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Ashlee M Hendy, Séverine Lamon
Objectives: Unilateral resistance training produces strength gains in the untrained homologous muscle group, an effect termed "cross-education." The observed strength transfer has traditionally been considered a phenomenon of the nervous system, with few studies examining the contribution of factors beyond the brain and spinal cord. In this hypothesis and theory article, we aim to discuss further evidence for structural and functional adaptations occurring within the nervous, muscle, and endocrine systems in response to unilateral resistance training...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Yu Yaginuma, Takashi Abe, Robert S Thiebaud, Takahiro Kitamura, Masashi Kawanishi, Tetsuo Fukunaga
Knee extension strength (KES) improves following body mass-based lower body exercise training; however, it is unknown whether this type of exercise increases handgrip strength (HGS) as a result of a cross-education effect in older individuals. Our aim was to investigate the effect of a body mass-based exercise intervention on HGS and KES in older adults. At baseline, 166 subjects started a 12-week intervention program, and 160 (108 women and 52 men) subjects completed the study. A self-selected group of 37 older adults (21 women and 16 men) served as a control group...
2017: BioResearch Open Access
Brandon W Collins, Evan J Lockyer, Duane C Button
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
Natasha G Boyes, Peter Yee, Joel L Lanovaz, Jonathan P Farthing
INTRODUCTION: Cross-education training programs cause interlimb asymmetry of strength and hypertrophy. We examined the cross-education effects from a high-frequency (HF) versus a low-frequency (LF) volume-matched handgrip training program on interlimb asymmetry. METHODS: Right-handed participants completed either HF (n = 10; 2 × 6 repetitions 10 times per week) or LF (n = 9; 5 × 8 repetitions 3 times per week) training. Testing occurred twice before and once after 4 weeks of right-handed isometric handgrip training totaling 120 weekly repetitions...
March 1, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
Ashlyn K Frazer, Jacqueline Williams, Michael Spittle, Dawson J Kidgell
PURPOSE: We examined the effect of priming the ipsilateral motor cortex (M1) using anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) prior to a single bout of strength training on the cross-transfer of strength and corticospinal excitability and inhibition of the ipsilateral M1. METHODS: In a randomized double-blinded cross-over design, changes in strength and indices of corticospinal plasticity were analysed in 13 adults who were exposed to 20 min of ipsilateral anodal and sham tDCS (applied to the ipsilateral M1 to the training arm) followed by a single strength training session of the right Biceps Brachii only...
April 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Kathy L Ruddy, Alexander Leemans, Daniel G Woolley, Nicole Wenderoth, Richard G Carson
Cross-education (CE) is the process whereby training with one limb leads to subsequent improvement in performance by the opposite untrained limb. We used multimodal neuroimaging in humans to investigate the mediating neural mechanisms by relating quantitative estimates of functional and structural cortical connectivity to individual levels of interlimb transfer. Resting-state (rs)-fMRI and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) scans were undertaken before unilateral ballistic wrist flexion training. The rs-fMRI sequence was repeated immediately afterward...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Trevor S Barss, Gregory E P Pearcey, E Paul Zehr
Edward Wheeler Scripture's 1894 work out of the Yale Psychological Laboratory has been influential in identifying the nervous system's contribution to the bilateral improvements that are seen with unilateral strength and skill training. Scripture coined the term "cross-education" to describe this improvement in the untrained contralateral limb. While physiological changes accompany aging that may negatively affect the performance of physical tasks, far too much credit has been given to the natural aging process rather than the effects of inactivity...
March 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
A Manca, F Ginatempo, M P Cabboi, B Mercante, E Ortu, D Dragone, E R De Natale, Z Dvir, J C Rothwell, Franca Deriu
PURPOSE: To test whether long-term cortical adaptations occur bilaterally following chronic unilateral training with a simple motor task. METHODS: Participants (n = 34) were randomly allocated to a training or control groups. Only the former completed a 4-week maximal-intensity isometric training of the right first dorsal interosseus muscle through key pinching. Maximal strength was assessed bilaterally in four different movements progressively less similar to the training task: key, tip and tripod pinches, and handgrip...
October 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Timothy A Coombs, Ashlyn K Frazer, Deanna M Horvath, Alan J Pearce, Glyn Howatson, Dawson J Kidgell
PURPOSE: Cross-education of strength has been proposed to be greater when completed by the dominant limb in right handed humans. We investigated whether the direction of cross-education of strength and corticospinal plasticity are different following right or left limb strength training in right-handed participants. METHODS: Changes in strength, muscle thickness and indices of corticospinal plasticity were analyzed in 23 adults who were exposed to 3-weeks of either right-hand strength training (RHT) or left-hand strength training (LHT)...
September 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Natasha G Boyes, Peter Yee, Joel L Lanovaz, Jonathan P Farthing
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Kathy L Ruddy, Anne K Rudolf, Barbara Kalkman, Maedbh King, Andreas Daffertshofer, Timothy J Carroll, Richard G Carson
Cross education is the process whereby training of one limb gives rise to increases in the subsequent performance of its opposite counterpart. The execution of many unilateral tasks is associated with increased excitability of corticospinal projections from primary motor cortex (M1) to the opposite limb. It has been proposed that these effects are causally related. Our aim was to establish whether changes in corticospinal excitability (CSE) arising from prior training of the opposite limb determine levels of interlimb transfer...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Monika Ehrensberger, Daniel Simpson, Patrick Broderick, Kenneth Monaghan
BACKGROUND: Since its discovery in 1894 cross-education of strength - a bilateral adaptation after unilateral training - has been shown to be effective in the rehabilitation after one-sided orthopedic injuries. Limited knowledge exists on its application within the rehabilitation after stroke. This review examined the evidence regarding the implication of cross-education in the rehabilitation of the post-stroke hemiplegic patient and its role in motor function recovery. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched by two independent assessors...
