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plant geography

Aline Sartori Guidolin, Fernando Luis Cônsoli
Aphids are well known for their association with endosymbiont bacteria. Almost all aphids harbor Buchnera aphidicola as an obligate symbiont and several other bacteria as facultative symbionts. Associations of facultative symbionts and aphids are quite variable in terms of diversity and prevalence across aphid species. Facultative symbionts can have a major impact on aphid bioecological traits. A number of factors shape the outcome of the facultative symbiont-aphid association, including aphid clone, bacterial genotype, geography, and host plant association...
November 21, 2016: Microbial Ecology
Lêniféré Chantal Soro, Sylvie Munier, Yves Pelissier, Lidwine Grosmaire, Rickey Yada, David Kitts, Anin Louise Ocho-Anin Atchibri, Caroline Guzman, Frédéric Boudard, Chantal Menut, Jean Charles Robinson, Patrick Poucheret
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Lippia multiflora is a plant with nutritional and pharmaco-therapeutic properties that is native to central and occidental Africa. The potential effects of plants on health are associated with their chemical composition. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify chemical variations in essential oils of Lippia multiflora as a function of geographic origin and time of annual harvest to determine optimal chemical profiles for ethno-pharmacotherapeutic applications...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Soichiro Kusaka, Eriko Ishimaru, Fujio Hyodo, Takashi Gakuhari, Minoru Yoneda, Takakazu Yumoto, Ichiro Tayasu
The globalization of food production and distribution has homogenized human dietary patterns irrespective of geography, but it is uncertain how far this homogenization has progressed. This study investigated the carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in the scalp hair of 1305 contemporary Japanese and found values of -19.4 ± 0.6‰ and 9.4 ± 0.6‰ (mean ± SD), respectively. Within Japan, the inter-regional differences for both isotope ratios was less than 1‰, which indicates low dietary heterogeneity among prefectural divisions...
2016: Scientific Reports
Niuniu Wang, Yongjie Zhang, Xianzhi Jiang, Chi Shu, M Imran Hamid, Muzammil Hussain, Senyu Chen, Jianping Xu, Meichun Xiang, Xingzhong Liu
Hirsutella rhossiliensis is a parasite of juvenile nematodes, effective against a diversity of plant-parasitic nematodes. Its global distribution on various nematode hosts and its genetic variation for several geographic regions have been reported, while the global population genetic structure and factors underlying patterns of genetic variation of H. rhossiliensis are unclear. In this study, 87 H. rhossiliensis strains from five nematode species (Globodera sp., Criconemella xenoplax, Rotylenchus robustus, Heterodera schachtii, and Heterodera glycines) in Europe, the United States, and China were investigated by multilocus sequence analyses...
November 1, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Joaquín Calatayud, José Luis Hórreo, Jaime Madrigal-González, Alain Migeon, Miguel Á Rodríguez, Sara Magalhães, Joaquín Hortal
The evolution of resource use in herbivores has been conceptualized as an analog of the theory of island biogeography, assuming that plant species are islands separated by phylogenetic distances. Despite its usefulness, this analogy has paradoxically led to neglecting real biogeographical processes in the study of macroevolutionary patterns of herbivore-plant interactions. Here we show that host use is mostly determined by the geographical cooccurrence of hosts and parasites in spider mites (Tetranychidae), a globally distributed group of plant parasites...
August 30, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lumila Paula Menéndez
OBJECTIVE: The spatial variation of dental caries in late Holocene southern South American populations will be analyzed using geostatistical methods. The existence of a continuous geographical pattern of dental caries variation will be tested. METHODS: The author recorded dental caries in 400 individuals, collated this information with published caries data from 666 additional individuals, and calculated a Caries Index. The caries spatial distribution was evaluated by means of 2D maps and scatterplots...
