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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205240/the-influence-of-climatic-niche-preferences-on-the-population-genetic-structure-of-a-mistletoe-species-complex
#1
Santiago Ramírez-Barahona, Clementina González, Antonio González-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco Ornelas
The prevalent view on genetic structuring in parasitic plants is that host-race formation is caused by varying degrees of host specificity. However, the relative importance of ecological niche divergence and host specificity to population differentiation remains poorly understood. We evaluated the factors associated with population differentiation in mistletoes of the Psittacanthus schiedeanus complex (Loranthaceae) in Mexico. We used genetic data from chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites to study population genetic structure and tested its association with host preferences and climatic niche variables...
February 16, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168124/geography-shapes-the-phylogeny-of-frailejones-espeletiinae-cuatrec-asteraceae-a-remarkable-example-of-recent-rapid-radiation-in-sky-islands
#2
Mauricio Diazgranados, Janet C Barber
BACKGROUND: The páramo ecosystem, located above the timberline in the tropical Andes, has been the setting for some of the most dramatic plant radiations, and it is one of the world's fastest evolving and most diverse high-altitude ecosystems. Today 144+ species of frailejones (subtribe Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae) dominate the páramo. Frailejones have intrigued naturalists and botanists, not just for their appealing beauty and impressive morphological diversity, but also for their remarkable adaptations to the extremely harsh environmental conditions of the páramo...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106948/genetic-differentiation-associated-with-host-plants-and-geography-among-six-widespread-species-of-south-american-blepharoneura-fruit-flies-tephritidae
#3
Kristina Ottens, Isaac S Winkler, Matthew L Lewis, Sonja J Scheffer, Géssica A Gomes-Costa, Marty A Condon, Andrew A Forbes
Tropical herbivorous insects are astonishingly diverse and many are highly host-specific. Much evidence suggests that herbivorous insect diversity is a function of host-plant diversity; yet, the diversity of some lineages exceeds the diversity of plants. Although most species of herbivorous fruit flies in the Neotropical genus Blepharoneura are strongly host-specific (they deposit their eggs in a single host plant species and flower sex), some species are collected from multiple hosts or flowers and these may represent examples of lineages that are diversifying via changes in host use...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069633/population-level-genetic-variation-and-climate-change-in-a-biodiversity-hotspot
#4
REVIEW
Kristina A Schierenbeck
INTRODUCTION: Estimated future climate scenarios can be used to predict where hotspots of endemism may occur over the next century, but life history, ecological and genetic traits will be important in informing the varying responses within myriad taxa. Essential to predicting the consequences of climate change to individual species will be an understanding of the factors that drive genetic structure within and among populations. Here, I review the factors that influence the genetic structure of plant species in California, but are applicable elsewhere; existing levels of genetic variation, life history and ecological characteristics will affect the ability of an individual taxon to persist in the presence of anthropogenic change...
January 9, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028850/history-geography-and-host-use-shape-genome-wide-patterns-of-genetic-variation-in-the-redheaded-pine-sawfly-neodiprion-lecontei
#5
Robin K Bagley, Vitor C Sousa, Matthew L Niemiller, Catherine R Linnen
Divergent host use has long been suspected to drive population differentiation and speciation in plant-feeding insects. Evaluating the contribution of divergent host use to genetic differentiation can be difficult, however, as dispersal limitation and population structure may also influence patterns of genetic variation. In this study, we use double-digest restriction-associated DNA (ddRAD) sequencing to test the hypothesis that divergent host use contributes to genetic differentiation among populations of the redheaded pine sawfly (Neodiprion lecontei), a widespread pest that uses multiple Pinus hosts throughout its range in eastern North America...
December 28, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998817/the-phylogeny-of-heliconia-heliconiaceae-and-the-evolution-of-floral-presentation
#6
William J D Iles, Chodon Sass, Laura Lagomarsino, Gracie Benson-Martin, Heather Driscoll, Chelsea D Specht
Heliconia (Heliconiaceae, order Zingiberales) is among the showiest plants of the Neotropical rainforest and represent a spectacular co-evolutionary radiation with hummingbirds. Despite the attractiveness and ecological importance of many Heliconia, the genus has been the subject of limited molecular phylogenetic studies. We sample seven markers from the plastid and nuclear genomes for 202 samples of Heliconia. This represents ca. 75% of accepted species and includes coverage of all taxonomic subgenera and sections...
