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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27505019/cross-education-of-strength-and-skill-an-old-idea-with-applications-in-the-aging-nervous-system
#1
REVIEW
Trevor S Barss, Gregory E P Pearcey, E Paul Zehr
Edward Wheeler Scripture's 1894 work out of the Yale Psychological Laboratory has been influential in identifying the nervous system's contribution to the bilateral improvements that are seen with unilateral strength and skill training. Scripture coined the term "cross-education" to describe this improvement in the untrained contralateral limb. While physiological changes accompany aging that may negatively affect the performance of physical tasks, far too much credit has been given to the natural aging process rather than the effects of inactivity...
March 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485469/no-evidence-of-neural-adaptations-following-chronic-unilateral-isometric-training-of-the-intrinsic-muscles-of-the-hand-a-randomized-controlled-study
#2
A Manca, F Ginatempo, M P Cabboi, B Mercante, E Ortu, D Dragone, E R De Natale, Z Dvir, J C Rothwell, Franca Deriu
PURPOSE: To test whether long-term cortical adaptations occur bilaterally following chronic unilateral training with a simple motor task. METHODS: Participants (n = 34) were randomly allocated to a training or control groups. Only the former completed a 4-week maximal-intensity isometric training of the right first dorsal interosseus muscle through key pinching. Maximal strength was assessed bilaterally in four different movements progressively less similar to the training task: key, tip and tripod pinches, and handgrip...
October 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423912/cross-education-of-wrist-extensor-strength-is-not-influenced-by-non-dominant-training-in-right-handers
#3
Timothy A Coombs, Ashlyn K Frazer, Deanna M Horvath, Alan J Pearce, Glyn Howatson, Dawson J Kidgell
PURPOSE: Cross-education of strength has been proposed to be greater when completed by the dominant limb in right handed humans. We investigated whether the direction of cross-education of strength and corticospinal plasticity are different following right or left limb strength training in right-handed participants. METHODS: Changes in strength, muscle thickness and indices of corticospinal plasticity were analyzed in 23 adults who were exposed to 3-weeks of either right-hand strength training (RHT) or left-hand strength training (LHT)...
September 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27361030/cross-education-effects-after-high-versus-low-frequency-volume-matched-grip-strength-training-2205-board-357-june-2-2-00-pm-3-30-pm
#4
Natasha G Boyes, Peter Yee, Joel L Lanovaz, Jonathan P Farthing
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199722/neural-adaptations-associated-with-interlimb-transfer-in-a-ballistic-wrist-flexion-task
#5
Kathy L Ruddy, Anne K Rudolf, Barbara Kalkman, Maedbh King, Andreas Daffertshofer, Timothy J Carroll, Richard G Carson
Cross education is the process whereby training of one limb gives rise to increases in the subsequent performance of its opposite counterpart. The execution of many unilateral tasks is associated with increased excitability of corticospinal projections from primary motor cortex (M1) to the opposite limb. It has been proposed that these effects are causally related. Our aim was to establish whether changes in corticospinal excitability (CSE) arising from prior training of the opposite limb determine levels of interlimb transfer...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26907193/cross-education-of-strength-has-a-positive-impact-on-post-stroke-rehabilitation-a-systematic-literature-review
#6
REVIEW
Monika Ehrensberger, Daniel Simpson, Patrick Broderick, Kenneth Monaghan
BACKGROUND: Since its discovery in 1894 cross-education of strength - a bilateral adaptation after unilateral training - has been shown to be effective in the rehabilitation after one-sided orthopedic injuries. Limited knowledge exists on its application within the rehabilitation after stroke. This review examined the evidence regarding the implication of cross-education in the rehabilitation of the post-stroke hemiplegic patient and its role in motor function recovery. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched by two independent assessors...
April 2016: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26765630/mirror-training-augments-the-cross-education-of-strength-and-affects-inhibitory-paths
#7
Tjerk Zult, Stuart Goodall, Kevin Thomas, Stanislaw Solnik, Tibor Hortobágyi, Glyn Howatson
PURPOSE: Unilateral strength training strengthens not only the muscles on the trained side but also the homologous muscles on the untrained side; however, the magnitude of this interlimb cross-education is modest. We tested the hypothesis that heightened sensory feedback by mirror viewing the exercising hand would augment cross education by modulating neuronal excitability. METHODS: Healthy adults were randomized into a mirror training group (MG, N = 11) and a no-mirror training group (NMG, N = 12) and performed 640 shortening muscle contractions of the right wrist flexors at 80% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) during 15 sessions for 3 wk...
