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Sarah Lombardo, Thomas Scalea, Jason Sperry, Raul Coimbra, Gary Vercruysse, Gregory J Jurkovich, Ram Nirula
INTRODUCTION: Patients with non-traumatic acute intracranial pathology benefit from neurointensivist care. Similarly, trauma patients with and without TBI fare better when treated by a dedicated trauma team. No study has yet evaluated the role of specialized neurocritical (NICU) and trauma intensive care units (TICU) in the management of TBI patients, and it remains unclear which TBI patients are best served in NICU, TICU, or general (Med/Surg) ICU. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Multi-Institutional Trials Committee (AAST-MITC) decompressive craniectomy study...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Daniel M Pastula, Julia C Durrant, Daniel E Smith, J David Beckham, Kenneth L Tyler
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne and sexually transmitted flavivirus currently spreading throughout the Pacific and Western Hemisphere. ZIKV infection is often either asymptomatic or causes a self-limiting illness with symptoms such as rash, fever, myalgia, arthralgia, headache, or conjunctivitis. Rarely, ZIKV infection has been associated with conditions such as severe thrombocytopenia, microcephaly and other developmental abnormalities, acute polyneuropathy/Guillain-Barré syndrome, myelitis, meningoencephalitis, transient encephalopathy, provoked seizures, and various ophthalmologic conditions...
December 19, 2016: Neurocritical Care
Erik G Hayman, David B Kurland, Zachary Grunwald, Sebastian Urday, Kevin N Sheth, J Marc Simard
Neurosurgeons increasingly use decompressive craniectomy (DC) in neurocritical care. In this review, the authors summarize the topic of DC for the neurointensivist. Following a brief overview of the procedure, the major indications for the procedure are described. This includes a review of the literature regarding well-established indications, such as infarction and traumatic brain injury, as well as lesser known indications, including intracerebral hemorrhage, ruptured cerebrovascular malformations, sinus thrombosis, and infection...
December 2016: Seminars in Neurology
Andrea Park, Martin Chapman, Victoria A McCredie, Derek Debicki, Teneille Gofton, Loretta Norton, J Gordon Boyd
PURPOSE: We have previously shown that electroencephalography (EEG) may be an underutilized monitoring modality in a single general medical-surgical ICU, that does not have a specific neurocritical care consultation service or neurocritical care unit. The present study was designed to describe the pattern of EEG utilization across 3 academic ICUs in Ontario, Canada that use different models of neurocritical care. METHOD: In this prospective multicentre observational study, ICU patients were screened weekly for 6 non-consecutive weeks to determine if they met the ESICM's recommendations or suggestions for EEG monitoring...
December 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
David P Lerner, Jennifer Kim, Saef Izzy
BACKGROUND: The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) has established a core curriculum of topics for residency training in neurocritical care. At present there is limited data evaluating neurology residency education within the neurological intensive care unit. This study evaluates learner concerns with the neurological intensive care unit. METHODS: The Communication Committee and Resident & Fellow Taskforce within the Neurocritical Care Society (NCS) developed an online survey that consisted of 20 selection and free-text based questions...
September 12, 2016: Neurocritical Care
Amra Sakusic, Alejandro A Rabinstein
The practice of neurocritical care encompasses multiple acute neurologic and neurosurgical diseases and requires detailed knowledge of neurology and critical care. This article presents 5 cases that illustrate just some of the conditions encountered in the daily practice of neurocritical care and exemplify some of the common diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic challenges facing the neurointensivist. Life-threatening medical complications after severe acute ischemic stroke, seizures and extreme agitation from autoimmune encephalitis, refractory seizures after subdural hemorrhage, neurologic and systemic complications related to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and status epilepticus after cardiac arrest are discussed in this article...
