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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305060/does-ipsilateral-corticospinal-excitability-play-a-decisive-role-in-the-cross-education-effect-caused-by-unilateral-resistance-training-a-systematic-review
#1
D Colomer-Poveda, S Romero-Arenas, T Hortobagyi, G Márquez
INTRODUCTION: Unilateral resistance training has been shown to improve muscle strength in both the trained and the untrained limb. One of the most widely accepted theories is that this improved performance is due to nervous system adaptations, specifically in the primary motor cortex. According to this hypothesis, increased corticospinal excitability (CSE), measured with transcranial magnetic stimulation, is one of the main adaptations observed following prolonged periods of training...
January 2, 2018: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069548/evidence-of-homologous-and-heterologous-effects-after-unilateral-leg-training-in-youth
#2
Aymen Ben Othman, David G Behm, Anis Chaouachi
The positive effects of unilateral training on contralateral muscles (cross education) has been demonstrated with adults for over a century. There is limited evidence for cross education of heterologous muscles. Cross education has not been demonstrated with children. It was the objective of this study to investigate cross education training in children examining ipsilateral and contralateral homologous and heterologous muscles. Forty-eight male children (10-13 years) were assessed for unilateral, ipsilateral and contralateral lower limb strength, power and endurance (1 repetition maximum (RM) leg press, knee extensors (KE) and flexors (KF) maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC), countermovement jump (CMJ), muscle endurance test (leg press repetitions with 60% 1RM)), and upper body unilateral MVIC elbow flexors (EF) and handgrip strength...
October 25, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936703/cross-education-of-muscular-strength-following-unilateral-resistance-training-a-meta-analysis
#3
A Manca, D Dragone, Z Dvir, Franca Deriu
PURPOSE: Cross-education (CE) of strength is a well-known phenomenon whereby exercise of one limb can induce strength gains in the contralateral untrained limb. The only available meta-analyses on CE, which date back to a decade ago, estimated a modest 7.8% increase in contralateral strength following unilateral training. However, in recent years new evidences have outlined larger contralateral gains, which deserve to be systematically evaluated. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to appraise current data on CE and determine its overall magnitude of effect...
November 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918308/appropriateness-of-different-pedagogical-approaches-to-road-safety-education-for-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder-dcd
#4
C Purcell, A R Romijn
BACKGROUND: In 2016, 29% of pedestrians killed or seriously injured on the roads in Great Britain were under 15 years of age. Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), a chronic disorder affecting the acquisition and execution of motor skills, may be more vulnerable at the roadside than typically developing (TD) children. Current methods used to teach road safety are typically knowledge-based and do not necessarily improve behaviour in real traffic situations. Virtual reality road crossing tasks may be a viable alternative...
September 14, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829918/ipsilateral-corticomotor-responses-are-confined-to-the-homologous-muscle-following-cross-education-of-muscular-strength
#5
Joel Mason, Ashlyn K Frazer, Deanna M Horvath, Alan J Pearce, Janne Avela, Glyn Howatson, Dawson J Kidgell
Cross-education of strength occurs when strength-training one limb increases the strength of the untrained limb and is restricted to the untrained homologous muscle. Cortical circuits located ipsilateral to the trained limb might be involved. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to determine the corticomotor responses from the untrained homologous (biceps brachii) and non-homologous (flexor carpi radialis) muscle following strength-training of the right elbow flexors. Motor evoked potentials were recorded from the untrained left biceps brachii and flexor carpi radialis during a submaximal contraction from 20 individuals (10 women, 10 men, aged 18-35 years; training group; n = 10 and control group; n = 10) before and after 3-weeks of strength-training the right biceps brachii at 80% of 1-repetition maximum (1-RM)...
August 22, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738735/clinician-perspectives-on-cross-education-in-stroke-rehabilitation
#6
William Russell, Lesley Pritchard-Wiart, Patricia J Manns
PURPOSE: Cross-education is a neural phenomenon where strength of an untrained muscle improves after unilateral training of the opposite homologous muscle. It has been extensively studied in healthy populations and shows promise for post-stroke rehabilitation. The purpose of this study is to understand current post-stroke upper extremity rehabilitation practice; clinician's perspectives on cross-education and; facilitators and barriers to implementation of a cross-education intervention...