April 2016: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
Tjerk Zult, Stuart Goodall, Kevin Thomas, Stanislaw Solnik, Tibor Hortobágyi, Glyn Howatson
PURPOSE: Unilateral strength training strengthens not only the muscles on the trained side but also the homologous muscles on the untrained side; however, the magnitude of this interlimb cross-education is modest. We tested the hypothesis that heightened sensory feedback by mirror viewing the exercising hand would augment cross education by modulating neuronal excitability. METHODS: Healthy adults were randomized into a mirror training group (MG, N = 11) and a no-mirror training group (NMG, N = 12) and performed 640 shortening muscle contractions of the right wrist flexors at 80% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) during 15 sessions for 3 wk...
June 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Kyle S Beyer, David H Fukuda, Carleigh H Boone, Adam J Wells, Jeremy R Townsend, Adam R Jajtner, Adam M Gonzalez, Maren S Fragala, Jay R Hoffman, Jeffrey R Stout
Short-term unilateral resistance training results in cross education of strength without changes in muscle size, activation, or endocrine response. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1213-1223, 2016-The purpose of this study was to assess the cross education of strength and changes in the underlying mechanisms (muscle size, activation, and hormonal response) after a 4-week unilateral resistance training (URT) program. A group of 9 untrained men completed a 4-week URT program on the dominant leg (DOM), whereas cross education was measured in the nondominant leg (NON); and were compared with a control group (n = 8, CON)...
May 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Helen H G Handoll, Joanne Elliott
BACKGROUND: Fracture of the distal radius is a common clinical problem, particularly in older people with osteoporosis. There is considerable variation in the management, including rehabilitation, of these fractures. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2002 and last updated in 2006. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of rehabilitation interventions in adults with conservatively or surgically treated distal radial fractures. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2014; Issue 12), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, PEDro, OTseeker and other databases, trial registers, conference proceedings and reference lists of articles...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
M A Urbin, Michelle L Harris-Love, Alex R Carter, Catherine E Lang
Limited rehabilitation strategies are available for movement restoration when paresis is too severe following stroke. Previous research has shown that high-intensity resistance training of one muscle group enhances strength of the homologous, contralateral muscle group in neurologically intact adults. How this "cross education" phenomenon might be exploited to moderate severe weakness in an upper extremity muscle group after stroke is not well understood. The primary aim of this study was to examine adaptations in force-generating capacity of severely paretic wrist extensors resulting from high intensity, dynamic contractions of the non-paretic wrist extensors...
2015: Frontiers in Neurology
D J Kidgell, A K Frazer, R M Daly, T Rantalainen, I Ruotsalainen, J Ahtiainen, J Avela, G Howatson
AIM: Strength training of one limb results in a substantial increase in the strength of the untrained limb, however, it remains unknown what the corticospinal responses are following either eccentric or concentric strength training and how this relates to the cross-education of strength. The aim of this study was to determine if eccentric or concentric unilateral strength training differentially modulates corticospinal excitability, inhibition and the cross-transfer of strength. METHODS: Changes in contralateral (left limb) concentric strength, eccentric strength, motor-evoked potentials, short-interval intracortical inhibition and silent period durations were analyzed in groups of young adults who exercised the right wrist flexors with either eccentric (N=9) or concentric (N=9) contractions for 12 sessions over 4weeks...
August 6, 2015: Neuroscience
David Monaghan
Though extensive research has explored the prevalence of educational assortative mating, what causes its variation across countries and over time is not well understood. Using data from the Luxembourg Income Study Database, I investigate the hypothesis that assortative mating by income is influenced by income inequality between educational strata. I find that in countries with greater returns to education, the odds of any sort of union that crosses educational boundaries is substantially reduced. However, I do not find substantial evidence of an effect of changes in returns to education on marital sorting within countries...
July 2015: Social Science Research
Fatemeh Ehsani, Afsun Nodehi-Moghadam, Hakimeh Ghandali, Zahra Ahmadizade
BACKGROUND: Many studies have reported the increase in strength of the untrained contralateral limb after unilateral training. The aim of this study was to compare the cross education effect in the young and elderly persons. METHODS: In this quasi-experimental and pre-post study, 12 young people aged 28.25 ±3.11 years and 12 elderly persons (aged 73.08 ± 5.3 years) participated. The subjects had no history of strength training and upper limb movement impairments...
2014: Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Tjerk Zult, Stuart Goodall, Kevin Thomas, Tibor Hortobágyi, Glyn Howatson
Forceful, unilateral contractions modulate corticomotor paths targeting the resting, contralateral hand. However, it is unknown whether mirror-viewing of a slowly moving but forcefully contracting hand would additionally affect these paths. Here we examined corticospinal excitability and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) of the right-ipsilateral primary motor cortex (M1) in healthy young adults under no-mirror and mirror conditions at rest and during right wrist flexion at 60% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)...
April 1, 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
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