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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731977/interventions-for-neuropathic-pain-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#1
Svjetlana Dosenovic, Antonia Jelicic Kadic, Maja Miljanovic, Marina Biocic, Krste Boric, Marija Cavar, Nikolina Markovina, Katarina Vucic, Livia Puljak
Numerous interventions for neuropathic pain (NeuP) are available, but its treatment remains unsatisfactory. We systematically summarized evidence from systematic reviews (SRs) of randomized controlled trials on interventions for NeuP. Five electronic databases were searched up to March 2015. Study quality was analyzed using A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews. The most common interventions in 97 included SRs were pharmacologic (59%) and surgical (15%). The majority of analyzed SRs were of medium quality...
August 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730896/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-potential-mechanisms-for-the-benefit-of-capsaicin-and-hot-water-hydrotherapy-in-treatment
#2
John R Richards, Jeff M Lapoint, Guillermo Burillo-Putze
INTRODUCTION: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome is a clinical disorder that has become more prevalent with increasing use of cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids, and which is difficult to treat. Standard antiemetics commonly fail to alleviate the severe nausea and vomiting characteristic of the syndrome. Curiously, cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome patients often report dramatic relief of symptoms with hot showers and baths, and topical capsaicin. OBJECTIVES: In this review, we detail the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of capsaicin and explore possible mechanisms for its beneficial effect, including activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and neurohumoral regulation...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730852/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-and-topical-capsaicin-treating-smoke-with-fire-the-authors-reply
#3
Zachary Hafez, Michael E Mullins, Eike Blohm, Mark J O'Connor, Laurel Dezieck, Evan S Schwarz, Albert Conicella
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 21, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730390/expression-of-type-i-cannabinoid-receptors-at-different-stages-of-neuronal-differentiation-of-human-fibroblasts
#4
M Yu Bobrov, V V Bezuglov, L G Khaspekov, S N Illarioshkin, E V Novosadova, I A Grivennikov
Differential expression of type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CR1) was evaluated at different stages of human skin fibroblast transformation into terminally differentiated neurons. Immunocytochemical staining detected no CR1 on fibroblasts, but their transformation into induced pluripotent stem cells was accompanied by marked stimulation of CR1 expression. In neuronal precursors, the receptors were located mainly on cell bodies and at the base of their processes. This distribution was retained at the terminal stage of differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells into neurons...
July 21, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730283/blockade-of-alcohol-escalation-and-relapse-drinking-by-pharmacological-faah-inhibition-in-male-and-female-c57bl-6j-mice
#5
Yan Zhou, Benjamin I Schwartz, Joanna Giza, Steven S Gross, Francis S Lee, Mary Jeanne Kreek
BACKGROUND: Anandamide (AEA)-dependent signaling is regulated by the catabolic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that FAAH and AEA are involved in the behavioral effects of alcohol. Therefore, we investigated whether a selective FAAH inhibitor, URB597 (cyclohexylcarbamic acid 3'-[aminocarbonyl]-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl ester), altered alcohol intake in mice in a voluntary alcohol drinking model. METHODS: Mice, subjected to 3 weeks of chronic intermittent access (IA) in a two-bottle choice paradigm with 24-h access every other day, developed rapid escalation of alcohol intake and high preference...
July 20, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730160/epigenetic-interactions-between-alcohol-and-cannabinergic-effects-focus-on-histone-modification-and-dna-methylation
#6
Tiyash Parira, Alejandra Laverde, Marisela Agudelo
Epigenetic studies have led to a more profound understanding of the mechanisms involved in chronic conditions. In the case of alcohol addiction, according to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 16 million adults suffer from Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs). Even though therapeutic interventions like behavioral therapy and medications to prevent relapse are currently available, no robust cure exists, which stems from the lack of understanding the mechanisms of action of alcohol and the lack of development of precision medicine approaches to treat AUDs...
April 2017: Journal of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729064/effects-of-cannabinoid-drugs-on-aversive-and-rewarding-drug-associated-memory-extinction-and-reconsolidation
#7
REVIEW
Cristina A J Stern, Cristiane R de Carvalho, Leandro J Bertoglio, Reinaldo N Takahashi
Posttraumatic stress and drug use disorders may stem from aberrant memory formation. As the endocannabinoid (eCB) system has a pivotal role in emotional memory processing and related synaptic plasticity, here we seek to review and discuss accumulating evidence on how and where in the brain interventions targeting the eCB system would attenuate outcomes associated with traumatic events and/or drug addiction through memory extinction facilitation or memory reconsolidation disruption. Currently available data from mouse, rat, monkey and healthy human studies investigating the effects of cannabinoid drugs on the extinction and reconsolidation of aversive memories are more consistent than those related to rewarding drug-associated memories...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728428/consequence-of-dopamine-d2-receptor-blockade-on-the-hyperphagic-effect-induced-by-cannabinoid-cb1-and-cb2-receptors-in-layers
#8
M Khodadadi, M Zendehdel, A Baghbanzadeh, V Babapour
1. Endocannabinoids (ECBs) and their receptors play a regulatory function on several physiological processes such as feed intake behaviour, mainly in the brain. This study was carried out in order to investigate the effects of the dopaminergic D1 and D2 receptors on CB1/CB2 ECB receptor induced hyperphagia in 3-h feed-deprived (FD3) neonatal layer chickens. 2. A total of 8 experiments were designed to explore the interplay of these two modulatory systems on feed intake in neonatal chickens. In Experiment 1, chickens were intracerebroventricular (ICV) injected with control solution, L-DOPA (levo-dihydroxyphenylalanine as precursor of dopamine; 125 nmol), 2-AG (2-arachidonoylglycerol as CB1 receptor agonist; 2 µg) and co-adminstration of L-DOPA (125 nmol) plus 2-AG (2 µg)...
