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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728973/sewer-mining-a-water-reuse-option-supporting-circular-economy-public-service-provision-and-entrepreneurship
#1
C Makropoulos, E Rozos, I Tsoukalas, A Plevri, G Karakatsanis, L Karagiannidis, E Makri, C Lioumis, C Noutsopoulos, D Mamais, C Rippis, E Lytras
Water scarcity, either due to increased urbanisation or climatic variability, has motivated societies to reduce pressure on water resources mainly by reducing water demand. However, this practice alone is not sufficient to guarantee the quality of life that high quality water services underpin, especially within a context of increased urbanisation. As such, the idea of water reuse has been gaining momentum for some time and has recently found a more general context within the idea of the Circular Economy. This paper is set within the context of an ongoing discussion between centralized and decentralized water reuse techniques and the investigation of trade-offs between efficiency and economic viability of reuse at different scales...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707111/limiting-the-cost-of-mutualism-the-defensive-role-of-elongated-gynophore-in-the-leafflower-moth-mutualism
#2
Saori Furukawa, Atsushi Kawakita
Mutualisms are interactions from which both partners benefit but may collapse if mutualists' costs and benefits are not aligned. Host sanctions are one mechanism whereby hosts selectively allocate resources to the more cooperative partners and thereby reduce the fitness of overexploiters; however, many mutualisms lack apparent means of host sanctions. In mutualisms between plants and pollinating seed parasites, such as those between leafflowers and leafflower moths, pollinators consume subsets of the seeds as larval food in return for their pollination service...
July 14, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667772/genotypic-diversity-in-root-endophytic-fungi-reflects-efficient-dispersal-and-environmental-adaptation
#3
Kyriaki Glynou, Tahir Ali, Sevda Haghi Kia, Marco Thines, Jose G Maciá-Vicente
Studying community structure and dynamics of plant-associated fungi is the basis for unravelling their interactions with hosts and ecosystem functions. A recent sampling revealed that only a few fungal groups, as defined by internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) sequence similarity, dominate culturable root endophytic communities of nonmycorrhizal Microthlaspi spp. plants across Europe. Strains of these fungi display a broad phenotypic and functional diversity, which suggests a genetic variability masked by ITS clustering into operational taxonomic units (OTUs)...
July 1, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644770/the-impact-of-photovoltaic-pv-installations-on-downwind-particulate-matter-concentrations-results-from-field-observations-at-a-550-mwac-utility-scale-pv-plant
#4
Dwarakanath Ravikumar, Parikhit Sinha
With utility-scale photovoltaic(PV) projects increasingly developed in dry and dust-prone geographies with high solar insolation, there is a critical need to analyze the impacts of PV installations on the resulting particulate-matter(PM) concentrations which have environmental and health impacts. This study is the first to quantify the impact of a utility-scale PV plant on PM concentrations downwind of the project site. Background, construction and post-construction PM2.5 and PM10 concentration data are collected from four beta attenuation monitor(BAM) stations over 3 years...
June 23, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631324/recent-origin-and-rapid-speciation-of-neotropical-orchids-in-the-world-s-richest-plant-biodiversity-hotspot
#5
Oscar Alejandro Pérez-Escobar, Guillaume Chomicki, Fabien L Condamine, Adam P Karremans, Diego Bogarín, Nicholas J Matzke, Daniele Silvestro, Alexandre Antonelli
The Andean mountains of South America are the most species-rich biodiversity hotspot worldwide with c. 15% of the world's plant species, in only 1% of the world's land surface. Orchids are a key element of the Andean flora, and one of the most prominent components of the Neotropical epiphyte diversity, yet very little is known about their origin and diversification. We address this knowledge gap by inferring the biogeographical history and diversification dynamics of the two largest Neotropical orchid groups (Cymbidieae and Pleurothallidinae), using two unparalleled, densely sampled orchid phylogenies (including more than 400 newly generated DNA sequences), comparative phylogenetic methods, geological and biological datasets...
July 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558691/the-development-and-use-of-a-molecular-model-for-soybean-maturity-groups
#6
Tiffany Langewisch, Julian Lenis, Guo-Liang Jiang, Dechun Wang, Vince Pantalone, Kristin Bilyeu
BACKGROUND: Achieving appropriate maturity in a target environment is essential to maximizing crop yield potential. In soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], the time to maturity is largely dependent on developmental response to dark periods. Once the critical photoperiod is reached, flowering is initiated and reproductive development proceeds. Therefore, soybean adaptation has been attributed to genetic changes and natural or artificial selection to optimize plant development in specific, narrow latitudinal ranges...
