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Michael Leung, Timo Rantalainen, Wei-Peng Teo, Dawson Kidgell
This study aimed to identify the ipsilateral corticospinal responses of the contralateral limb following different types of unilateral motor-training. Three groups performing unilateral slow-paced strength training (SPST), non-paced strength training (NPST) or visuomotor skill training (VT) were compared to a control group. It was hypothesised that 4 weeks of unilateral SPST and VT, but not NPST, would increase ipsilateral corticospinal excitability (CSE) and reduce short-interval cortical inhibition (SICI), resulting in greater performance gains of the untrained limb...
March 6, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Garrett M Hester, Zachary K Pope, Mitchel A Magrini, Ryan J Colquhoun, Alejandra B Curiel, Carlos A Estrada, Alex A Olmos, Jason M DeFreitas
This study examined the effects of unilateral resistance training (RT) on maximal velocity parameters in the ipsilateral and contralateral legs in young and older males. Young (n = 22; age = 21.55 ± 2.23 yrs) and older (n = 20; age = 65.10 ± 9.65 yrs) males were assigned to training or control groups. Unilateral isokinetic RT of the knee extensors was performed for 4 weeks. Peak velocity (PV) and acceleration were identified during a dynamic maximal voluntary contraction before, at week 2, and after week 4 (POST) of RT...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Andrea Manca, Tibor Hortobagyi, John C Rothwell, Franca Deriu
We reviewed the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on the neurophysiological adaptations in the untrained side associated with cross-education of strength (CE) and pooled data into definite effect estimates for neurophysiological variables assessed in chronic CE studies. Furthermore, scoping directions for future research were provided to enhance the homogeneity and comparability of studies investigating the neural responses to CE. The magnitude of CE was 21.1{plus minus}18.2% (p<0...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Justin W Andrushko, Joel L Lanovaz, Kelsey M Björkman, Saija A Kontulainen, Jonathan Peter Farthing
Cross-education (CE) occurs after unilateral training whereby performance of the untrained contralateral limb is enhanced. A handful of studies have shown that CE can spare the strength and size of an opposite immobilized limb, but specificity (i.e., trained homologous muscle and contraction type) of these effects is unknown. The purpose was to investigate specificity of CE "sparing" effects with immobilization. The non-dominant forearm of 16 participants was immobilized with a cast and participants were randomly assigned to a resistance training (eccentric wrist flexion, 3 times/week) or control group for four weeks...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
D Colomer-Poveda, S Romero-Arenas, T Hortobagyi, G Márquez
INTRODUCTION: Unilateral resistance training has been shown to improve muscle strength in both the trained and the untrained limb. One of the most widely accepted theories is that this improved performance is due to nervous system adaptations, specifically in the primary motor cortex. According to this hypothesis, increased corticospinal excitability (CSE), measured with transcranial magnetic stimulation, is one of the main adaptations observed following prolonged periods of training...
January 2, 2018: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Aymen Ben Othman, David G Behm, Anis Chaouachi
The positive effects of unilateral training on contralateral muscles (cross education) has been demonstrated with adults for over a century. There is limited evidence for cross education of heterologous muscles. Cross education has not been demonstrated with children. It was the objective of this study to investigate cross education training in children examining ipsilateral and contralateral homologous and heterologous muscles. Forty-eight male children (10-13 years) were assessed for unilateral, ipsilateral and contralateral lower limb strength, power and endurance (1 repetition maximum (RM) leg press, knee extensors (KE) and flexors (KF) maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC), countermovement jump (CMJ), muscle endurance test (leg press repetitions with 60% 1RM)), and upper body unilateral MVIC elbow flexors (EF) and handgrip strength...
October 25, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
A Manca, D Dragone, Z Dvir, Franca Deriu
PURPOSE: Cross-education (CE) of strength is a well-known phenomenon whereby exercise of one limb can induce strength gains in the contralateral untrained limb. The only available meta-analyses on CE, which date back to a decade ago, estimated a modest 7.8% increase in contralateral strength following unilateral training. However, in recent years new evidences have outlined larger contralateral gains, which deserve to be systematically evaluated. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to appraise current data on CE and determine its overall magnitude of effect...
November 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
C Purcell, A R Romijn
BACKGROUND: In 2016, 29% of pedestrians killed or seriously injured on the roads in Great Britain were under 15 years of age. Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), a chronic disorder affecting the acquisition and execution of motor skills, may be more vulnerable at the roadside than typically developing (TD) children. Current methods used to teach road safety are typically knowledge-based and do not necessarily improve behaviour in real traffic situations. Virtual reality road crossing tasks may be a viable alternative...
September 14, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Joel Mason, Ashlyn K Frazer, Deanna M Horvath, Alan J Pearce, Janne Avela, Glyn Howatson, Dawson J Kidgell
Cross-education of strength occurs when strength-training 1 limb increases the strength of the untrained limb and is restricted to the untrained homologous muscle. Cortical circuits located ipsilateral to the trained limb might be involved. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to determine the corticomotor responses from the untrained homologous (biceps brachii) and nonhomologous (flexor carpi radialis) muscle following strength-training of the right elbow flexors. Motor evoked potentials were recorded from the untrained left biceps brachii and flexor carpi radialis during a submaximal contraction from 20 individuals (10 women, 10 men; aged 18-35 years; training group, n = 10; control group, n = 10) before and after 3 weeks of strength-training the right biceps brachii at 80% of 1-repetition maximum...
