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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631324/recent-origin-and-rapid-speciation-of-neotropical-orchids-in-the-world-s-richest-plant-biodiversity-hotspot
#1
Oscar Alejandro Pérez-Escobar, Guillaume Chomicki, Fabien L Condamine, Adam P Karremans, Diego Bogarín, Nicholas J Matzke, Daniele Silvestro, Alexandre Antonelli
The Andean mountains of South America are the most species-rich biodiversity hotspot worldwide with c. 15% of the world's plant species, in only 1% of the world's land surface. Orchids are a key element of the Andean flora, and one of the most prominent components of the Neotropical epiphyte diversity, yet very little is known about their origin and diversification. We address this knowledge gap by inferring the biogeographical history and diversification dynamics of the two largest Neotropical orchid groups (Cymbidieae and Pleurothallidinae), using two unparalleled, densely sampled orchid phylogenies (including more than 400 newly generated DNA sequences), comparative phylogenetic methods, geological and biological datasets...
July 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558691/the-development-and-use-of-a-molecular-model-for-soybean-maturity-groups
#2
Tiffany Langewisch, Julian Lenis, Guo-Liang Jiang, Dechun Wang, Vince Pantalone, Kristin Bilyeu
BACKGROUND: Achieving appropriate maturity in a target environment is essential to maximizing crop yield potential. In soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], the time to maturity is largely dependent on developmental response to dark periods. Once the critical photoperiod is reached, flowering is initiated and reproductive development proceeds. Therefore, soybean adaptation has been attributed to genetic changes and natural or artificial selection to optimize plant development in specific, narrow latitudinal ranges...
May 30, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459096/data-on-soil-p-h-of-barddhaman-district-india
#3
Sumanta Bid
P(H) (Puissance de Hydrogen) is an essential ingredient of soil that effects on fertility and productivity of dirt. Barddhaman district is a part of Lower Gangetic Plain fully covered by alluvial soil and popularly known as 'rice bowl of West Bengal' owing to its lofty production. This data article provides a block level data on soil P(H) that is essential for further investigation of the relationship among soil ph, plant growth, plant health and productivity. This data is valuable in the field of soil geography and soil science...
June 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348571/population-structure-and-phylogenetic-relationships-in-a-diverse-panel-of-brassica-rapa-l
#4
Kevin A Bird, Hong An, Elodie Gazave, Michael A Gore, J Chris Pires, Larry D Robertson, Joanne A Labate
The crop species Brassica rapa L. has significant economic importance around the world. However, the global distribution and complex evolutionary history of the species has made investigating its genetic population structure difficult. Crop domestication and improvement has resulted in extreme phenotypic diversity and subspecies that are used for oilseed, food for human consumption, and fodder for livestock. These subspecies include the oilseed morphotypes. oleifera (turnip rape), ssp. dichotoma (brown sarson/toria), ssp...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273484/transposon-mediated-epigenetic-regulation-contributes-to-phenotypic-diversity-and-environmental-adaptation-in-rice
#5
REVIEW
Xianwei Song, Xiaofeng Cao
Transposable elements (TEs) have long been regarded as 'selfish DNA', and are generally silenced by epigenetic mechanisms. However, work in the past decade has identified positive roles for TEs in generating genomic novelty and diversity in plants. In particular, recent studies suggested that TE-induced epigenetic alterations and modification of gene expression contribute to phenotypic variation and adaptation to geography or stress. These findings have led many to regard TEs, not as junk DNA, but as sources of control elements and genomic diversity...
March 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205240/the-influence-of-climatic-niche-preferences-on-the-population-genetic-structure-of-a-mistletoe-species-complex
#6
Santiago Ramírez-Barahona, Clementina González, Antonio González-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco Ornelas
The prevalent view on genetic structuring in parasitic plants is that host-race formation is caused by varying degrees of host specificity. However, the relative importance of ecological niche divergence and host specificity to population differentiation remains poorly understood. We evaluated the factors associated with population differentiation in mistletoes of the Psittacanthus schiedeanus complex (Loranthaceae) in Mexico. We used genetic data from chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites to study population genetic structure and tested its association with host preferences and climatic niche variables...