May 30, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459096/data-on-soil-p-h-of-barddhaman-district-india
#7
Sumanta Bid
P(H) (Puissance de Hydrogen) is an essential ingredient of soil that effects on fertility and productivity of dirt. Barddhaman district is a part of Lower Gangetic Plain fully covered by alluvial soil and popularly known as 'rice bowl of West Bengal' owing to its lofty production. This data article provides a block level data on soil P(H) that is essential for further investigation of the relationship among soil ph, plant growth, plant health and productivity. This data is valuable in the field of soil geography and soil science...
June 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348571/population-structure-and-phylogenetic-relationships-in-a-diverse-panel-of-brassica-rapa-l
#8
Kevin A Bird, Hong An, Elodie Gazave, Michael A Gore, J Chris Pires, Larry D Robertson, Joanne A Labate
The crop species Brassica rapa L. has significant economic importance around the world. However, the global distribution and complex evolutionary history of the species has made investigating its genetic population structure difficult. Crop domestication and improvement has resulted in extreme phenotypic diversity and subspecies that are used for oilseed, food for human consumption, and fodder for livestock. These subspecies include the oilseed morphotypes. oleifera (turnip rape), ssp. dichotoma (brown sarson/toria), ssp...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273484/transposon-mediated-epigenetic-regulation-contributes-to-phenotypic-diversity-and-environmental-adaptation-in-rice
#9
REVIEW
Xianwei Song, Xiaofeng Cao
Transposable elements (TEs) have long been regarded as 'selfish DNA', and are generally silenced by epigenetic mechanisms. However, work in the past decade has identified positive roles for TEs in generating genomic novelty and diversity in plants. In particular, recent studies suggested that TE-induced epigenetic alterations and modification of gene expression contribute to phenotypic variation and adaptation to geography or stress. These findings have led many to regard TEs, not as junk DNA, but as sources of control elements and genomic diversity...
March 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205240/the-influence-of-climatic-niche-preferences-on-the-population-genetic-structure-of-a-mistletoe-species-complex
#10
Santiago Ramírez-Barahona, Clementina González, Antonio González-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco Ornelas
The prevalent view on genetic structuring in parasitic plants is that host-race formation is caused by varying degrees of host specificity. However, the relative importance of ecological niche divergence and host specificity to population differentiation remains poorly understood. We evaluated the factors associated with population differentiation in mistletoes of the Psittacanthus schiedeanus complex (Loranthaceae) in Mexico. We used genetic data from chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites to study population genetic structure and tested its association with host preferences and climatic niche variables...
June 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168124/geography-shapes-the-phylogeny-of-frailejones-espeletiinae-cuatrec-asteraceae-a-remarkable-example-of-recent-rapid-radiation-in-sky-islands
#11
Mauricio Diazgranados, Janet C Barber
BACKGROUND: The páramo ecosystem, located above the timberline in the tropical Andes, has been the setting for some of the most dramatic plant radiations, and it is one of the world's fastest evolving and most diverse high-altitude ecosystems. Today 144+ species of frailejones (subtribe Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae) dominate the páramo. Frailejones have intrigued naturalists and botanists, not just for their appealing beauty and impressive morphological diversity, but also for their remarkable adaptations to the extremely harsh environmental conditions of the páramo...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106948/genetic-differentiation-associated-with-host-plants-and-geography-among-six-widespread-species-of-south-american-blepharoneura-fruit-flies-tephritidae
#12
K Ottens, I S Winkler, M L Lewis, S J Scheffer, G A Gomes-Costa, M A Condon, A A Forbes
Tropical herbivorous insects are astonishingly diverse, and many are highly host-specific. Much evidence suggests that herbivorous insect diversity is a function of host plant diversity; yet, the diversity of some lineages exceeds the diversity of plants. Although most species of herbivorous fruit flies in the Neotropical genus Blepharoneura are strongly host-specific (they deposit their eggs in a single host plant species and flower sex), some species are collected from multiple hosts or flowers and these may represent examples of lineages that are diversifying via changes in host use...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069633/population-level-genetic-variation-and-climate-change-in-a-biodiversity-hotspot
#13
REVIEW
Kristina A Schierenbeck
INTRODUCTION: Estimated future climate scenarios can be used to predict where hotspots of endemism may occur over the next century, but life history, ecological and genetic traits will be important in informing the varying responses within myriad taxa. Essential to predicting the consequences of climate change to individual species will be an understanding of the factors that drive genetic structure within and among populations. Here, I review the factors that influence the genetic structure of plant species in California, but are applicable elsewhere; existing levels of genetic variation, life history and ecological characteristics will affect the ability of an individual taxon to persist in the presence of anthropogenic change...