January 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
William Russell, Lesley Pritchard-Wiart, Patricia J Manns
PURPOSE: Cross-education is a neural phenomenon where strength of an untrained muscle improves after unilateral training of the opposite homologous muscle. It has been extensively studied in healthy populations and shows promise for post-stroke rehabilitation. The purpose of this study is to understand current post-stroke upper extremity rehabilitation practice; clinician's perspectives on cross-education and; facilitators and barriers to implementation of a cross-education intervention...
July 24, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
Ashlee M Hendy, Séverine Lamon
Objectives: Unilateral resistance training produces strength gains in the untrained homologous muscle group, an effect termed "cross-education." The observed strength transfer has traditionally been considered a phenomenon of the nervous system, with few studies examining the contribution of factors beyond the brain and spinal cord. In this hypothesis and theory article, we aim to discuss further evidence for structural and functional adaptations occurring within the nervous, muscle, and endocrine systems in response to unilateral resistance training...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Yu Yaginuma, Takashi Abe, Robert S Thiebaud, Takahiro Kitamura, Masashi Kawanishi, Tetsuo Fukunaga
Knee extension strength (KES) improves following body mass-based lower body exercise training; however, it is unknown whether this type of exercise increases handgrip strength (HGS) as a result of a cross-education effect in older individuals. Our aim was to investigate the effect of a body mass-based exercise intervention on HGS and KES in older adults. At baseline, 166 subjects started a 12-week intervention program, and 160 (108 women and 52 men) subjects completed the study. A self-selected group of 37 older adults (21 women and 16 men) served as a control group...
2017: BioResearch Open Access
Brandon W Collins, Evan J Lockyer, Duane C Button
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Muscle & Nerve
Natasha G Boyes, Peter Yee, Joel L Lanovaz, Jonathan P Farthing
INTRODUCTION: Cross-education training programs cause interlimb asymmetry of strength and hypertrophy. We examined the cross-education effects from a high-frequency (HF) versus a low-frequency (LF) volume-matched handgrip training program on interlimb asymmetry. METHODS: Right-handed participants completed either HF (n = 10; 2 × 6 repetitions 10 times per week) or LF (n = 9; 5 × 8 repetitions 3 times per week) training. Testing occurred twice before and once after 4 weeks of right-handed isometric handgrip training totaling 120 weekly repetitions...
October 2017: Muscle & Nerve
Ashlyn K Frazer, Jacqueline Williams, Michael Spittle, Dawson J Kidgell
PURPOSE: We examined the effect of priming the ipsilateral motor cortex (M1) using anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) prior to a single bout of strength training on the cross-transfer of strength and corticospinal excitability and inhibition of the ipsilateral M1. METHODS: In a randomized double-blinded cross-over design, changes in strength and indices of corticospinal plasticity were analysed in 13 adults who were exposed to 20 min of ipsilateral anodal and sham tDCS (applied to the ipsilateral M1 to the training arm) followed by a single strength training session of the right Biceps Brachii only...
April 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Kathy L Ruddy, Alexander Leemans, Daniel G Woolley, Nicole Wenderoth, Richard G Carson
Cross-education (CE) is the process whereby training with one limb leads to subsequent improvement in performance by the opposite untrained limb. We used multimodal neuroimaging in humans to investigate the mediating neural mechanisms by relating quantitative estimates of functional and structural cortical connectivity to individual levels of interlimb transfer. Resting-state (rs)-fMRI and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) scans were undertaken before unilateral ballistic wrist flexion training. The rs-fMRI sequence was repeated immediately afterward...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Trevor S Barss, Gregory E P Pearcey, E Paul Zehr
Edward Wheeler Scripture's 1894 work out of the Yale Psychological Laboratory has been influential in identifying the nervous system's contribution to the bilateral improvements that are seen with unilateral strength and skill training. Scripture coined the term "cross-education" to describe this improvement in the untrained contralateral limb. While physiological changes accompany aging that may negatively affect the performance of physical tasks, far too much credit has been given to the natural aging process rather than the effects of inactivity...
March 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
A Manca, F Ginatempo, M P Cabboi, B Mercante, E Ortu, D Dragone, E R De Natale, Z Dvir, J C Rothwell, Franca Deriu
PURPOSE: To test whether long-term cortical adaptations occur bilaterally following chronic unilateral training with a simple motor task. METHODS: Participants (n = 34) were randomly allocated to a training or control groups. Only the former completed a 4-week maximal-intensity isometric training of the right first dorsal interosseus muscle through key pinching. Maximal strength was assessed bilaterally in four different movements progressively less similar to the training task: key, tip and tripod pinches, and handgrip...
October 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Timothy A Coombs, Ashlyn K Frazer, Deanna M Horvath, Alan J Pearce, Glyn Howatson, Dawson J Kidgell
PURPOSE: Cross-education of strength has been proposed to be greater when completed by the dominant limb in right handed humans. We investigated whether the direction of cross-education of strength and corticospinal plasticity are different following right or left limb strength training in right-handed participants. METHODS: Changes in strength, muscle thickness and indices of corticospinal plasticity were analyzed in 23 adults who were exposed to 3-weeks of either right-hand strength training (RHT) or left-hand strength training (LHT)...
September 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Natasha G Boyes, Peter Yee, Joel L Lanovaz, Jonathan P Farthing
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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