June 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26466136/short-term-unilateral-resistance-training-results-in-cross-education-of-strength-without-changes-in-muscle-size-activation-or-endocrine-response
#8
Kyle S Beyer, David H Fukuda, Carleigh H Boone, Adam J Wells, Jeremy R Townsend, Adam R Jajtner, Adam M Gonzalez, Maren S Fragala, Jay R Hoffman, Jeffrey R Stout
Short-term unilateral resistance training results in cross education of strength without changes in muscle size, activation, or endocrine response. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1213-1223, 2016-The purpose of this study was to assess the cross education of strength and changes in the underlying mechanisms (muscle size, activation, and hormonal response) after a 4-week unilateral resistance training (URT) program. A group of 9 untrained men completed a 4-week URT program on the dominant leg (DOM), whereas cross education was measured in the nondominant leg (NON); and were compared with a control group (n = 8, CON)...
May 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26403335/rehabilitation-for-distal-radial-fractures-in-adults
#9
REVIEW
Helen H G Handoll, Joanne Elliott
BACKGROUND: Fracture of the distal radius is a common clinical problem, particularly in older people with osteoporosis. There is considerable variation in the management, including rehabilitation, of these fractures. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2002 and last updated in 2006. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of rehabilitation interventions in adults with conservatively or surgically treated distal radial fractures. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2014; Issue 12), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, PEDro, OTseeker and other databases, trial registers, conference proceedings and reference lists of articles...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26074871/high-intensity-unilateral-resistance-training-of-a-non-paretic-muscle-group-increases-active-range-of-motion-in-a-severely-paretic-upper-extremity-muscle-group-after-stroke
#10
M A Urbin, Michelle L Harris-Love, Alex R Carter, Catherine E Lang
Limited rehabilitation strategies are available for movement restoration when paresis is too severe following stroke. Previous research has shown that high-intensity resistance training of one muscle group enhances strength of the homologous, contralateral muscle group in neurologically intact adults. How this "cross education" phenomenon might be exploited to moderate severe weakness in an upper extremity muscle group after stroke is not well understood. The primary aim of this study was to examine adaptations in force-generating capacity of severely paretic wrist extensors resulting from high intensity, dynamic contractions of the non-paretic wrist extensors...
2015: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26037804/increased-cross-education-of-muscle-strength-and-reduced-corticospinal-inhibition-following-eccentric-strength-training
#11
D J Kidgell, A K Frazer, R M Daly, T Rantalainen, I Ruotsalainen, J Ahtiainen, J Avela, G Howatson
AIM: Strength training of one limb results in a substantial increase in the strength of the untrained limb, however, it remains unknown what the corticospinal responses are following either eccentric or concentric strength training and how this relates to the cross-education of strength. The aim of this study was to determine if eccentric or concentric unilateral strength training differentially modulates corticospinal excitability, inhibition and the cross-transfer of strength. METHODS: Changes in contralateral (left limb) concentric strength, eccentric strength, motor-evoked potentials, short-interval intracortical inhibition and silent period durations were analyzed in groups of young adults who exercised the right wrist flexors with either eccentric (N=9) or concentric (N=9) contractions for 12 sessions over 4weeks...
August 6, 2015: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26004461/income-inequality-and-educational-assortative-mating-evidence-from-the-luxembourg-income-study
#12
David Monaghan
Though extensive research has explored the prevalence of educational assortative mating, what causes its variation across countries and over time is not well understood. Using data from the Luxembourg Income Study Database, I investigate the hypothesis that assortative mating by income is influenced by income inequality between educational strata. I find that in countries with greater returns to education, the odds of any sort of union that crosses educational boundaries is substantially reduced. However, I do not find substantial evidence of an effect of changes in returns to education on marital sorting within countries...
July 2015: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25694996/the-comparison-of-cross-education-effect-in-young-and-elderly-females-from-unilateral-training-of-the-elbow-flexors
#13
Fatemeh Ehsani, Afsun Nodehi-Moghadam, Hakimeh Ghandali, Zahra Ahmadizade
BACKGROUND: Many studies have reported the increase in strength of the untrained contralateral limb after unilateral training. The aim of this study was to compare the cross education effect in the young and elderly persons. METHODS: In this quasi-experimental and pre-post study, 12 young people aged 28.25 ±3.11 years and 12 elderly persons (aged 73.08 ± 5.3 years) participated. The subjects had no history of strength training and upper limb movement impairments...