December 18, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959958/phylogeography-of-the-wheat-stem-sawfly-cephus-cinctus-norton-hymenoptera-cephidae-implications-for-pest-management
#7
Vincent Lesieur, Jean-François Martin, David K Weaver, Kim A Hoelmer, David R Smith, Wendell L Morrill, Nassera Kadiri, Frank B Peairs, Darren M Cockrell, Terri L Randolph, Debra K Waters, Marie-Claude Bon
The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), is a key pest of wheat in the northern Great Plains of North America, and damage resulting from this species has recently expanded southward. Current pest management practices are inadequate and uncertainty regarding geographic origin, as well as limited data on population structure and dynamics across North America impede progress towards more informed management. We examined the genetic divergence between samples collected in North America and northeastern Asia, the assumed native range of C...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940071/analysis-of-plant-soil-seed-banks-and-seed-dispersal-vectors-its-potential-and-limits-for-forensic-investigations
#8
REVIEW
Kateřina Šumberová, Michal Ducháček
Plant seeds exhibit many species-specific traits, thus potentially being especially helpful for forensic investigations. Seeds of a broad range of plant species occur in soil seed banks of various habitats and may become attached in large quantities to moving objects. Although plant seeds are now routinely used as trace evidence in forensic practice, only scant information has been published on this topic in the scientific literature. Thus, the standard methods remain unknown to specialists in such botanical subjects as plant ecology and plant geography...
November 27, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872949/symbiont-diversity-of-aphis-toxoptera-citricidus-hemiptera-aphididae-as-influenced-by-host-plants
#9
Aline Sartori Guidolin, Fernando Luis Cônsoli
Aphids are well known for their association with endosymbiont bacteria. Almost all aphids harbor Buchnera aphidicola as an obligate symbiont and several other bacteria as facultative symbionts. Associations of facultative symbionts and aphids are quite variable in terms of diversity and prevalence across aphid species. Facultative symbionts can have a major impact on aphid bioecological traits. A number of factors shape the outcome of the facultative symbiont-aphid association, including aphid clone, bacterial genotype, geography, and host plant association...
November 21, 2016: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765608/influence-of-geography-seasons-and-pedology-on-chemical-composition-and-anti-inflammatory-activities-of-essential-oils-from-lippia-multiflora-mold-leaves
#10
Lêniféré Chantal Soro, Sylvie Munier, Yves Pelissier, Lidwine Grosmaire, Rickey Yada, David Kitts, Anin Louise Ocho-Anin Atchibri, Caroline Guzman, Frédéric Boudard, Chantal Menut, Jean Charles Robinson, Patrick Poucheret
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Lippia multiflora is a plant with nutritional and pharmaco-therapeutic properties that is native to central and occidental Africa. The potential effects of plants on health are associated with their chemical composition. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify chemical variations in essential oils of Lippia multiflora as a function of geographic origin and time of annual harvest to determine optimal chemical profiles for ethno-pharmacotherapeutic applications...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616586/homogeneous-diet-of-contemporary-japanese-inferred-from-stable-isotope-ratios-of-hair
#11
Soichiro Kusaka, Eriko Ishimaru, Fujio Hyodo, Takashi Gakuhari, Minoru Yoneda, Takakazu Yumoto, Ichiro Tayasu
The globalization of food production and distribution has homogenized human dietary patterns irrespective of geography, but it is uncertain how far this homogenization has progressed. This study investigated the carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in the scalp hair of 1305 contemporary Japanese and found values of -19.4 ± 0.6‰ and 9.4 ± 0.6‰ (mean ± SD), respectively. Within Japan, the inter-regional differences for both isotope ratios was less than 1‰, which indicates low dietary heterogeneity among prefectural divisions...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542936/population-genetics-of-hirsutella-rhossiliensis-a-dominant-parasite-of-cyst-nematode-juveniles-on-a-continental-scale
#12
Niuniu Wang, Yongjie Zhang, Xianzhi Jiang, Chi Shu, M Imran Hamid, Muzammil Hussain, Senyu Chen, Jianping Xu, Meichun Xiang, Xingzhong Liu
Hirsutella rhossiliensis is a parasite of juvenile nematodes, effective against a diversity of plant-parasitic nematodes. Its global distribution on various nematode hosts and its genetic variation for several geographic regions have been reported, while the global population genetic structure and factors underlying patterns of genetic variation of H. rhossiliensis are unclear. In this study, 87 H. rhossiliensis strains from five nematode species (Globodera sp., Criconemella xenoplax, Rotylenchus robustus, Heterodera schachtii, and Heterodera glycines) in Europe, the United States, and China were investigated by multilocus sequence analyses...
