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Daniel G Couch, Henry Maudslay, Brett Doleman, Jonathan N Lund, Saoirse E O'Sullivan
Background: Clinical trials investigating the use of cannabinoid drugs for the treatment of intestinal inflammation are anticipated secondary to preclinical literature demonstrating efficacy in reducing inflammation. Methods: We systematically reviewed publications on the benefit of drugs targeting the endo-cannabinoid system in intestinal inflammation. We collated studies examining outcomes for meta-analysis from EMBASE, MEDLINE and Pubmed until March 2017. Quality was assessed according to mSTAIR and SRYCLE score...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Alexander Stevens, Matthew Higgins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Jeff Lapoint, Seth Meyer, Charles K Yu, Kristi L Koenig, Roneet Lev, Sayone Thihalolipavan, Katherine Staats, Christopher A Kahn
Introduction: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is an entity associated with cannabinoid overuse. CHS typically presents with cyclical vomiting, diffuse abdominal pain, and relief with hot showers. Patients often present to the emergency department (ED) repeatedly and undergo extensive evaluations including laboratory examination, advanced imaging, and in some cases unnecessary procedures. They are exposed to an array of pharmacologic interventions including opioids that not only lack evidence, but may also be harmful...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Xian-Qin Luo, Ao Li, Xue Yang, Xiao Xiao, Rong Hu, Tian-Wen Wang, Xiao-Yun Dou, Da-Jian Yang, Zhi Dong
Background: Cerebral hypoperfusion is a pivotal risk factor for vascular dementia (VD), for which effective therapy remains inadequate. Persistent inflammatory responses and excessive chemotaxis of microglia/macrophages in the brain may accelerate the progression of VD. Endocannabinoids are involved in neuronal protection against inflammation-induced neuronal injury. Cannabinoids acting at cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2 R) can decrease inflammation. Based on the identification of paeoniflorin (PF) as a CB2 R agonist, we investigated the neuroprotective and microglia/macrophages M1 to M2 polarization promoting effects of PF in a permanent four-vessel occlusion rat model...
2018: Chinese Medicine
Annelies Cannaert, Jolien Storme, Cornelius Hess, Volker Auwärter, Sarah M R Wille, Christophe P Stove
BACKGROUND: Synthetic cannabinoids are the largest group of new psychoactive substances monitored by the European Monitoring Center of Drugs and Drug Addiction. The rapid proliferation of novel analogs makes the detection of these new derivatives challenging and has initiated considerable interest in the development of so-called "untargeted" screening strategies to detect these compounds. METHODS: We developed new, stable bioassays in which cannabinoid receptor activation by cannabinoids led to recruitment of truncated β-arrestin 2 (βarr2) to the cannabinoid receptors, resulting in functional complementation of a split luciferase, allowing readout via bioluminescence...
March 20, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
Sara Clemenza, Flavia Sorbi, Ivo Noci, Tommaso Capezzuoli, Irene Turrini, Carlo Carriero, Nicolò Buffi, Massimiliano Fambrini, Felice Petraglia
Endometriosis is a chronic disease, and a lifelong management plan should be developed by using pharmacological treatment and surgical procedures. The pathogenesis of endometriosis is complicated and has not been definitively established. The mechanisms involved are numerous, and their understanding is constantly evolving. Currently, the first-line drugs act by blocking ovarian function, creating an hypoestrogenic environment. The blockade of estrogen secretion and receptor activity and the activation of progesteron receptors are the main target of several current drugs, as well as those under development...
February 15, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Marco Colizzi, Robin Murray
It is now incontrovertible that heavy use of cannabis increases the risk of psychosis. There is a dose-response relationship and high potency preparations and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. It would be wise to await the outcome of the different models of legalisation that are being introduced in North America, before deciding whether or not to follow suit. Declaration of interest None.
