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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348645/a-global-perspective-on-the-trophic-geography-of-sharks
#1
Christopher S Bird, Ana Veríssimo, Sarah Magozzi, Kátya G Abrantes, Alex Aguilar, Hassan Al-Reasi, Adam Barnett, Dana M Bethea, Gérard Biais, Asuncion Borrell, Marc Bouchoucha, Mariah Boyle, Edward J Brooks, Juerg Brunnschweiler, Paco Bustamante, Aaron Carlisle, Diana Catarino, Stéphane Caut, Yves Cherel, Tiphaine Chouvelon, Diana Churchill, Javier Ciancio, Julien Claes, Ana Colaço, Dean L Courtney, Pierre Cresson, Ryan Daly, Leigh de Necker, Tetsuya Endo, Ivone Figueiredo, Ashley J Frisch, Joan Holst Hansen, Michael Heithaus, Nigel E Hussey, Johannes Iitembu, Francis Juanes, Michael J Kinney, Jeremy J Kiszka, Sebastian A Klarian, Dorothée Kopp, Robert Leaf, Yunkai Li, Anne Lorrain, Daniel J Madigan, Aleksandra Maljković, Luis Malpica-Cruz, Philip Matich, Mark G Meekan, Frédéric Ménard, Gui M Menezes, Samantha E M Munroe, Michael C Newman, Yannis P Papastamatiou, Heidi Pethybridge, Jeffrey D Plumlee, Carlos Polo-Silva, Katie Quaeck-Davies, Vincent Raoult, Jonathan Reum, Yassir Eden Torres-Rojas, David S Shiffman, Oliver N Shipley, Conrad W Speed, Michelle D Staudinger, Amy K Teffer, Alexander Tilley, Maria Valls, Jeremy J Vaudo, Tak-Cheung Wai, R J David Wells, Alex S J Wyatt, Andrew Yool, Clive N Trueman
Sharks are a diverse group of mobile predators that forage across varied spatial scales and have the potential to influence food web dynamics. The ecological consequences of recent declines in shark biomass may extend across broader geographic ranges if shark taxa display common behavioural traits. By tracking the original site of photosynthetic fixation of carbon atoms that were ultimately assimilated into muscle tissues of 5,394 sharks from 114 species, we identify globally consistent biogeographic traits in trophic interactions between sharks found in different habitats...
January 18, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300817/diversification-in-continental-island-archipelagos-new-evidence-on-the-roles-of-fragmentation-colonization-and-gene-flow-on-the-genetic-divergence-of-aegean-nigella-ranunculaceae
#2
Ursula Jaros, Andreas Tribsch, Hans Peter Comes
Background and Aims: Disentangling the relative roles of past fragmentation (vicariance), colonization (dispersal) and post-divergence gene flow in the genetic divergence of continental island organisms remains a formidable challenge. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) were used to (1) gain further insights into the biogeographical processes underlying the Pleistocene diversification of the Aegean Nigella arvensis complex; (2) evaluate the role of potential key factors driving patterns of population genetic variability (mating system, geographical isolation and historical contingencies); and (3) test the robustness of conclusions previously drawn from chloroplast (cp) DNA...
December 29, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300816/phylogeographic-analysis-of-the-east-asian-goldenrod-solidago-virgaurea-complex-asteraceae-reveals-hidden-ecological-diversification-with-recurrent-formation-of-ecotypes
#3
Shota Sakaguchi, Takuma Kimura, Ryuta Kyan, Masayuki Maki, Takako Nishino, Naoko Ishikawa, Atsushi J Nagano, Mie N Honjo, Masaki Yasugi, Hiroshi Kudoh, Pan Li, Hyeok Jae Choi, Olga A Chernyagina, Motomi Ito
Background and Aims: The processes and mechanisms underlying lineage diversification are major topics in evolutionary biology. Eurasian goldenrod species of the Solidago virgaurea complex show remarkable morphological and ecological diversity in the Japanese Archipelago, with ecotypic taxa well adapted to specific environments (climate, edaphic conditions and disturbance regimes). The species complex is a suitable model to investigate the evolutionary processes of actively speciating plant groups, due to its ability to evolve in relation to environmental adaptation and its historical population dynamics...