August 2016: Neurologic Clinics
Charlene J Ong, Amar Dhand, Michael N Diringer
INTRODUCTION: Neurologists are often asked to define prognosis in comatose patients. However, comatose patients following cardiac arrest are usually cared for by cardiologists or intensivists, and it is their approach that will influence decisions regarding withdrawal of life-sustaining interventions (WLSI). We observed that factors leading to these decisions vary across specialties and considered whether they could result in self-fulfilling prophecies and early WLSI. We conducted a hypothesis-generating qualitative study to identify factors used by non-neurologists to define prognosis in these patients and construct an explanatory model for how early WLSI might occur...
October 2016: Neurocritical Care
Robert J Brown, Abhay Kumar, Louise D McCullough, Karyn Butler
: Purpose/aim: Blood pressure (BP) regulation is recommended following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) to prevent re-bleeding and to treat delayed cerebral ischemia. However, optimal BP thresholds are not well established. There is also variation with regard to the BP component (e.g. systolic vs. mean) that is targeted or manipulated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An 18-question survey was distributed to physicians and advanced practitioner members of the Neurocritical Care Society...
January 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
Millie Hepburn-Smith, Irina Dynkevich, Marina Spektor, Aaron Lord, Barry Czeisler, Ariane Lewis
External ventricular drains (EVDs) are commonly used to facilitate removal of cerebrospinal fluid in patients with neurologic dysfunction. Despite a high risk for infection (upward of 45%), many hospitals lack strict protocols for EVD placement and maintenance. In addition, EVD infections are typically not tracked with the same diligence as central-line catheter infections, because there are no widely accepted standards for routine management of EVDs. The purpose of this review is to provide a guide for the development of a standardized, best practice EVD protocol for catheter insertion, care, and maintenance to reduce ventriculostomy-related infections...
February 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
Satoshi Egawa, Toru Hifumi, Kenya Kawakita, Masanobu Okauchi, Atsushi Shindo, Masahiko Kawanishi, Takashi Tamiya, Yasuhiro Kuroda
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the impact of neurointensivist-managed intensive care unit (NIM-ICU) implementation for patients admitted with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). METHODS: This study retrospectively evaluated 234 patients (mean age, 61.7 years; male, 67) admitted with SAH between January 1, 2001, and March 31, 2014. Neurologic outcomes between patients admitted from January 2001 to December 2006 (intensivist-managed intensive care unit group) and January 2007 to March 2014 (NIM-ICU group) were compared...
April 2016: Journal of Critical Care
C L Kramer, D R Wetzel, E F M Wijdicks
BACKGROUND: "Bath salts" or synthetic cathinone toxicity remains a potentially deadly clinical condition. We report a delayed leukoencephalopathy with persistent minimally conscious state. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 36-year-old man presents with delayed encephalopathy, dysautonomia, fulminant hepatic failure, and renal failure from severe rhabdomyolysis after consuming bath salts. MRI showed diffusion restriction in the splenium of the corpus callosum and subcortical white matter...
June 2016: Neurocritical Care
Kendall A Snyder, Michelle J Clarke, Julie R Gilbertson, Sara E Hocker
BACKGROUND: Postoperative intracranial hypotension-associated venous congestion (PIHV) is an uncommon cause of clinical deterioration after a neurosurgical procedure that is often unrecognized until late in its course. Functional outcomes range from remarkable neurological recovery to death. Little is understood about the reason for deterioration in certain patients compared with improvement in others. A 68-year-old man with a progressive cervical myelopathy underwent an uncomplicated cervical decompression and alignment restoration at our hospital and suffered violent generalized tonic-clonic seizures intraoperatively and postoperatively...
June 2016: Neurocritical Care
Jose I Suarez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to present the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). SAH is a neurologic emergency that carries high morbidity and mortality. Patients with SAH are at risk for several significant neurologic complications, including hydrocephalus, cerebral edema, delayed cerebral ischemia, rebleeding, seizures, and neuroendocrine abnormalities that lead to impaired body regulation of sodium, water, and glucose...