May 30, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Zeynep Toprak, Bernard E Pfeil, Graham Jones, Thomas Marcussen, Alaattin Selçuk Ertekin, Bengt Oxelman
Species delimitation is a major focus of biosystematics. In recent years, considerable progress has been achieved with the development of the multispecies coalescent (MSC) model, where species constitute the branches of the species tree or network. However, researchers are faced with the limitation that the MSC method of choice often requires a priori assignment of individuals to species. This not only introduces subjectivitiy into the analyses, but may also lead to meaningless species tree hypotheses, if the allele-to-species assignments are inaccurate...
September 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Victoria L Sork
A central question in evolutionary biology is how gene flow and natural selection shape geographic patterns of genotypic and phenotypic variation. My overall research program has pursued this question in tree populations through complementary lines of inquiry. First, through studies of contemporary pollen and seed movement, I have studied how limited gene movement creates fine-scale genetic structure, while long-distance gene flow promotes connectivity. My collaborators and I have provided new tools to study these processes at a landscape scale as well as statistical tests to determine whether changes in landscape conditions or dispersal vectors affect gene movement...
January 2016: Evolutionary Applications
Catherine L Ludlow, Gareth A Cromie, Cecilia Garmendia-Torres, Amy Sirr, Michelle Hays, Colburn Field, Eric W Jeffery, Justin C Fay, Aimée M Dudley
Modern transportation networks have facilitated the migration and mingling of previously isolated populations of plants, animals, and insects. Human activities can also influence the global distribution of microorganisms. The best-understood example is yeasts associated with winemaking. Humans began making wine in the Middle East over 9,000 years ago [1, 2]. Selecting favorable fermentation products created specialized strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae [3, 4] that were transported along with grapevines. Today, S...
April 4, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Robin N Thompson, Richard C Cobb, Christopher A Gilligan, Nik J Cunniffe
Plant and animal disease outbreaks have significant ecological and economic impacts. The spatial extent of control is often informed solely by administrative geography - for example, quarantine of an entire county or state once an invading disease is detected - with little regard for pathogen epidemiology. We present a stochastic model for the spread of a plant pathogen that couples spread in the natural environment and transmission via the nursery trade, and use it to illustrate that control deployed according to administrative boundaries is almost always sub-optimal...
March 24, 2016: Ecological Modelling
Taíssa Torres, Adriana Farah
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relative contribution of the most commonly consumed plant foods in Brazil to the total antioxidant capacity (AC) of Brazilian's diet. The importance of regional consuming habits and income for dietary AC was also approached. METHODS: The annual per capita consumption database from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) was used for identification of the most consumed plant foods in Brazil...
March 14, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Lars Söderström, Anders Hagborg, Matt von Konrat, Sharon Bartholomew-Began, David Bell, Laura Briscoe, Elizabeth Brown, D Christine Cargill, Denise P Costa, Barbara J Crandall-Stotler, Endymion D Cooper, Gregorio Dauphin, John J Engel, Kathrin Feldberg, David Glenny, S Robbert Gradstein, Xiaolan He, Jochen Heinrichs, Jörn Hentschel, Anna Luiza Ilkiu-Borges, Tomoyuki Katagiri, Nadezhda A Konstantinova, Juan Larraín, David G Long, Martin Nebel, Tamás Pócs, Felisa Puche, Elena Reiner-Drehwald, Matt A M Renner, Andrea Sass-Gyarmati, Alfons Schäfer-Verwimp, José Gabriel Segarra Moragues, Raymond E Stotler, Phiangphak Sukkharak, Barbara M Thiers, Jaime Uribe, Jiří Váňa, Juan Carlos Villarreal, Martin Wigginton, Li Zhang, Rui-Liang Zhu
A working checklist of accepted taxa worldwide is vital in achieving the goal of developing an online flora of all known plants by 2020 as part of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation. We here present the first-ever worldwide checklist for liverworts (Marchantiophyta) and hornworts (Anthocerotophyta) that includes 7486 species in 398 genera representing 92 families from the two phyla. The checklist has far reaching implications and applications, including providing a valuable tool for taxonomists and systematists, analyzing phytogeographic and diversity patterns, aiding in the assessment of floristic and taxonomic knowledge, and identifying geographical gaps in our understanding of the global liverwort and hornwort flora...