July 24, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539892/the-cross-education-phenomenon-brain-and-beyond
#7
Ashlee M Hendy, Séverine Lamon
Objectives: Unilateral resistance training produces strength gains in the untrained homologous muscle group, an effect termed "cross-education." The observed strength transfer has traditionally been considered a phenomenon of the nervous system, with few studies examining the contribution of factors beyond the brain and spinal cord. In this hypothesis and theory article, we aim to discuss further evidence for structural and functional adaptations occurring within the nervous, muscle, and endocrine systems in response to unilateral resistance training...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451471/can-handgrip-strength-improve-following-body-mass-based-lower-body-exercise
#8
Yu Yaginuma, Takashi Abe, Robert S Thiebaud, Takahiro Kitamura, Masashi Kawanishi, Tetsuo Fukunaga
Knee extension strength (KES) improves following body mass-based lower body exercise training; however, it is unknown whether this type of exercise increases handgrip strength (HGS) as a result of a cross-education effect in older individuals. Our aim was to investigate the effect of a body mass-based exercise intervention on HGS and KES in older adults. At baseline, 166 subjects started a 12-week intervention program, and 160 (108 women and 52 men) subjects completed the study. A self-selected group of 37 older adults (21 women and 16 men) served as a control group...
2017: BioResearch Open Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407340/prescribing-cross-education-of-strength-is-it-time
#9
Brandon W Collins, Evan J Lockyer, Duane C Button
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249351/cross-education-after-high-frequency-versus-low-frequency-volume-matched-handgrip-training
#10
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Natasha G Boyes, Peter Yee, Joel L Lanovaz, Jonathan P Farthing
INTRODUCTION: Cross-education training programs cause interlimb asymmetry of strength and hypertrophy. We examined the cross-education effects from a high-frequency (HF) versus a low-frequency (LF) volume-matched handgrip training program on interlimb asymmetry. METHODS: Right-handed participants completed either HF (n = 10; 2 × 6 repetitions 10 times per week) or LF (n = 9; 5 × 8 repetitions 3 times per week) training. Testing occurred twice before and once after 4 weeks of right-handed isometric handgrip training totaling 120 weekly repetitions...
October 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243779/cross-education-of-muscular-strength-is-facilitated-by-homeostatic-plasticity
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ashlyn K Frazer, Jacqueline Williams, Michael Spittle, Dawson J Kidgell
PURPOSE: We examined the effect of priming the ipsilateral motor cortex (M1) using anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) prior to a single bout of strength training on the cross-transfer of strength and corticospinal excitability and inhibition of the ipsilateral M1. METHODS: In a randomized double-blinded cross-over design, changes in strength and indices of corticospinal plasticity were analysed in 13 adults who were exposed to 20 min of ipsilateral anodal and sham tDCS (applied to the ipsilateral M1 to the training arm) followed by a single strength training session of the right Biceps Brachii only...
April 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154150/structural-and-functional-cortical-connectivity-mediating-cross-education-of-motor-function
#12
Kathy L Ruddy, Alexander Leemans, Daniel G Woolley, Nicole Wenderoth, Richard G Carson
Cross-education (CE) is the process whereby training with one limb leads to subsequent improvement in performance by the opposite untrained limb. We used multimodal neuroimaging in humans to investigate the mediating neural mechanisms by relating quantitative estimates of functional and structural cortical connectivity to individual levels of interlimb transfer. Resting-state (rs)-fMRI and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) scans were undertaken before unilateral ballistic wrist flexion training. The rs-fMRI sequence was repeated immediately afterward...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27505019/cross-education-of-strength-and-skill-an-old-idea-with-applications-in-the-aging-nervous-system
#13
REVIEW
Trevor S Barss, Gregory E P Pearcey, E Paul Zehr
Edward Wheeler Scripture's 1894 work out of the Yale Psychological Laboratory has been influential in identifying the nervous system's contribution to the bilateral improvements that are seen with unilateral strength and skill training. Scripture coined the term "cross-education" to describe this improvement in the untrained contralateral limb. While physiological changes accompany aging that may negatively affect the performance of physical tasks, far too much credit has been given to the natural aging process rather than the effects of inactivity...
March 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485469/no-evidence-of-neural-adaptations-following-chronic-unilateral-isometric-training-of-the-intrinsic-muscles-of-the-hand-a-randomized-controlled-study
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
A Manca, F Ginatempo, M P Cabboi, B Mercante, E Ortu, D Dragone, E R De Natale, Z Dvir, J C Rothwell, Franca Deriu
PURPOSE: To test whether long-term cortical adaptations occur bilaterally following chronic unilateral training with a simple motor task. METHODS: Participants (n = 34) were randomly allocated to a training or control groups. Only the former completed a 4-week maximal-intensity isometric training of the right first dorsal interosseus muscle through key pinching. Maximal strength was assessed bilaterally in four different movements progressively less similar to the training task: key, tip and tripod pinches, and handgrip...