June 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168124/geography-shapes-the-phylogeny-of-frailejones-espeletiinae-cuatrec-asteraceae-a-remarkable-example-of-recent-rapid-radiation-in-sky-islands
#7
Mauricio Diazgranados, Janet C Barber
BACKGROUND: The páramo ecosystem, located above the timberline in the tropical Andes, has been the setting for some of the most dramatic plant radiations, and it is one of the world's fastest evolving and most diverse high-altitude ecosystems. Today 144+ species of frailejones (subtribe Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae) dominate the páramo. Frailejones have intrigued naturalists and botanists, not just for their appealing beauty and impressive morphological diversity, but also for their remarkable adaptations to the extremely harsh environmental conditions of the páramo...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106948/genetic-differentiation-associated-with-host-plants-and-geography-among-six-widespread-species-of-south-american-blepharoneura-fruit-flies-tephritidae
#8
K Ottens, I S Winkler, M L Lewis, S J Scheffer, G A Gomes-Costa, M A Condon, A A Forbes
Tropical herbivorous insects are astonishingly diverse, and many are highly host-specific. Much evidence suggests that herbivorous insect diversity is a function of host plant diversity; yet, the diversity of some lineages exceeds the diversity of plants. Although most species of herbivorous fruit flies in the Neotropical genus Blepharoneura are strongly host-specific (they deposit their eggs in a single host plant species and flower sex), some species are collected from multiple hosts or flowers and these may represent examples of lineages that are diversifying via changes in host use...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069633/population-level-genetic-variation-and-climate-change-in-a-biodiversity-hotspot
#9
REVIEW
Kristina A Schierenbeck
INTRODUCTION: Estimated future climate scenarios can be used to predict where hotspots of endemism may occur over the next century, but life history, ecological and genetic traits will be important in informing the varying responses within myriad taxa. Essential to predicting the consequences of climate change to individual species will be an understanding of the factors that drive genetic structure within and among populations. Here, I review the factors that influence the genetic structure of plant species in California, but are applicable elsewhere; existing levels of genetic variation, life history and ecological characteristics will affect the ability of an individual taxon to persist in the presence of anthropogenic change...
January 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028850/history-geography-and-host-use-shape-genomewide-patterns-of-genetic-variation-in-the-redheaded-pine-sawfly-neodiprion-lecontei
#10
Robin K Bagley, Vitor C Sousa, Matthew L Niemiller, Catherine R Linnen
Divergent host use has long been suspected to drive population differentiation and speciation in plant-feeding insects. Evaluating the contribution of divergent host use to genetic differentiation can be difficult, however, as dispersal limitation and population structure may also influence patterns of genetic variation. In this study, we use double-digest restriction-associated DNA (ddRAD) sequencing to test the hypothesis that divergent host use contributes to genetic differentiation among populations of the redheaded pine sawfly (Neodiprion lecontei), a widespread pest that uses multiple Pinus hosts throughout its range in eastern North America...
February 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998817/the-phylogeny-of-heliconia-heliconiaceae-and-the-evolution-of-floral-presentation
#11
William J D Iles, Chodon Sass, Laura Lagomarsino, Gracie Benson-Martin, Heather Driscoll, Chelsea D Specht
Heliconia (Heliconiaceae, order Zingiberales) is among the showiest plants of the Neotropical rainforest and represent a spectacular co-evolutionary radiation with hummingbirds. Despite the attractiveness and ecological importance of many Heliconia, the genus has been the subject of limited molecular phylogenetic studies. We sample seven markers from the plastid and nuclear genomes for 202 samples of Heliconia. This represents ca. 75% of accepted species and includes coverage of all taxonomic subgenera and sections...
December 18, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959958/phylogeography-of-the-wheat-stem-sawfly-cephus-cinctus-norton-hymenoptera-cephidae-implications-for-pest-management
#12
Vincent Lesieur, Jean-François Martin, David K Weaver, Kim A Hoelmer, David R Smith, Wendell L Morrill, Nassera Kadiri, Frank B Peairs, Darren M Cockrell, Terri L Randolph, Debra K Waters, Marie-Claude Bon
The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), is a key pest of wheat in the northern Great Plains of North America, and damage resulting from this species has recently expanded southward. Current pest management practices are inadequate and uncertainty regarding geographic origin, as well as limited data on population structure and dynamics across North America impede progress towards more informed management. We examined the genetic divergence between samples collected in North America and northeastern Asia, the assumed native range of C...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940071/analysis-of-plant-soil-seed-banks-and-seed-dispersal-vectors-its-potential-and-limits-for-forensic-investigations
#13
REVIEW
Kateřina Šumberová, Michal Ducháček
Plant seeds exhibit many species-specific traits, thus potentially being especially helpful for forensic investigations. Seeds of a broad range of plant species occur in soil seed banks of various habitats and may become attached in large quantities to moving objects. Although plant seeds are now routinely used as trace evidence in forensic practice, only scant information has been published on this topic in the scientific literature. Thus, the standard methods remain unknown to specialists in such botanical subjects as plant ecology and plant geography...