December 29, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209348/phylogeography-study-of-the-siberian-apricot-prunus-sibirica-l-in-northern-china-assessed-by-chloroplast-microsatellite-and-dna-makers
#4
Zhe Wang, Yanfei Zeng, Zhendong Zhang, Songbai Sheng, Ju Tian, Rongling Wu, Xiaoming Pang
There is evidence that a band of dry climate separated plants in East Asia into distinct northern and southern groups. However, few studies have focused on the arid belt in this region, especially with regard to plants. We analyzed genetic variation in 22 populations of Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L.), a temperate deciduous species distributed in this arid belt, using two chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences, seven chloroplast microsatellite loci (cpSSRs), and 31 nuclear microsatellite loci (nSSRs), to study its phylogeography...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152187/genetic-diversity-population-structure-and-traditional-culture-of-camellia-reticulata
#5
Tong Xin, Weijuan Huang, Jan De Riek, Shuang Zhang, Selena Ahmed, Johan Van Huylenbroeck, Chunlin Long
Camellia reticulata is an arbor tree that has been cultivated in southwestern China by various sociolinguistic groups for esthetic purposes as well as to derive an edible seed oil. This study examined the influence of management, socio-economic factors, and religion on the genetic diversity patterns of Camellia reticulata utilizing a combination of ethnobotanical and molecular genetic approaches. Semi-structured interviews and key informant interviews were carried out with local communities in China's Yunnan Province...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105878/introgression-between-divergent-corn-borer-species-in-a-region-of-sympatry-implications-on-the-evolution-and-adaptation-of-pest-arthropods
#6
Yangzhou Wang, Kyung Seok Kim, Wenchao Guo, Qiyun Li, Yunyue Zhang, Zhenying Wang, Brad S Coates
The Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, and European corn borer, O. nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), cause damage to cultivated maize in spatially distinct geographies, and have evolved divergent hydrocarbons as the basis of sexual communication. The Yili area of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in China represents the only known region where O. furnacalis has invaded a native O. nubilalis range, and these two corn borer species have made secondary contact. Genetic differentiation was estimated between Ostrinia larvae collected from maize plants at 11 locations in Xinjiang Province, and genotyped using high throughput SNP and microsatellite markers...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094686/dietary-adaptation-of-fads-genes-in-europe-varied-across-time-and-geography
#7
Kaixiong Ye, Feng Gao, David Wang, Ofer Bar-Yosef, Alon Keinan
Fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genes encode rate-limiting enzymes for the biosynthesis of omega-6 and omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs). This biosynthesis is essential for individuals subsisting on LCPUFA-poor diets (for example, plant-based). Positive selection on FADS genes has been reported in multiple populations, but its cause and pattern in Europeans remain unknown. Here we demonstrate, using ancient and modern DNA, that positive selection acted on the same FADS variants both before and after the advent of farming in Europe, but on opposite (that is, alternative) alleles...
May 26, 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080673/inferring-the-demographic-history-of-an-oligophagous-grasshopper-effects-of-climatic-niche-stability-and-host-plant-distribution
#8
Víctor Noguerales, Pedro J Cordero, Joaquín Ortego
Understanding the consequences of past environmental changes on the abiotic and biotic components of the landscape and deciphering their impacts on the demographic trajectories of species is a major issue in evolutionary biogeography. In this study, we combine nuclear and mitochondrial genetic data to study the phylogeographical structure and lineage-specific demographic histories of the scrub-legume grasshopper (Chorthippus binotatus binotatus), a montane taxon distributed in the Iberian Peninsula and France that exclusively feeds on certain scrub-legume species...
October 26, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062122/frugivory-related-traits-promote-speciation-of-tropical-palms
#9
Renske E Onstein, William J Baker, Thomas L P Couvreur, Søren Faurby, Jens-Christian Svenning, W Daniel Kissling
Animal-mediated seed dispersal by frugivorous birds and mammals is central to the ecology and functioning of ecosystems, but whether and how frugivory-related traits have affected plant speciation remains little explored. Fruit size is directly linked to plant dispersal capacity and therefore influences gene flow and genetic divergence of plant populations. Using a global species-level phylogeny with comprehensive data on fruit sizes and plant species distributions, we test whether fruit size has affected speciation rates of palms (Arecaceae), a plant family characteristic of tropical rainforests...