April 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Rola M Labib, Radhakrishnan Srivedavyasasri, Fadia S Youssef, Samir A Ross
Pinus roxburghii is highly popular as a potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent; however its exact mechanism of action was not fully elucidated. We aimed to interpret the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of the total ethanol extract of Pinus roxburghii bark (PRE) and its isolated compounds by both in silico molecular modelling and in-vitro cannabinoid and opioid binding activities evaluation for the first time. Comprehensive phytochemical investigation of PRE resulted in the isolation of sixteen compounds that were fully elucidated using1 H NMR and13 C NMR...
March 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Yerkebulan Orazbekov, Mohamed A Ibrahim, Serjan Mombekov, Radhakrishnan Srivedavyasasri, Ubaidilla Datkhayev, Bauyrzhan Makhatov, Narayan D Chaurasiya, Babu L Tekwani, Samir A Ross
Phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of Maclura pomifera fruits yielded four new compounds ( I - IV ) along with eleven known compounds ( V - XV ). The crude extract exhibited significant activity towards cannabinoid receptors (CB1: 103.4% displacement; CB2: 68.8% displacement) and possibly allosteric interaction with δ and μ opioid receptors (-49.7 and -53.8% displacement, resp.). Compound I was found to be possibly allosteric for κ and μ opioid receptors (-88.4 and -27.2% displacement, resp...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Frederic Pouille, Nathan E Schoppa
Recent studies have provided evidence that corticofugal feedback (CFF) from the olfactory cortex to the olfactory bulb (OB) can significantly impact the state of excitation of output mitral cells (MCs) and tufted cells (TCs) and also modulate neural synchrony. Interpreting these effects however has been complicated by the large number of cell targets of CFF axons in the bulb. Within the granule cell layer (GCL) alone, CFF axons target both GABAergic granule cells (GCs) as well as GABAergic deep short-axon cells (dSACs) that inhibit GCs...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Karolina Pekala, Agnieszka Michalak, Marta Kruk-Slomka, Barbara Budzynska, Grazyna Biala
Taking into account the rather frequent concomitance of nicotine abuse and stress, we aimed to research memory- and depression-related effects of nicotine administration in combination with chronic mild unpredictable stress (CMUS) in mice and an involvement of the endocannabinoid system through CB1 and CB2 receptors. Mice were submitted to the CMUS for 4 weeks. Effects on depression-like behaviors and cognition, exerted by a combined administration of CB1, i.e., Oleamide (2.5, 5.0 mg/kg), AM 251 (0.1, 0.25 mg/kg) and CB2, i...
March 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Chelsea R Kasten, Yanping Zhang, Ken Mackie, Stephen L Boehm
Cannabis use is linked to positive and negative outcomes. Identifying genetic targets of susceptibility to the negative effects of cannabinoid use is of growing importance. The current study sought to complete short-term selective breeding for adolescent sensitivity and resistance to the locomotor effects of a single 10 mg/kg THC dose in the open field. Selection for THC-locomotor sensitivity was moderately heritable, with the greatest estimates of heritability seen in females from the F2 to S3 generations...
March 17, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Jenny G Turcott, María Del Rocío Guillen Núñez, Diana Flores-Estrada, Luis F Oñate-Ocaña, Zyanya Lucia Zatarain-Barrón, Feliciano Barrón, Oscar Arrieta
BACKGROUND: Over one half of the patients diagnosed with advanced lung cancer experience anorexia. In addition to its high incidence, cancer-induced anorexia promotes the development of the anorexia-cachexia syndrome, which is related to poor clinical outcomes. Recently, drugs derived from cannabinoids, such as Nabilone, have been recognized for their appetite improvement properties; however, clinical trials to support their use in cancer patients are necessary. METHODS: This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the effect of Nabilone vs...