November 27, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872949/symbiont-diversity-of-aphis-toxoptera-citricidus-hemiptera-aphididae-as-influenced-by-host-plants
#14
Aline Sartori Guidolin, Fernando Luis Cônsoli
Aphids are well known for their association with endosymbiont bacteria. Almost all aphids harbor Buchnera aphidicola as an obligate symbiont and several other bacteria as facultative symbionts. Associations of facultative symbionts and aphids are quite variable in terms of diversity and prevalence across aphid species. Facultative symbionts can have a major impact on aphid bioecological traits. A number of factors shape the outcome of the facultative symbiont-aphid association, including aphid clone, bacterial genotype, geography, and host plant association...
November 21, 2016: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765608/influence-of-geography-seasons-and-pedology-on-chemical-composition-and-anti-inflammatory-activities-of-essential-oils-from-lippia-multiflora-mold-leaves
#15
Lêniféré Chantal Soro, Sylvie Munier, Yves Pelissier, Lidwine Grosmaire, Rickey Yada, David Kitts, Anin Louise Ocho-Anin Atchibri, Caroline Guzman, Frédéric Boudard, Chantal Menut, Jean Charles Robinson, Patrick Poucheret
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Lippia multiflora is a plant with nutritional and pharmaco-therapeutic properties that is native to central and occidental Africa. The potential effects of plants on health are associated with their chemical composition. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify chemical variations in essential oils of Lippia multiflora as a function of geographic origin and time of annual harvest to determine optimal chemical profiles for ethno-pharmacotherapeutic applications...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616586/homogeneous-diet-of-contemporary-japanese-inferred-from-stable-isotope-ratios-of-hair
#16
Soichiro Kusaka, Eriko Ishimaru, Fujio Hyodo, Takashi Gakuhari, Minoru Yoneda, Takakazu Yumoto, Ichiro Tayasu
The globalization of food production and distribution has homogenized human dietary patterns irrespective of geography, but it is uncertain how far this homogenization has progressed. This study investigated the carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in the scalp hair of 1305 contemporary Japanese and found values of -19.4 ± 0.6‰ and 9.4 ± 0.6‰ (mean ± SD), respectively. Within Japan, the inter-regional differences for both isotope ratios was less than 1‰, which indicates low dietary heterogeneity among prefectural divisions...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542936/population-genetics-of-hirsutella-rhossiliensis-a-dominant-parasite-of-cyst-nematode-juveniles-on-a-continental-scale
#17
Niuniu Wang, Yongjie Zhang, Xianzhi Jiang, Chi Shu, M Imran Hamid, Muzammil Hussain, Senyu Chen, Jianping Xu, Meichun Xiang, Xingzhong Liu
Hirsutella rhossiliensis is a parasite of juvenile nematodes, effective against a diversity of plant-parasitic nematodes. Its global distribution on various nematode hosts and its genetic variation for several geographic regions have been reported, while the global population genetic structure and factors underlying patterns of genetic variation of H. rhossiliensis are unclear. In this study, 87 H. rhossiliensis strains from five nematode species (Globodera sp., Criconemella xenoplax, Rotylenchus robustus, Heterodera schachtii, and Heterodera glycines) in Europe, the United States, and China were investigated by multilocus sequence analyses...
November 1, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535932/geography-and-major-host-evolutionary-transitions-shape-the-resource-use-of-plant-parasites
#18
Joaquín Calatayud, José Luis Hórreo, Jaime Madrigal-González, Alain Migeon, Miguel Á Rodríguez, Sara Magalhães, Joaquín Hortal
The evolution of resource use in herbivores has been conceptualized as an analog of the theory of island biogeography, assuming that plant species are islands separated by phylogenetic distances. Despite its usefulness, this analogy has paradoxically led to neglecting real biogeographical processes in the study of macroevolutionary patterns of herbivore-plant interactions. Here we show that host use is mostly determined by the geographical cooccurrence of hosts and parasites in spider mites (Tetranychidae), a globally distributed group of plant parasites...
August 30, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27325061/malte-christian-ebach-origins-of-biogeography-the-role-of-biological-classification-in-early-plant-and-animal-geography-dordrecht-heidelberg-new-york-london-springer-2015-xiv%C3%A2-%C3%A2-173%C3%A2-pp-hardcover-99-99-%C3%A2
#19
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27238592/spatial-variation-of-dental-caries-in-late-holocene-samples-of-southern-south-america-a-geostatistical-study
#20
Lumila Paula Menéndez
OBJECTIVE: The spatial variation of dental caries in late Holocene southern South American populations will be analyzed using geostatistical methods. The existence of a continuous geographical pattern of dental caries variation will be tested. METHODS: The author recorded dental caries in 400 individuals, collated this information with published caries data from 666 additional individuals, and calculated a Caries Index. The caries spatial distribution was evaluated by means of 2D maps and scatterplots...
May 30, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
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