCord
Synthetic cannabinoids (K2, spice) present problems in forensic investigations because standard presumptive methods, such as immunoassays, are insufficiently specific for the wide range of potential target compounds. This issue can lead to problems with low sensitivity and yield false negative results. A potential solution to this problem is surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). In this study we demonstrate the analysis of a set of structurally similar synthetic cannabinoids using SERS. The procedure involves mixing the analyte with gold nanoparticles prepared in a solution containing alkali or alkaline earth salt solutions...
March 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107775/beta-caryophyllene-protects-against-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-by-attenuating-inflammation-and-metabolic-dysregulation-in-mice
#4
Zoltan V Varga, Csaba Matyas, Katalin Erdelyi, Resat Cinar, Daniela Nieri, Andrea Chicca, Balazs Tamas Nemeth, Janos Paloczi, Tamas Lajtos, Lukas Corey, Gyorgy Hasko, Bin Gao, George Kunos, Jürg Gertsch, Pal Pacher
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Beta-caryophyllene (BCP) is a plant-derived FDA approved food additive with anti-inflammatory properties. Some of its beneficial effects in vivo reported to involve activation of cannabinoid 2 receptors (CB2) that are predominantly expressed in immune cells. Herein, we evaluated the translational potential of BCP using a well-established model of chronic and binge alcohol-induced liver injury. METHODS: In this study we investigated the effects of BCP on liver injury induced by chronic plus binge alcohol feeding in mice in vivo by using biochemical assays, real-time PCR and histology analyses...
January 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106377/chemical-proteomics-maps-brain-region-specific-activity-of-endocannabinoid-hydrolases
#5
Marc P Baggelaar, Annelot van Esbroeck, Eva van Rooden, Bogdan I Florea, Herman S Overkleeft, Giovanni Marsicano, Francis Chaouloff, Mario van der Stelt
The biosynthetic and catabolic enzymes of the endocannabinoids tightly regulate endocannabinoid-mediated activation of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. Monitoring the activities of these endocannabinoid hydrolases in different brain regions is, therefore, key to gain insight in spatiotemporal control of CB1 receptor-mediated physiology. We have employed a comparative chemical proteomics approach to quantitatively map the activity profile of endocannabinoid hydrolases in various mouse brain regions at the same time...
January 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105093/%C3%AE-caryophyllene-promotes-osteoblastic-mineralization-and-suppresses-osteoclastogenesis-and-adipogenesis-in-mouse-bone-marrow-cultures-in-vitro
#6
Masayoshi Yamaguchi, Robert M Levy
Osteoporosis is induced by the reduction in bone mass through decreased osteoblastic osteogenesis and increased osteoclastic bone resorption, and it is associated with obesity and diabetes. Osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The prevention of osteoporosis is an important public health concern in aging populations. β-caryophyllene, a component of various essential oils, is a selective agonist of the cannabinoid receptor type 2 and exerts cannabimimetic anti-inflammatory effects in animals...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104530/long-lasting-alterations-of-hippocampal-gabaergic-neurotransmission-in-adult-rats-following-perinatal-%C3%AE-9-thc-exposure
#7
Sarah Beggiato, Andrea Celeste Borelli, Maria Cristina Tomasini, Lucia Morgano, Tiziana Antonelli, Sergio Tanganelli, Vincenzo Cuomo, Luca Ferraro
The long-lasting effects of gestational cannabinoids exposure on the adult brain of the offspring are still controversial. It has already been shown that pre- or perinatal cannabinoids exposure induces learning and memory disruption in rat adult offspring, associated with permanent alterations of cortical glutamatergic neurotransmission and cognitive deficits. In the present study, the risk of long-term consequences induced by perinatal exposure to cannabinoids on rat hippocampal GABAergic system of the offspring, has been explored...
January 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104528/cannabinoid-receptor-type-2-cb2-as-one-of-the-candidate-genes-in-human-carotid-plaque-imaging-evalu1ation-of-the-novel-radiotracer-11-c-rs-016-targeting-cb2-in-atherosclerosis
#8
Romana Meletta, Roger Slavik, Linjing Mu, Zoran Rancic, Nicole Borel, Roger Schibli, Simon M Ametamey, Stefanie D Krämer, Adrienne Müller Herde
INTRODUCTION: Endarterectomized human atherosclerotic plaques are a valuable basis for gene expression studies to disclose novel imaging biomarkers and therapeutic targets, such as the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2). In this work, CB2 is expressed on activated immune cells, which are abundant in inflamed plaques. We evaluated the CB2-specific radiotracer [(11)C]RS-016 for imaging vascular inflammation in human and mouse atherosclerotic lesions. METHODS: The differential gene expression of microscopically classified human carotid plaques was evaluated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
January 8, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103941/involvement-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-physiological-response-to-transient-common-carotid-artery-occlusion-and-reperfusion
#9
Marina Quartu, Laura Poddighe, Tiziana Melis, Maria Pina Serra, Marianna Boi, Sara Lisai, Gianfranca Carta, Elisabetta Murru, Laura Muredda, Maria Collu, Sebastiano Banni
BACKGROUND: The transient global cerebral hypoperfusion/reperfusion achieved by induction of Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Occlusion followed by Reperfusion (BCCAO/R) may trigger a physiological response in an attempt to preserve tissue and function integrity. There are several candidate molecules among which the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and/or peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) may play a role in modulating oxidative stress and inflammation. The aims of the present study are to evaluate whether the ECS, the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and PPAR-alpha are involved during BCCAO/R in rat brain, and to identify possible markers of the ongoing BCCAO/R-induced challenge in plasma...