March 17, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Marie Mardal, Petur Weihe Dalsgaard, Bing Qi, Christian Brinch Mollerup, Pieter Annaert, Kristian Linnet
The main analytical targets of synthetic cannabinoids are often metabolites. With the high number of new psychoactive substances entering the market, suitable workflows are needed for analytical target identification in biological samples. The aims of this study were to identify the main metabolites of the synthetic cannabinoids, AMB-CHMICA and 5C-AKB48, using an in silico-assisted workflow with analytical data acquired using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-(ion mobility spectroscopy)-high resolution-mass spectrometry in data-independent acquisition mode (UHPLC-(IMS)-HR-MSE )...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Marco Morsch, Dario A Protti, Delfine Cheng, Filip Braet, Roger S Chung, Stephen W Reddel, William D Phillips
Cannabinoids exert dynamic control over many physiological processes including memory formation, cognition and pain perception. In the central nervous system endocannabinoids mediate negative feedback of quantal transmitter release following postsynaptic depolarization. The influence of cannabinoids in the peripheral nervous system is less clear and might have broad implications for the therapeutic application of cannabinoids. We report a novel cannabinoid effect upon the mouse neuromuscular synapse: acutely increasing synaptic vesicle volume and raising the quantal amplitudes...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Thomas F Gamage, Charlotte E Farquhar, Timothy W Lefever, Julie A Marusich, Richard C Kevin, Iain S McGregor, Jenny L Wiley, Brian F Thomas
Synthetic cannabinoids are a class of novel psychoactive substances that exhibit high affinity at the cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor and produce effects similar to those of THC, the primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis. Illicit drug manufacturers are continually circumventing laws banning the sale of synthetic cannabinoids by synthesizing novel structures and doing so with little regard for their potential impact on pharmacological and toxicological effects. Synthetic cannabinoids produce a wide range of effects including cardiotoxicity, seizure activity, and kidney damage and can result in death...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Úrsula Escrivá, María Jesús Andrés-Costa, Vicente Andreu, Yolanda Picó
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Jana Tchekalarova, Keylla da Conceição Machado, Antonio Luiz Gomes Júnior, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo Cavalcante, Albena Momchilova, Rumyana Tzoneva
PURPOSE: Activation of CB1 receptors, produces anticonvulsant effect accompanied by memory disturbance both in animal seizure tests and in patients with epilepsy. Few reports considered the role of CB2 receptor on seizure susceptibility and cognitive functions. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of a selective CB2 receptor agonist β-caryophyllene (BCP) in models of seizures and cognition in mice. METHODS: Dose-dependent effects of BCP was studied in maximal electroshock seizure (MES) test, subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) test and Morris water maze test...
March 12, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Katja Wingenfeld, Lucia Dettenborn, Clemens Kirschbaum, Wei Gao, Christian Otte, Stefan Roepke
Endocannabinoids are involved in depressive and anxious symptoms and might play a role in stress-associated psychiatric disorders. While alterations in the endogenous cannabinoid system have been repeatedly found in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), this system has been mostly neglected in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, there is first evidence for elevated serum levels of the endocannabinoids arachidonylethanolamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG) in BPD patients compared to healthy controls and PTSD patients...
March 16, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Laura Colino, Javier Herranz-Herrer, Elena Gil-Benito, Teresa Ponte-Lopez, Pablo Del Sol-Calderon, Maria Rodrigo-Yanguas, María Gil-Ligero, Antonio J Sánchez-López, Jose de Leon, Hilario Blasco-Fontecilla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current serotonin-based biological model of suicidal behavior (SB) may be too simplistic. There is emerging evidence that other biomarkers and biological systems may be involved in SB pathophysiology. The literature on the endocannabinoid (EC) systems and SB is limited. The objective of the present article is to review all available information on the relationship between cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2 receptors), and SB and/or psychological pain. RECENT FINDINGS: Our review is limited by the small number and heterogeneity of studies identified: (1) an autopsy study describing elevated levels of CB1 receptor activity in the prefrontal cortex and suicide in both depression and alcoholism and (2) studies supporting the involvement of both CB1 and CB2 receptors in the regulation of neuropathic pain and stress-induced analgesia...
March 15, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
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