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D Favretto, S Visentin, G Stocchero, S Vogliardi, R Snenghi, M Montisci
OBJECTIVE: To present the prevalence and concentrations of drugs in blood samples of drivers involved in road traffic accidents (RTA) and to discuss the effects of adopting different concentration cut-off values proposed or applied in other European countries on the number of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) offences. METHODS: Blood samples from drivers involved in RTA in the Padova province, from 2014 to 2017, were analysed for the presence of alcohol and drugs...
July 19, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Manuela Contin, Luca Mancinelli, Alessandro Perrone, Loredana Sabattini, Susan Mohamed, Cinzia Scandellari, Matteo Foschi, Veria Vacchiano, Alessandra Lugaresi, Roberto Riva
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the potential relationship between intrasubject 9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol (THC/CBD) oromucosal spray plasma profiles and clinical effects elicited by subacute dosing in chronically treated patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: The study design was pilot, single center, open, and prospective. The patients were challenged with a morning test dose of 2 THC/CBD sprays at a 15-minute interval. Venous blood samples were collected before the first spray administration and every 30 minutes after the second spray, until 240 minutes postdosing...
July 18, 2018: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Gökhan Yırgın, İhsan Ateş, Bilal Katipoğlu, Burak Furkan Demir, Nisbet Yılmaz
A 29-year-old male patient was treated and followed up for a pulmonary embolism. The patient had no relevant medical history, other than the fact that he had smoked bonzai, a synthetic cannabinoid derivative, for 2 years. Hypercoagulability tests were normal. The use of synthetic cannabinoids is increasing in the young population and should be kept in mind among the causes of pulmonary embolism.
July 2018: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
Rodolfo Sánchez-Zavaleta, Hernán Cortés, José Arturo Avalos-Fuentes, Ubaldo García, José Segovia Vila, David Erlij, Benjamín Florán
Recent studies suggested the expression of CB2 receptors in neurons of the CNS, however, most of these studies have only explored one aspect of the receptors, i.e., expression of protein, messenger RNA, or functional response, and more complete studies appear to be needed to establish adequately their role in the neuronal function. Electron microscopy studies showed the presence of CB2r in asymmetric terminals of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), and its mRNA appears is expressed in the subthalamic nucleus...
July 19, 2018: Synapse
F Markus Leweke, Juliane K Mueller, Bettina Lange, Stefan Fritze, Cristina E Topor, Dagmar Koethe, Cathrin Rohleder
The term schizophrenia describes a group of multifaceted psychiatric conditions causing significant impairment of the quality of life of affected patients. Although multiple pharmacological treatment options exist, e.g. first- or second-generation antipsychotics, these therapeutics often cause disturbing side effects, such as extrapyramidal symptoms, prolactin increase, sexual dysfunction and/or metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, cognitive impairments and negative symptoms, two factors significantly influencing the course and outcome, are not sufficiently addressed by the available antipsychotics...
July 18, 2018: CNS Drugs
Cristina Anna Gallelli, Silvio Calcagnini, Adele Romano, Justyna Barbara Koczwara, Marialuisa de Ceglia, Donatella Dante, Rosanna Villani, Anna Maria Giudetti, Tommaso Cassano, Silvana Gaetani
Growing evidence supports the pivotal role played by oxidative stress in tissue injury development, thus resulting in several pathologies including cardiovascular, renal, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders, all characterized by an altered oxidative status. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and lipid peroxidation-derived reactive aldehydes including acrolein, malondialdehyde, and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, among others, are the main responsible for cellular and tissue damages occurring in redox-dependent processes...
July 18, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Samuel M Walsh, Signe Mathiasen, Sune M Christensen, Jonathan F Fay, Christopher King, Davide Provasi, Ernesto Borrero, Søren G F Rasmussen, Juan Jose Fung, Marta Filizola, Kalina Hristova, Brian Kobilka, David L Farrens, Dimitrios Stamou
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) control vital cellular signaling pathways. GPCR oligomerization is proposed to increase signaling diversity. However, many reports have arrived at disparate conclusions regarding the existence, stability, and stoichiometry of GPCR oligomers, partly because of cellular complexity and ensemble averaging of intrareconstitution heterogeneities that complicate the interpretation of oligomerization data. To overcome these limitations, we exploited fluorescence-microscopy-based high-content analysis of single proteoliposomes...