2016: PhytoKeys
Zhigang Wu, Dan Yu, Xing Li, Xinwei Xu
The effects of geographic and environmental variables on the pattern of genetic differentiation have been thoroughly studied, whereas empirical studies on aquatic plants are rare. We examined the spatial genetic differentiation of 58 Myriophyllum spicatum populations distributed throughout China with 12 microsatellite loci, and we analyzed its association with geographic distance, geographic barriers, and environmental dissimilarity using causal modeling and multiple matrix regression with randomization (MMRR) analysis...
January 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Sandeep Kumar, Pierluigi Barone, Michelle Smith
Modern agriculture has created a demand for plant biotechnology products that provide durable resistance to insect pests, tolerance of herbicide applications for weed control, and agronomic traits tailored for specific geographies. These transgenic trait products require a modular and sequential multigene stacking platform that is supported by precise genome engineering technology. Designed nucleases have emerged as potent tools for creating targeted DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Exogenously supplied donor DNA can repair the targeted DSB by a process known as gene targeting (GT), resulting in a desired modification of the target genome...
2016: Plant Methods
Kuang-Chi Hung
In 1859, Harvard botanist Asa Gray (1810-1888) published an essay of what he called "the abstract of Japan botany." In it, he applied Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory to explain why strong similarities could be found between the flora of Japan and that of eastern North America, which provoked his famous debate with Louis Agassiz (1807-1873) and initiated Gray's efforts to secure a place for Darwinian biology in the American sciences. Notably, although the Gray-Agassiz debate has become one of the most thoroughly studied scientific debates, historians of science remain unable to answer one critical question: How was Gray able to acquire specimens from Japan? Making use of previously unknown archival materials, this article scrutinizes the institutional, instrumental, financial, and military settings that enabled Gray's collector, Charles Wright (1811-1885), to travel to Japan, as well as examine Wright's collecting practices in Japan...
January 20, 2016: Journal of the History of Biology
Simcha Lev-Yadun
Gloger's rule posits that darker birds are found more often in humid environments than in arid ones, especially in the tropics. Accordingly, desert-inhabiting animals tend to be light-colored. This rule is also true for certain mammalian groups, including humans. Gloger's rule is manifested at 2 levels: (1) at the species level (different populations of the same species have different pigmentation at different latitudes), and (2) at the species assembly level (different taxa at a certain geography have different pigmentation than other taxa found at different habitats or latitudes)...
2015: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Tammy M Milillo, Mary E Miller, Remo Fischione, Angelina Montes, Joseph A Gardella
The imaging capabilities of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) have not been used to their full potential in the analysis of polymer and biological samples. Imaging has been limited by the size of the dataset and the chemical complexity of the sample being imaged. Pixel and segment based image fusion algorithms commonly used in remote sensing, ecology, geography, and geology provide a way to improve spatial resolution and classification of biological images. In this study, a sample of Arabidopsis thaliana was treated with silver nanoparticles and imaged with ToF-SIMS...
June 8, 2016: Biointerphases
Myriam Gaudeul, Errol Véla, Germinal Rouhan
The biogeography of Mediterranean groups is very heterogeneous, because of the complex geologic and climatic history of the region. Our goal was to reconstruct the spatio-temporal history of the genus Odontites. In particular, we aimed to infer its area of origin and colonization routes, investigate its timing of diversification, and examine possible correlations with major environmental events. Based on sequencing of three chloroplast markers (psbA-trnH, trnL-trnF and trnC-ycf6), we reconstructed phylogenetic relationships among species...
March 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Nate B Hardy, Daniel A Peterson, Benjamin B Normark
The specificity of the interactions between plants and their consumers varies considerably. The evolutionary and ecological factors underlying this variation are unclear. Several potential explanatory factors vary with latitude, for example plant species richness and the intensity of herbivory. Here, we use comparative phylogenetic methods to test the effect of latitude on host range in scale insects. We find that, on average, scale insects that occur in lower latitudes are more polyphagous. This result is at odds with the general pattern of greater host-plant specificity of insects in the tropics...
December 2015: Biology Letters
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