July 21, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726401/amidoalkylindoles-as-potent-and-selective-cannabinoid-type-2-receptor-agonists-with-in-vivo-efficacy-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Ying Shi, Yan-Hui Duan, Yue-Yang Ji, Zhi-Long Wang, Yan-Ran Wu, Hendra Gunosewoyo, Xiao-Yu Xie, Jian-Zhong Chen, Fan Yang, Jing Li, Jie Tang, Xin Xie, Li-Fang Yu
Selective CB2 agonists represent an attractive therapeutic strategy for the treatment of a variety of diseases without psychiatric side effects mediated by the CB1 receptor. We carried out a rational optimization of a black market designer drug SDB-001 that led to the identification of potent and selective CB2 agonists. A 7-methoxy or 7-methylthio substitution at the 3-amidoalkylindoles resulted in potent CB2 antagonists (27 or 28, IC50 = 16-28 nM). Replacement of the amidoalkyls from 3-position to the 2-position of the indole ring dramatically increased the agonist selectivity on the CB2 over CB1 receptor...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725181/impact-of-proestrus-on-gene-expression-in-the-medial-preoptic-area-of-mice
#10
Csaba Vastagh, Zsolt Liposits
The antero-ventral periventricular zone (AVPV) and medial preoptic area (MPOA) have been recognized as gonadal hormone receptive regions of the rodent brain that-via wiring to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons-contribute to orchestration of the preovulatory GnRH surge. We hypothesized that neural genes regulating the induction of GnRH surge show altered expression in proestrus. Therefore, we compared the expression of 48 genes obtained from intact proestrous and metestrous mice, respectively, by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724917/endocannabinoids-have-opposing-effects-on-behavioral-responses-to-nociceptive-and-non-nociceptive-stimuli
#11
Torrie Summers, Brandon Hanten, Warren Peterson, Brian Burrell
The endocannabinoid system is thought to modulate nociceptive signaling making it a potential therapeutic target for treating pain. However, there is evidence that endocannabinoids have both pro- and anti-nociceptive effects. In previous studies using Hirudo verbana (the medicinal leech), endocannabinoids were found to depress nociceptive synapses, but enhance non-nociceptive synapses. Here we examined whether endocannabinoids have similar bidirectional effects on behavioral responses to nociceptive vs. non-nociceptive stimuli in vivo...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724382/activation-of-cannabinoid-receptor-type-2-attenuates-surgery-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-mice-through-anti-inflammatory-activity
#12
Lingling Sun, Rui Dong, Xin Xu, Xi Yang, Mian Peng
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation plays a major role in postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Accumulated evidence indicates that cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) can mediate anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects in part by controlling microglial activity. However, the impact of CB2R on postoperative cognition has not been investigated. We hypothesized that CB2R is involved in surgery-induced cognitive impairment in adult mice. METHODS: Adult C57BL/6 mice were subjected to intramedullary fixation surgery for tibial fracture under isoflurane anesthesia and CB2R agonist (JWH133) or CB2R antagonist (AM630) treatment...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723278/a-case-of-cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-with-heliobacter-pylori-and-pre-eclampsia-during-pregnancy
#13
Madeline Manning Meurer, Kalyan Chakrala, Dinesh Gowda, Charles Burns, Randall Kelly, Natalia Schlabritz-Loutsevitch
The condition termed cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) was characterized a decade ago by Allen et al. and includes cyclic episodes of nausea and vomiting and the learned behavior of hot bathing in individuals with chronic cannabis abuse. During pregnancy, the differential diagnosis of this syndrome is challenging since it can be masked by typical symptoms of early pregnancy or by hyperemesis gravidarum, a complication of early pregnancy associated with excessive nausea and vomiting. We herein describe the case of a 21-year-old primigravida patient diagnosed with hyperemesis gravidarum at 6 weeks of gestation and with pre-eclampsia at 35 weeks...
July 19, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722246/delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-decreases-masticatory-muscle-sensitization-in-female-rats-through-peripheral-cannabinoid-receptor-activation
#14
H Wong, S Hossain, B E Cairns
BACKGROUND: This study investigated whether intramuscular injection of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), by acting on peripheral cannabinoid (CB) receptors, could decrease nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced sensitization in female rat masseter muscle; a model which mimics the symptoms of myofascial temporomandibular disorders. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to explore the peripheral expression of cannabinoid receptors in the masseter muscle while behavioural and electrophysiology experiments were employed to assess the functional effects of intramuscular injection of THC...