November 1, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535932/geography-and-major-host-evolutionary-transitions-shape-the-resource-use-of-plant-parasites
#13
Joaquín Calatayud, José Luis Hórreo, Jaime Madrigal-González, Alain Migeon, Miguel Á Rodríguez, Sara Magalhães, Joaquín Hortal
The evolution of resource use in herbivores has been conceptualized as an analog of the theory of island biogeography, assuming that plant species are islands separated by phylogenetic distances. Despite its usefulness, this analogy has paradoxically led to neglecting real biogeographical processes in the study of macroevolutionary patterns of herbivore-plant interactions. Here we show that host use is mostly determined by the geographical cooccurrence of hosts and parasites in spider mites (Tetranychidae), a globally distributed group of plant parasites...
August 30, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27325061/malte-christian-ebach-origins-of-biogeography-the-role-of-biological-classification-in-early-plant-and-animal-geography-dordrecht-heidelberg-new-york-london-springer-2015-xiv%C3%A2-%C3%A2-173%C3%A2-pp-hardcover-99-99-%C3%A2
#14
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27238592/spatial-variation-of-dental-caries-in-late-holocene-samples-of-southern-south-america-a-geostatistical-study
#15
Lumila Paula Menéndez
OBJECTIVE: The spatial variation of dental caries in late Holocene southern South American populations will be analyzed using geostatistical methods. The existence of a continuous geographical pattern of dental caries variation will be tested. METHODS: The author recorded dental caries in 400 individuals, collated this information with published caries data from 666 additional individuals, and calculated a Caries Index. The caries spatial distribution was evaluated by means of 2D maps and scatterplots...
May 30, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27233442/species-delimitation-without-prior-knowledge-dissect-reveals-extensive-cryptic-speciation-in-the-silene-aegyptiaca-complex-caryophyllaceae
#16
Zeynep Toprak, Bernard E Pfeil, Graham Jones, Thomas Marcussen, Alaattin Selçuk Ertekin, Bengt Oxelman
Species delimitation is a major focus of biosystematics. In recent years, considerable progress has been achieved with the development of the multispecies coalescent (MSC) model, where species constitute the branches of the species tree or network. However, researchers are faced with the limitation that the MSC method of choice often requires a priori assignment of individuals to species. This not only introduces subjectivitiy into the analyses, but may also lead to meaningless species tree hypotheses, if the allele-to-species assignments are inaccurate...
September 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27087853/gene-flow-and-natural-selection-shape-spatial-patterns-of-genes-in-tree-populations-implications-for-evolutionary-processes-and-applications
#17
Victoria L Sork
A central question in evolutionary biology is how gene flow and natural selection shape geographic patterns of genotypic and phenotypic variation. My overall research program has pursued this question in tree populations through complementary lines of inquiry. First, through studies of contemporary pollen and seed movement, I have studied how limited gene movement creates fine-scale genetic structure, while long-distance gene flow promotes connectivity. My collaborators and I have provided new tools to study these processes at a landscape scale as well as statistical tests to determine whether changes in landscape conditions or dispersal vectors affect gene movement...
January 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27020745/independent-origins-of-yeast-associated-with-coffee-and-cacao-fermentation
#18
Catherine L Ludlow, Gareth A Cromie, Cecilia Garmendia-Torres, Amy Sirr, Michelle Hays, Colburn Field, Eric W Jeffery, Justin C Fay, Aimée M Dudley
Modern transportation networks have facilitated the migration and mingling of previously isolated populations of plants, animals, and insects. Human activities can also influence the global distribution of microorganisms. The best-understood example is yeasts associated with winemaking. Humans began making wine in the Middle East over 9,000 years ago [1, 2]. Selecting favorable fermentation products created specialized strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae [3, 4] that were transported along with grapevines. Today, S...
April 4, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27019546/management-of-invading-pathogens-should-be-informed-by-epidemiology-rather-than-administrative-boundaries
#19
Robin N Thompson, Richard C Cobb, Christopher A Gilligan, Nik J Cunniffe
Plant and animal disease outbreaks have significant ecological and economic impacts. The spatial extent of control is often informed solely by administrative geography - for example, quarantine of an entire county or state once an invading disease is detected - with little regard for pathogen epidemiology. We present a stochastic model for the spread of a plant pathogen that couples spread in the natural environment and transmission via the nursery trade, and use it to illustrate that control deployed according to administrative boundaries is almost always sub-optimal...
March 24, 2016: Ecological Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26972079/coffee-mat%C3%A3-a%C3%A3-a%C3%A3-and-beans-are-the-main-contributors-to-the-antioxidant-capacity-of-brazilian-s-diet
#20
Taíssa Torres, Adriana Farah
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relative contribution of the most commonly consumed plant foods in Brazil to the total antioxidant capacity (AC) of Brazilian's diet. The importance of regional consuming habits and income for dietary AC was also approached. METHODS: The annual per capita consumption database from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) was used for identification of the most consumed plant foods in Brazil...
March 14, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
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