January 19, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103441/enantio-specific-allosteric-modulation-of-cannabinoid-1-receptor
#10
Robert B Laprairie, Pushkar M Kulkarni, Jeffrey R Deschamps, Melanie E M Kelly, David R Janero, Maria G Cascio, Lesley A Stevenson, Roger G Pertwee, Terry Kenakin, Eileen M Denovan-Wright, Ganesh A Thakur
The cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) is one of the most widely expressed metabotropic G protein-coupled receptors in brain, and its participation in various (patho)physiological processes has made CB1R activation a viable therapeutic modality. Adverse psychotropic effects limit the clinical utility of CB1R orthosteric agonists and have promoted the search for CB1R positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) with the promise of improved drug-like pharmacology and enhanced safety over typical CB1R agonists. In this study, we describe the synthesis and in vitro and ex vivo pharmacology of the novel allosteric CB1R modulator GAT211 (racemic) and its resolved enantiomers, GAT228 (R) and GAT229 (S)...
January 19, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102227/singular-location-and-signaling-profile-of-adenosine-a2a-cannabinoid-cb1-receptor-heteromers-in-the-dorsal-striatum
#11
Estefanía Moreno, Anna Chiarlone, Mireia Medrano, Mar Puigdellívol, Lucka Bibic, Lesley A Howell, Eva Resel, Nagore Puente, María J Casarejos, Juan Perucho, Joaquín Botta, Nuria Suelves, Francisco Ciruela, Silvia Ginés, Ismael Galve-Roperh, Vicent Casadó, Pedro Grandes, Beat Lutz, Krisztina Monory, Enric I Canela, Carmen Lluís, Peter J McCormick, Manuel Guzmán
The dorsal striatum is a key node for many neurobiological processes such as motor activity, cognitive functions, and affective processes. The proper functioning of striatal neurons relies critically on metabotropic receptors. Specifically, the main adenosine and endocannabinoid receptors present in the striatum, ie, adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) and cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R), are of pivotal importance in the control of neuronal excitability. Facilitatory and inhibitory functional interactions between striatal A2AR and CB1R have been reported, and evidence supports that this cross-talk may rely, at least in part, on the formation of A2AR-CB1R heteromeric complexes...
January 19, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102080/n-oleoylglycine-induced-hyperphagia-was-associated-with-the-activation-of-agrp-neuron-by-cb1r
#12
Junguo Wu, Canjun Zhu, Liusong Yang, Zhonggang Wang, Lina Wang, Songbo Wang, Ping Gao, Yongliang Zhang, Qingyan Jiang, Gang Shu, Xiaotong Zhu
N-acyl amino acids (NAAAs) are conjugate products of fatty acids and amino acids, which are available in animal-derived food. We compared the effects of N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly), N-arachidonoyl serine (NASer), and N-Oleoylglycine (OLGly) on in vivo food intake and in vitro [Ca2+]i of AgRP neurons to identify the role of these compounds in energy homeostasis. The hypothalamic neuropeptide expression and anxiety behavior in response to OLGly were also tested. To further identify the underlying mechanism of OLGly on food intake, we first detected the expression level of potential OLGly receptors...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100841/cannabinoids-a-new-weapon-against-cancer
#13
Małgorzata Pokrywka, Joanna Góralska, Bogdan Solnica
Cannabis has been cultivated by man since Neolithic times. It was used, among others for fiber and rope production, recreational purposes and as an excellent therapeutic agent. The isolation and characterization of the structure of one of the main active ingredients of cannabis - Δ9 - tetrahydrocannabinol as well the discovery of its cannabinoid binding receptors CB1 and CB2, has been a milestone in the study of the possibilities of the uses of Cannabis sativa and related products in modern medicine. Many scientific studies indicate the potential use of cannabinoids in the fight against cancer...