July 18, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720466/antinociceptive-effects-of-huf-101-a-fluorinated-cannabidiol-derivative
#15
Nicole R Silva, Felipe V Gomes, Miriam D Fonseca, Raphael Mechoulam, Aviva Breuer, Thiago M Cunha, Francisco S Guimarães
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid with multiple pharmacological effects and several potential therapeutic properties. Its low oral bioavailability, however, can limit its clinical use. Preliminary results indicate that fluorination of the CBD molecule increases its pharmacological potency. Here, we investigated whether HUF-101 (3, 10, and 30mg/kg), a fluorinated CBD analogue, would induce antinociceptive effects. HUF-101 effects were compared to those induced by CBD (10, 30, and 90mg/kg) and the cannabinoid CB1/2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (1, 3, and 5mg/kg)...
July 15, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719234/the-in-vivo-effects-of-the-cb1-positive-allosteric-modulator-gat229-on-intraocular-pressure-in-ocular-normotensive-and-hypertensive-mice
#16
Elizabeth A Cairns, Anna-Maria Szczesniak, Alex J Straiker, Pushkar M Kulkarni, Roger G Pertwee, Ganesh A Thakur, William H Baldridge, Melanie E M Kelly
PURPOSE: Orthosteric cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) activation leads to decreases in intraocular pressure (IOP). However, use of orthosteric CB1 agonists chronically has several disadvantages, limiting their usefulness as clinically relevant drugs. Allosteric modulators interact with topographically distinct sites to orthosteric ligands and may be useful to circumvent some of these disadvantages. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the novel CB1-positive allosteric modulator (PAM) GAT229 on IOP...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718196/retracted-cannabinoid-cb-2-receptors-modulate-erk-1-2-kinase-signalling-and-no-release-in-microglial-cells-stimulated-with-bacterial-lipopolysaccharide-by-s-merighi-s-gessi-k-varani-c-simioni-d-fazzi-p-mirandola-and-p-a-borea-british-journal-of-pharmacology
#17
(no author information available yet)
The above article, published by the British Journal of Pharmacology in March 2012 (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01673.x/full), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the Journal Editor in Chief and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The authors wish to state that in preparation of the original manuscript errors occurred resulting in duplication. This issue relates specifically to Figures 2A and 2B, lanes 3-5 of the pJNK1/2 in Figure 3B and lanes 1-3 of the pJNK1/2 blot from Figure 3C...
August 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717968/deletion-of-type-2-cannabinoid-receptor-induces-alzheimer-s-disease-like-tau-pathology-and-memory-impairment-through-ampk-gsk3%C3%AE-pathway
#18
Lin Wang, Bing-Jin Liu, Yun Cao, Wei-Qi Xu, Dong-Sheng Sun, Meng-Zhu Li, Fang-Xiao Shi, Man Li, Qing Tian, Jian-Zhi Wang, Xin-Wen Zhou
Although several studies have shown that type-2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) is involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, the effects of CB2R on AD-like tau abnormal phosphorylation and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Herein, we employed the CB2R(-/-) mice as the animal model to explore roles of CB2R in regulating tau phosphorylation and brain function. We found that CB2R(-/-) mice display AD-like tau hyperphosphorylation, hippocampus-dependent memory impairment, increase of GSK3β activity, decrease of AMPK and Sirt1 activity and mitochondria dysfunction...
July 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716633/the-synthetic-cannabinoid-win55212-2-ameliorates-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-via-inhibition-of-gapdh-siah1-in-a-cb2-receptor-dependent-manner
#19
Bin-Xiao Su, Xin Chen, Jia Huo, Shu-Yun Guo, Rui Ma, Yan-Wu Liu
The essential role of GAPDH/Siah1 signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of various injurious conditions such as traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) has been gradually recognized. However, the drugs targeting this signaling pathway are still lacking. The endocannabinoid system, including its receptors (CB1 and CB2), act as neuroprotective and immunomodulatory modulators in SCI. WIN55212-2, an agonist for CB1 and CB2 receptors, has been demonstrated with anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in multiple neurological diseases...
July 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716266/sativex%C3%A2-effects-on-promoter-methylation-and-on-cnr1-cnr2-expression-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-of-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#20
Massimo Santoro, Massimiliano Mirabella, Chiara De Fino, Assunta Bianco, Matteo Lucchini, Francesco Losavio, Andrea Sabino, Viviana Nociti
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating central nervous system (CNS) disease that involve oligodendrocyte loss and failure to remyelinate damaged brain areas causing a progressive neurological disability. Studies in MS mouse model suggest that cannabinoids ameliorate symptoms as spasticity, tremor and pain reducing inflammation via cannabinoid-mediated system. The aim of our study is to investigate the changes in cannabinoid type 1 (CNR1) and 2 (CNR2) receptors mRNA expression levels and promoter methylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of MS secondary progressive (MSS-SP) patients treated with Sativex®...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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