October 23, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055110/host-conservatism-geography-and-elevation-in-the-evolution-of-a-neotropical-moth-radiation
#10
Joshua P Jahner, Matthew L Forister, Thomas L Parchman, Angela M Smilanich, James S Miller, Joseph S Wilson, Thomas R Walla, Eric J Tepe, Lora A Richards, Mario Alberto Quijano-Abril, Andrea E Glassmire, Lee A Dyer
The origins of evolutionary radiations are often traced to the colonization of novel adaptive zones, including unoccupied habitats or unutilized resources. For herbivorous insects, the predominant mechanism of diversification is typically assumed to be a shift onto a novel lineage of host plants. However, other drivers of diversification are important in shaping evolutionary history, especially for groups residing in regions with complex geological histories. We evaluated the contributions of shifts in host plant clade, bioregion, and elevation to diversification in Eois (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), a hyper-diverse genus of moths found throughout the Neotropics...
October 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939989/the-cotesia-sesamiae-story-insight-into-host-range-evolution-in-a-hymenoptera-parasitoid-and-implication-for-its-use-in-biological-control-programs
#11
REVIEW
L Kaiser, S Dupas, A Branca, E A Herniou, C W Clarke, C Capdevielle Dulac, J Obonyo, R Benoist, J Gauthier, P A Calatayud, J F Silvain, B P Le Ru
This review covers nearly 20 years of studies on the ecology, physiology and genetics of the Hymenoptera Cotesia sesamiae, an African parasitoid of Lepidoptera that reduces populations of common maize borers in East and South Africa. The first part of the review presents studies based on sampling of C. sesamiae from maize crops in Kenya. From this agrosystem including one host plant and three main host borer species, studies revealed two genetically differentiated populations of C. sesamiae species adapted to their local host community, and showed that their differentiation involved the joint evolution of virulence genes and sensory mechanisms of host acceptance, reinforced by reproductive incompatibility due to Wolbachia infection status and natural inbreeding...
December 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892240/phylogenetic-evidence-for-miocene-origin-of-mediterranean-lineages-species-diversity-reproductive-traits-and-geography
#12
Pablo Vargas, Mario Fernández-Mazuecos, Ruben Heleno
A review of 27 species-rich and species-poor plant clades (26 genera) of angiosperms of the Mediterranean floristic region was performed considering phylogenetic and biological data. The emergent pattern is that a majority of the Mediterranean plant clades split from their sister groups between the Miocene (23-5 Ma) and the Oligocene (40-23 Ma), far earlier than the historically proposed onset of the Mediterranean climate (c. 3.2 Ma). In addition, 12 clades of the species-poor group (14 clades) have stem ages inferred for each clade in the Miocene or older, and six clades within the species-rich group (13 clades) show divergence of each stem clade within the Oligocene and/or Miocene...
September 11, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892138/towards-a-geography-of-omnivory-omnivores-increase-carnivory-when-sodium-is-limiting
#13
Natalie A Clay, Richard J Lehrter, Michael Kaspari
Towards understanding the geography of omnivory, we tested three hypotheses that predict the proportion of animal tissue consumed: the sodium limitation hypothesis predicts that omnivores increase animal consumption in Na-poor environments because Na bioaccumulates from plants to predators; thus, heterotrophs are Na-rich sources. The nitrogen limitation and habitat productivity hypotheses use the same logic to predict more animal consumption in N-poor and productive environments respectively. Omnivory is a common trophic strategy, but what determines the balance of plant and animal tissue omnivores consume is relatively unexplored...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861248/growth-form-evolution-and-hybridization-in-senecio-asteraceae-from-the-high-equatorial-andes
#14
Eva Dušková, Petr Sklenář, Filip Kolář, Diana L A Vásquez, Katya Romoleroux, Tomáš Fér, Karol Marhold
Changes in growth forms frequently accompany plant adaptive radiations, including páramo-a high-elevation treeless habitat type of the northern Andes. We tested whether diverse group of Senecio inhabiting montane forests and páramo represented such growth form changes. We also investigated the role of Andean geography and environment in structuring genetic variation of this group. We sampled 108 populations and 28 species of Senecio (focusing on species from former genera Lasiocephalus and Culcitium) and analyzed their genetic relationships and patterns of intraspecific variation using DNA fingerprinting (AFLPs) and nuclear DNA sequences (ITS)...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821838/biogeography-shaped-the-metabolome-of-the-genus-espeletia-a-phytochemical-perspective-on-an-andean-adaptive-radiation
#15
Guillermo F Padilla-González, Mauricio Diazgranados, Fernando B Da Costa