2014: Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25632077/mirror-illusion-reduces-motor-cortical-inhibition-in-the-ipsilateral-primary-motor-cortex-during-forceful-unilateral-muscle-contractions
#14
Tjerk Zult, Stuart Goodall, Kevin Thomas, Tibor Hortobágyi, Glyn Howatson
Forceful, unilateral contractions modulate corticomotor paths targeting the resting, contralateral hand. However, it is unknown whether mirror-viewing of a slowly moving but forcefully contracting hand would additionally affect these paths. Here we examined corticospinal excitability and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) of the right-ipsilateral primary motor cortex (M1) in healthy young adults under no-mirror and mirror conditions at rest and during right wrist flexion at 60% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)...
April 1, 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25551405/anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-prolongs-the-cross-education-of-strength-and-corticomotor-plasticity
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ashlee M Hendy, Wei-Peng Teo, Dawson J Kidgell
PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the efficacy of applying anodal transcranial direct-current stimulation (a-tDCS) to the ipsilateral motor cortex (iM1) during unilateral strength training to enhance the neurophysiological and functional effects of cross-education. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy volunteers were randomly allocated to perform either of the following: strength training during a-tDCS (ST + a-tDCS), strength training during sham tDCS (ST + sham), or a-tDCS during rest (a-tDCS) across 2 wk...
September 2015: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25153790/surgical-leg-rotation-cortical-neuroplasticity-assessed-through-brain-mapping-using-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#16
Luigi Tesio, Maria Grazia Benedetti, Viviana Rota, Marco Manfrini, Laura Perucca, Antonio Caronni
Rotationplasty (Borggreve-Van Nes operation) is a rare limb salvage procedure, most often applied to children presenting with sarcoma of the distal femur. In type A1 operation, the distal thigh is removed and the proximal tibia is axially rotated by 180°, remodeled, grafted onto the femoral stump, and then prosthetized. The neurovascular bundle is spared. The rotated ankle then works as a knee. The foot plantar and dorsal flexors act as knee extensors and flexors, respectively. Functional results may be excellent...
December 2014: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25117873/cross-education-strength-and-activation-after-eccentric-exercise
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Lindsey K Lepley, Riann M Palmieri-Smith
CONTEXT: After injury, eccentric exercise of the injured limb is often contraindicated. Cross-education training, whereby the uninvolved limb is exercised, is an alternative that may improve quadriceps muscle strength and activation in the unexercised limb. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of eccentric exercise on quadriceps strength and activation gains in the unexercised limb. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen healthy individuals were randomly assigned to an eccentric training group or a control group...
September 2014: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25064816/direct-and-crossed-effects-of-somatosensory-stimulation-on-neuronal-excitability-and-motor-performance-in-humans
#18
REVIEW
M P Veldman, N A Maffiuletti, M Hallett, I Zijdewind, T Hortobágyi
This analytic review reports how prolonged periods of somatosensory electric stimulation (SES) with repetitive transcutaneous nerve stimulation can have 'direct' and 'crossed' effects on brain activation, corticospinal excitability, and motor performance. A review of 26 studies involving 315 healthy and 78 stroke and dystonia patients showed that the direct effects of SES increased corticospinal excitability up to 40% (effect size: 0.2 to 6.1) and motor performance up to 14% (effect size: 0.3 to 3.1) but these two features did not correlate...
November 2014: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25026547/a-study-of-cross-education-in-strength
#19
H G Speakman
Cross-education has long been an area of interest. The term is credited to Scripture et al. (1894), who initiated the first series of studies in this area. These studies were mainly in the field of psychology and it was known that if a subject practised writing with one hand, skill was gained in writing with the other hand. DeLorme (1945), experimenting with adaption of weight-lifting procedures to the treatment of various disabilities of the skeletomuscular system, observed that unilateral exercise of the progressive-resistance type was associated with a concurrent development of increased strength in the symmetric muscle groups of the contralateral limb...
March 1975: Australian Journal of Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24583541/acute-unilateral-leg-vibration-exercise-improves-contralateral-neuromuscular-performance
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
P J Marín, T J Hazell, M T García-Gutiérrez, D J Cochrane
OBJECTIVES: To examine the post-exercise cross-transfer effects of acute whole body vibration (WBV). METHODS: Seventeen healthy male volunteers (20.8 ± 1.2 y) performed three unilateral vibration conditions in a randomized order: 1) WBV-50 Hz [high amplitude]; 2) WBV-30 Hz [low amplitude]; and 3) a control no WBV condition (Sham) applied to the dominant leg. Each condition involved maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) followed by three leg press explosive repetitions (40% MVC) with non-dominant and dominant legs; which were conducted prior to and post vibration (immediately; 2 min and 5 min)...
March 2014: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
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