October 2015: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Rajanandini Muralidharan
BACKGROUND: Insertion of an External Ventricular Drain (EVD) is arguably one of the most common and important lifesaving procedures in neurologic intensive care unit. Various forms of acute brain injury benefit from the continuous intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion provided by an EVD. After insertion, EVD monitoring, maintenance and troubleshooting essentially become a nursing responsibility. METHODS: Articles pertaining to EVD placement, management, and complications were identified from PubMed electronic database...
2015: Surgical Neurology International
Xuemei Cai, Jennifer Robinson, Susanne Muehlschlegel, Douglas B White, Robert G Holloway, Kevin N Sheth, Liana Fraenkel, David Y Hwang
In the neuroscience intensive care unit (NICU), most patients lack the capacity to make their own preferences known. This fact leads to situations where surrogate decision makers must fill the role of the patient in terms of making preference-based treatment decisions, oftentimes in challenging situations where prognosis is uncertain. The neurointensivist has a large responsibility and role to play in this shared decision-making process. This review covers how NICU patient preferences are determined through existing advance care documentation or surrogate decision makers and how the optimum roles of the physician and surrogate decision maker are addressed...
August 2015: Neurocritical Care
Faheem G Sheriff, Holly E Hinson
Moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among young individuals in high-income countries. Its pathophysiology is divided into two major phases: the initial neuronal injury (or primary injury) followed by secondary insults (secondary injury). Multimodality monitoring now offers neurointensivists the ability to monitor multiple physiologic parameters that act as surrogates of brain ischemia and hypoxia, the major driving forces behind secondary brain injury...
February 2015: Seminars in Neurology
Konstantin A Popugaev, Ivan A Savin, Andrew V Oshorov, Natalia V Kurdumova, Olga N Ershova, Andrew U Lubnin, Boris A Kadashev, Pavel L Kalinin, Maxim A Kutin, Tim Killeen, Evaldas Cesnulis, Ronald Melieste
Intracranial hypertension is a commonly encountered neurocritical care problem. If first-tier therapy is ineffective, second-tier therapy must be initiated. In many cases, the full arsenal of established treatment options is available. However, situations occasionally arise in which only a narrow range of options is available to neurointensivists. We present a rare clinical scenario in which therapeutic hypothermia was the only available method for controlling intracranial pressure and that demonstrates the efficacy and safety of the Thermogard (Zoll, Chelmsford, Massachusetts, United States) cooling system in creating and maintaining a prolonged hypothermic state...
December 2014: Journal of Neurological Surgery Reports
Wan-Tsu W Chang, Neeraj Badjatia
Neurotrauma continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Prevention of primary neurologic injury is a critical public health concern. Early and thorough assessment of the patient with neurotrauma with high index of suspicion of traumatic spinal cord injuries and traumatic vascular injuries requires a multidisciplinary approach involving prehospital providers, emergency physicians, neurosurgeons, and neurointensivists. Critical care management of the patient with neurotrauma is focused on the prevention of secondary injuries...
November 2014: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Joshua Eric Medow, Matthew R Dierks, Eliot Williams, J Christopher Zacko
It is imperative for neurologists, neurosurgeons, and neurointensivists to know how to stop life-threatening hemorrhage in both surgical and non-surgical patients. However, knowing how to medically correct a coagulopathy has become increasingly challenging as more contemporary and sophisticated anticoagulation agents are developed and prescribed. In a time-sensitive and life-threatening situation, where there is little margin for error, the neurosurgeon may not have ready access to information about the drug or condition that caused the coagulopathy or the information on how to treat it...
March 2015: Clinical Medicine & Research
Tenbit Emiru, Saqib A Chaudhry, Adnan I Qureshi
BACKGROUND: In the absence of specific guidelines, there is considerable variance in preprocedural intubation practices for endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke. The purpose of this study is to understand and characterize the variance in preprocedural intubation practices and identify the reasons that influence the choice of preprocedural intubation practices among treating physicians. METHODS: We selected 10 random cases from a prospective database of patients undergoing endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke and prepared a case summary providing pertinent demographic, clinical, and imaging data...
September 2014: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
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