October 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423912/cross-education-of-wrist-extensor-strength-is-not-influenced-by-non-dominant-training-in-right-handers
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Timothy A Coombs, Ashlyn K Frazer, Deanna M Horvath, Alan J Pearce, Glyn Howatson, Dawson J Kidgell
PURPOSE: Cross-education of strength has been proposed to be greater when completed by the dominant limb in right handed humans. We investigated whether the direction of cross-education of strength and corticospinal plasticity are different following right or left limb strength training in right-handed participants. METHODS: Changes in strength, muscle thickness and indices of corticospinal plasticity were analyzed in 23 adults who were exposed to 3-weeks of either right-hand strength training (RHT) or left-hand strength training (LHT)...
September 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27361030/cross-education-effects-after-high-versus-low-frequency-volume-matched-grip-strength-training-2205-board-357-june-2-2-00-pm-3-30-pm
#16
Natasha G Boyes, Peter Yee, Joel L Lanovaz, Jonathan P Farthing
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199722/neural-adaptations-associated-with-interlimb-transfer-in-a-ballistic-wrist-flexion-task
#17
Kathy L Ruddy, Anne K Rudolf, Barbara Kalkman, Maedbh King, Andreas Daffertshofer, Timothy J Carroll, Richard G Carson
Cross education is the process whereby training of one limb gives rise to increases in the subsequent performance of its opposite counterpart. The execution of many unilateral tasks is associated with increased excitability of corticospinal projections from primary motor cortex (M1) to the opposite limb. It has been proposed that these effects are causally related. Our aim was to establish whether changes in corticospinal excitability (CSE) arising from prior training of the opposite limb determine levels of interlimb transfer...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26907193/cross-education-of-strength-has-a-positive-impact-on-post-stroke-rehabilitation-a-systematic-literature-review
#18
REVIEW
Monika Ehrensberger, Daniel Simpson, Patrick Broderick, Kenneth Monaghan
BACKGROUND: Since its discovery in 1894 cross-education of strength - a bilateral adaptation after unilateral training - has been shown to be effective in the rehabilitation after one-sided orthopedic injuries. Limited knowledge exists on its application within the rehabilitation after stroke. This review examined the evidence regarding the implication of cross-education in the rehabilitation of the post-stroke hemiplegic patient and its role in motor function recovery. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched by two independent assessors...
April 2016: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26765630/mirror-training-augments-the-cross-education-of-strength-and-affects-inhibitory-paths
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Tjerk Zult, Stuart Goodall, Kevin Thomas, Stanislaw Solnik, Tibor Hortobágyi, Glyn Howatson
PURPOSE: Unilateral strength training strengthens not only the muscles on the trained side but also the homologous muscles on the untrained side; however, the magnitude of this interlimb cross-education is modest. We tested the hypothesis that heightened sensory feedback by mirror viewing the exercising hand would augment cross education by modulating neuronal excitability. METHODS: Healthy adults were randomized into a mirror training group (MG, N = 11) and a no-mirror training group (NMG, N = 12) and performed 640 shortening muscle contractions of the right wrist flexors at 80% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) during 15 sessions for 3 wk...
June 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26466136/short-term-unilateral-resistance-training-results-in-cross-education-of-strength-without-changes-in-muscle-size-activation-or-endocrine-response
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Kyle S Beyer, David H Fukuda, Carleigh H Boone, Adam J Wells, Jeremy R Townsend, Adam R Jajtner, Adam M Gonzalez, Maren S Fragala, Jay R Hoffman, Jeffrey R Stout
Short-term unilateral resistance training results in cross education of strength without changes in muscle size, activation, or endocrine response. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1213-1223, 2016-The purpose of this study was to assess the cross education of strength and changes in the underlying mechanisms (muscle size, activation, and hormonal response) after a 4-week unilateral resistance training (URT) program. A group of 9 untrained men completed a 4-week URT program on the dominant leg (DOM), whereas cross education was measured in the nondominant leg (NON); and were compared with a control group (n = 8, CON)...
May 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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