The páramo ecosystem has the highest rate of diversification across plant lineages on earth, of which the genus Espeletia (Asteraceae) is a prime example. The current distribution and molecular phylogeny of Espeletia suggest the influence of Andean geography and past climatic fluctuations on the diversification of this genus. However, molecular markers have failed to reveal subtle biogeographical trends in Espeletia diversification, and metabolomic evidence for allopatric segregation in plants has never been reported...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728973/sewer-mining-a-water-reuse-option-supporting-circular-economy-public-service-provision-and-entrepreneurship
#16
C Makropoulos, E Rozos, I Tsoukalas, A Plevri, G Karakatsanis, L Karagiannidis, E Makri, C Lioumis, C Noutsopoulos, D Mamais, C Rippis, E Lytras
Water scarcity, either due to increased urbanisation or climatic variability, has motivated societies to reduce pressure on water resources mainly by reducing water demand. However, this practice alone is not sufficient to guarantee the quality of life that high quality water services underpin, especially within a context of increased urbanisation. As such, the idea of water reuse has been gaining momentum for some time and has recently found a more general context within the idea of the Circular Economy. This paper is set within the context of an ongoing discussion between centralized and decentralized water reuse techniques and the investigation of trade-offs between efficiency and economic viability of reuse at different scales...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707111/limiting-the-cost-of-mutualism-the-defensive-role-of-elongated-gynophore-in-the-leafflower-moth-mutualism
#17
Saori Furukawa, Atsushi Kawakita
Mutualisms are interactions from which both partners benefit but may collapse if mutualists' costs and benefits are not aligned. Host sanctions are one mechanism whereby hosts selectively allocate resources to the more cooperative partners and thereby reduce the fitness of overexploiters; however, many mutualisms lack apparent means of host sanctions. In mutualisms between plants and pollinating seed parasites, such as those between leafflowers and leafflower moths, pollinators consume subsets of the seeds as larval food in return for their pollination service...
July 14, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667772/genotypic-diversity-in-root-endophytic-fungi-reflects-efficient-dispersal-and-environmental-adaptation
#18
Kyriaki Glynou, Tahir Ali, Sevda Haghi Kia, Marco Thines, Jose G Maciá-Vicente
Studying community structure and dynamics of plant-associated fungi is the basis for unravelling their interactions with hosts and ecosystem functions. A recent sampling revealed that only a few fungal groups, as defined by internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) sequence similarity, dominate culturable root endophytic communities of nonmycorrhizal Microthlaspi spp. plants across Europe. Strains of these fungi display a broad phenotypic and functional diversity, which suggests a genetic variability masked by ITS clustering into operational taxonomic units (OTUs)...
July 1, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644770/the-impact-of-photovoltaic-pv-installations-on-downwind-particulate-matter-concentrations-results-from-field-observations-at-a-550-mwac-utility-scale-pv-plant
#19
Dwarakanath Ravikumar, Parikhit Sinha
With utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) projects increasingly developed in dry and dust-prone geographies with high solar insolation, there is a critical need to analyze the impacts of PV installations on the resulting particulate matter (PM) concentrations, which have environmental and health impacts. This study is the first to quantify the impact of a utility-scale PV plant on PM concentrations downwind of the project site. Background, construction, and post-construction PM2.5 and PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameters <2...
October 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631324/recent-origin-and-rapid-speciation-of-neotropical-orchids-in-the-world-s-richest-plant-biodiversity-hotspot
#20
Oscar Alejandro Pérez-Escobar, Guillaume Chomicki, Fabien L Condamine, Adam P Karremans, Diego Bogarín, Nicholas J Matzke, Daniele Silvestro, Alexandre Antonelli
The Andean mountains of South America are the most species-rich biodiversity hotspot worldwide with c. 15% of the world's plant species, in only 1% of the world's land surface. Orchids are a key element of the Andean flora, and one of the most prominent components of the Neotropical epiphyte diversity, yet very little is known about their origin and diversification. We address this knowledge gap by inferring the biogeographical history and diversification dynamics of the two largest Neotropical orchid groups (Cymbidieae and Pleurothallidinae), using two unparalleled, densely sampled orchid phylogenies (including more than 400 newly generated DNA sequences), comparative phylogenetic methods, geological and biological datasets...
July 2017: New Phytologist
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