July 17, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Molly V Williams
Despite current legal and medical controversies surrounding cannabinoids, it is a fact that emergency departments are seeing an increasing number of patients presenting with symptoms associated with the use of these drugs. This review outlines the pathophysiology of cannabinoids, the potential clinical findings associated with their use, and the current evidence for best-practice management of patients who present to the emergency department with signs of acute intoxication and chronic use. Differences between natural and synthetic cannabinoids are discussed, along with the latest evidence for diagnosing and managing patients presenting with the intractable vomiting of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome...
August 2018: Emergency Medicine Practice
Zaynab Ahmad Mouhammad, Miriam Kolko
Cannabis has been widely used for various medical purposes since before year 2000 BC. Its effects are mediated by cannabinoids and stimulation of mainly G-protein coupled cannabinoid receptors. In 1971, subjects who smoked marihuana, showed a decrease in the intraocular pressure. Later investigations additionally revealed a neuroprotective effect of both ∆-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (CBD). Furthermore, CBD was found to promote neurogenesis. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential use of cannabinoids in the treatment of glaucoma...
July 16, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Burkhard Hinz, Robert Ramer
The endocannabinoid system has emerged as a considerable target for the treatment of diverse diseases. In addition to the well-established palliative effects of cannabinoids in cancer therapy, phytocannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoid compounds as well as inhibitors of endocannabinoid degradation have attracted attention as possible systemic anticancer drugs. As a matter of fact, accumulating data from preclinical studies suggest cannabinoids elicit effects on different levels of cancer progression, comprising inhibition of proliferation, neovascularisation, invasion and chemoresistance, induction of apoptosis and autophagy as well as enhancement of tumour immune surveillance...
July 17, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Yaochen Zhang, Don-Kyu Kim, Yoon Seok Jung, Yong-Hoon Kim, Yong Soo Lee, Jina Kim, Won-Il Jeong, In-Kyu Lee, Sung Jin Cho, Steven Dooley, Chul-Ho Lee, Hueng-Sik Choi
Upon liver intoxication with malnutrition or high-fat diet feeding, fibrinogen is synthesized by hepatocytes and secreted into the blood in human and mouse. Its primary function is to occlude blood vessels upon damage and thereby stop excessive bleeding. High fibrinogen levels may contribute to the development of pathological thrombosis, which is one mechanism linking fatty liver disease with cardiovascular disease. Our previous results present ERRγ as key regulator of hepatocytic fibrinogen gene expression in human...
July 17, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Chihiro Nozaki, Elisa Nent, Andras Bilkei-Gorzo, Andreas Zimmer
Neuropathic pain typically appears in a region innervated by an injured or diseased nerve and, in some instances, also on the contralateral side. This so-called mirror image pain is often observed in mice lacking CB2 receptors after sciatic nerve injury, but the underlying mechanisms for this phenotype largely remain unclear. Here we focused on peripheral leptin signaling, which modulates neuropathic pain development and interacts with the endocannabinoid system. Leptin production is induced at the site of nerve injury in CB2-deficient mice (CB2-KO) mice and wild type controls (WT)...
July 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fatemeh Azizi, Reza Fartootzadeh, Hojjatallah Alaei, Parham Reisi
In this study, the role of orexin-2 (OX2) and cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptors and their potential interaction within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) on nicotine-induced place preference, was examined in male rats. A 5-day conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm was used. Nicotine (0.5 mg/kg; s.c.) induced a significant CPP, without any effect on the locomotor activity during the testing phase. TCS-OX2-29 (0.4, 0.8 and 4 μg/rat), as a selective OX2 receptor antagonist and AM251 (0.2, 1 and 2 μg/rat), as a selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, individually or simultaneously were microinjected bilaterally into the VTA...