December 29, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100744/compensatory-activation-of-cannabinoid-cb2-receptor-inhibition-of-gaba-release-in-the-rostral-ventromedial-medulla-in-inflammatory-pain
#14
Ming-Hua Li, Katherine L Suchland, Susan L Ingram
: The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) is a relay in the descending pain modulatory system and an important site of endocannabinoid modulation of pain. Endocannabinoids inhibit GABA release in the RVM, but it is not known whether this effect persists in chronic pain states. In the present studies, persistent inflammation induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) increased GABAergic miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs). Endocannabinoid activation of cannabinoid (CB1) receptors known to inhibit presynaptic GABA release was significantly reduced in the RVM of CFA-treated rats compared with naive rats...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099629/the-role-of-the-cnr1-gene-in-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-including-unpublished-data
#15
Eduardo S Gouvêa, Airton F Santos, Vanessa K Ota, Vinicius Mrad, Ary Gadelha, Rodrigo A Bressan, Quirino Cordeiro, Sintia I Belangero
Objective: Schizophrenia is a multifactorial disorder. It is known that a combination of extensive multiple common alleles may be involved in its etiology, each contributing with a small to moderate effect, and, possibly, some rare alleles with a much larger effect size. We aimed to perform a systematic review of association studies between schizophrenia (and its subphenotypes) and polymorphisms in the CNR1 gene, which encodes cannabinoid receptors classically implicated in schizophrenia pathophysiology, as well as to present unpublished results of an association study in a Brazilian population...
January 12, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098679/a-patient-with-a-curious-case-of-cyclical-vomiting
#16
David A Smith, Hayden R Phillips
Cannabis-related ED visits are on the rise due to wider legalization and availability of marijuana, and habitual daily use is increasingly common. Cannabis abuse has long been associated with various short-term and long-term adverse reactions. One such reaction is cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome: cyclical vomiting, nausea, and abdominal pain that only resolves with a warm bath or shower. Healthcare providers must understand the signs and symptoms of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome so the problem can be recognized early and patients avoid unnecessary testing...
February 2017: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097916/exploring-the-first-rimonabant-analog-opioid-peptide-hybrid-compound-as-bivalent-ligand-for-cb1-and-opioid-receptors
#17
Adriano Mollica, Sveva Pelliccia, Valeria Famiglini, Azzurra Stefanucci, Giorgia Macedonio, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Giustino Orlando, Luigi Brunetti, Claudio Ferrante, Stefano Pieretti, Ettore Novellino, Sandor Benyhe, Ferenc Zador, Anna Erdei, Edina Szucs, Reza Samavati, Szalbolch Dvrorasko, Csaba Tomboly, Rino Ragno, Alexandros Patsilinakos, Romano Silvestri
Cannabinoid (CB) and opioid systems are both involved in analgesia, food intake, mood and behavior. Due to the co-localization of µ-opioid (MOR) and CB1 receptors in various regions of the central nervous system (CNS) and their ability to form heterodimers, bivalent ligands targeting to both these systems may be good candidates to investigate the existence of possible cross-talking or synergistic effects, also at sub-effective doses. In this work, we selected from a small series of new Rimonabant analogs one CB1R reverse agonist to be conjugated to the opioid fragment Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-Phe-NH2...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095641/melatonin-ameliorates-alcohol-induced-bile-acid-synthesis-by-enhancing-mir-497-expression
#18
Yong Deuk Kim, Seung-Lark Hwang, Eun-Joo Lee, Hyeong-Mi Kim, Myung-Jin Chung, Ahmed K Elfadl, Sung-Eun Lee, Balachandar Nedumaran, Robert A Harris, Kyu-Shik Jeong
Alcoholic liver disease is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide and cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) is involved in a diverse metabolic diseases. B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) and yin yang 1 (YY1) are a potent regulator of biological conditions. Melatonin plays a crucial role in regulating diverse physiological functions and metabolic homeostasis. MicroRNAs are key regulators of various biological processes. Herein, we demonstrate that melatonin improves bile acid synthesis in the liver of alcohol-fed mice by controlling miR-497 expression...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093016/acute-and-residual-effects-in-adolescent-rats-resulting-from-exposure-to-the-novel-synthetic-cannabinoids-ab-pinaca-and-ab-fubinaca
#19
Richard C Kevin, Katie E Wood, Jordyn Stuart, Andrew J Mitchell, Michael Moir, Samuel D Banister, Michael Kassiou, Iain S McGregor
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) have rapidly proliferated as recreational drugs, and may present a substantial health risk to vulnerable populations. However, information on possible effects of long-term use is sparse. This study compared acute and residual effects of the popular indazole carboxamide SC compounds AB-PINACA and AB-FUBINACA in adolescent rats with ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and control treatments. Albino Wistar rats were injected (i.p.) with AB-PINACA or AB-FUBINACA every second day (beginning post-natal day (PND) 31), first at a low dose (0...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092615/immunoreactivity-of-arcuate-nucleus-astrocytes-in-rats-after-intragastric-administration-of-habanero-peppers-capsicum-chinese-jacq
#20
K Rycerz, A Krawczyk, J Jaworska-Adamu, M Gołyński, K Lutnicki, I Balicki
Habanero pepper fruits contain capsaicin (CAP) characterised by a spicy taste. Astrocytes express vanilloid receptor (TRPV1), which interacts with cannabinoids including CAP. Only a few studies revealed that CAP leads to alterations of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) structures. The aim of this study was to analyse the GFAP (GFAP-IR) and S100β (S100β-IR) immunoreactive astrocytes of ARC in adult rats after intragastric administration of habanero pepper fruits. Adult, Wistar rats received a peanut oil - control group (C) - and oil suspension of habanero pepper fruits at a dose of 0...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
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