July 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Mehdi Sadeghian, Sepideh Rahmani, Anahita Mansoori
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the comparison of G1359A variant of cannabinoid receptor gene (rs1049353) with obesity-related traits including body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), food-related traits, and leptin among healthy and non-healthy adults. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, Web of Science, and EMBASE until December 2016 for observational studies assessing each of the anthropometric measurements, food-related traits, and leptin of 1359 G/A polymorphism of CNR1 gene...
July 17, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Florian Franz, Hanna Jechle, Verena Angerer, Melanie Pegoro, Volker Auwärter, Merja A Neukamm
Since the first detection of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) in so-called 'legal high' products (e.g. 'Spice') sold as legal alternatives to marihuana, the rapid development of this class of designer drugs poses a great challenge for analytical laboratories. The aim of this study was the comprehensive validation of an up-to-date LC-MS/MS method for detection of SCs in human hair for the purpose of drug abstinence testing and evaluation of a pragmatic re-validation approach for frequent method adaption. The validation demonstrated low quantification limits (0...
May 2, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
John D Roberts, Jonathan Spodick, Joanna Cole, Janis Bozzo, Susanna Curtis, Ariadna Forray
Introduction: Legal access to marijuana, most frequently as "medical marijuana," is becoming more common in the United States, but most states do not specify sickle cell disease as a qualifying condition. We were aware that some of our patients living with sickle cell disease used illicit marijuana, and we sought more information about this. Materials and Methods: We practice at an urban, academic medical center and provide primary, secondary, and tertiary care for ∼130 adults living with sickle cell disease...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
Elena V Kardash, Irina A Ertuzun, Gul'nara R Khakimova, Andrey N Kolyadin, Sergey A Tarasov, Stéphanie Wagner, Emile Andriambeloson, Vladimir T Ivashkin, Oleg I Epstein
Earlier studies have shown that combination of antibodies to S100 protein and to cannabinoid receptor type 1 in released-active form (Brizantin) may possess anxiolytic properties and decrease nicotine dependence. Released-active form of antibodies is a novel approach that permits to modify natural functions of the target molecule (antigen) under investigation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anxiolytic-like effect of Brizantin in the light-dark test in mice, according to its ability to influence the number of entries into the lit compartment and the total time spent there...
April 2018: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
Stefania Bonaccorso, Antonio Metastasio, Angelo Ricciardi, Neil Stewart, Leila Jamal, Naasir-Ud-Dinn Rujully, Christos Theleritis, Stefano Ferracuti, Giuseppe Ducci, Fabrizio Schifano
BACKGROUND: Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) are a heterogeneous class of synthetic molecules including synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs). Psychosis is associated with SCRAs use. There is limited knowledge regarding the structured assessment and psychometric evaluation of clinical presentations, analytical toxicology and clinical management plans of patients presenting with psychosis and SCRAs misuse. METHODS: We gathered information regarding the clinical presentations, toxicology and care plans of patients with psychosis and SCRAs misuse admitted to inpatients services...
July 14, 2018: Brain Sciences
Jonathan Palma, Madhusudhanan Narasimhan, Josée Guindon, Khalid Benamar
The growing therapeutic use (self-medication) of cannabinoids by HIV-1 infected people and the recent interest in the possible medicinal use of cannabinoids, particularly in pain management, create an urgent need to identify their potential interactions with HIV-1. The goal here is to determine any interaction between proteins of HIV-1 and the analgesic effectiveness of cannabinoid at supraspinal level. Young adult male rats (Sprague-Dawley) were stereotaxically pretreated with HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120) into the periaqueductal gray (PAG) area, the primary control center of pain modulation...
July 15, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Ahmed S Sultan, Mona A Marie, Salah A Sheweita
Studies have emphasized an antineoplastic effect of the non-psychoactive, phyto-cannabinoid, Cannabidiol (CBD). However, the molecular mechanism underlying its antitumor activity is not fully elucidated. Herein, we have examined the effect of CBD on two different human breast cancer cell lines: the ER-positive, well differentiated, T-47D and the triple negative, poor differentiated, MDA-MB-231 cells. In both cell lines, CBD inhibited cell survival and induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner as observed by MTT assay, morphological changes, DNA fragmentation and ELISA apoptosis assay...
June 22, 2018: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
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