January 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028850/history-geography-and-host-use-shape-genomewide-patterns-of-genetic-variation-in-the-redheaded-pine-sawfly-neodiprion-lecontei
#14
Robin K Bagley, Vitor C Sousa, Matthew L Niemiller, Catherine R Linnen
Divergent host use has long been suspected to drive population differentiation and speciation in plant-feeding insects. Evaluating the contribution of divergent host use to genetic differentiation can be difficult, however, as dispersal limitation and population structure may also influence patterns of genetic variation. In this study, we use double-digest restriction-associated DNA (ddRAD) sequencing to test the hypothesis that divergent host use contributes to genetic differentiation among populations of the redheaded pine sawfly (Neodiprion lecontei), a widespread pest that uses multiple Pinus hosts throughout its range in eastern North America...
February 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998817/the-phylogeny-of-heliconia-heliconiaceae-and-the-evolution-of-floral-presentation
#15
William J D Iles, Chodon Sass, Laura Lagomarsino, Gracie Benson-Martin, Heather Driscoll, Chelsea D Specht
Heliconia (Heliconiaceae, order Zingiberales) is among the showiest plants of the Neotropical rainforest and represent a spectacular co-evolutionary radiation with hummingbirds. Despite the attractiveness and ecological importance of many Heliconia, the genus has been the subject of limited molecular phylogenetic studies. We sample seven markers from the plastid and nuclear genomes for 202 samples of Heliconia. This represents ca. 75% of accepted species and includes coverage of all taxonomic subgenera and sections...
December 18, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959958/phylogeography-of-the-wheat-stem-sawfly-cephus-cinctus-norton-hymenoptera-cephidae-implications-for-pest-management
#16
Vincent Lesieur, Jean-François Martin, David K Weaver, Kim A Hoelmer, David R Smith, Wendell L Morrill, Nassera Kadiri, Frank B Peairs, Darren M Cockrell, Terri L Randolph, Debra K Waters, Marie-Claude Bon
The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), is a key pest of wheat in the northern Great Plains of North America, and damage resulting from this species has recently expanded southward. Current pest management practices are inadequate and uncertainty regarding geographic origin, as well as limited data on population structure and dynamics across North America impede progress towards more informed management. We examined the genetic divergence between samples collected in North America and northeastern Asia, the assumed native range of C...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940071/analysis-of-plant-soil-seed-banks-and-seed-dispersal-vectors-its-potential-and-limits-for-forensic-investigations
#17
REVIEW
Kateřina Šumberová, Michal Ducháček
Plant seeds exhibit many species-specific traits, thus potentially being especially helpful for forensic investigations. Seeds of a broad range of plant species occur in soil seed banks of various habitats and may become attached in large quantities to moving objects. Although plant seeds are now routinely used as trace evidence in forensic practice, only scant information has been published on this topic in the scientific literature. Thus, the standard methods remain unknown to specialists in such botanical subjects as plant ecology and plant geography...
November 27, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872949/symbiont-diversity-of-aphis-toxoptera-citricidus-hemiptera-aphididae-as-influenced-by-host-plants
#18
Aline Sartori Guidolin, Fernando Luis Cônsoli
Aphids are well known for their association with endosymbiont bacteria. Almost all aphids harbor Buchnera aphidicola as an obligate symbiont and several other bacteria as facultative symbionts. Associations of facultative symbionts and aphids are quite variable in terms of diversity and prevalence across aphid species. Facultative symbionts can have a major impact on aphid bioecological traits. A number of factors shape the outcome of the facultative symbiont-aphid association, including aphid clone, bacterial genotype, geography, and host plant association...
January 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765608/influence-of-geography-seasons-and-pedology-on-chemical-composition-and-anti-inflammatory-activities-of-essential-oils-from-lippia-multiflora-mold-leaves
#19
Lêniféré Chantal Soro, Sylvie Munier, Yves Pelissier, Lidwine Grosmaire, Rickey Yada, David Kitts, Anin Louise Ocho-Anin Atchibri, Caroline Guzman, Frédéric Boudard, Chantal Menut, Jean Charles Robinson, Patrick Poucheret
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Lippia multiflora is a plant with nutritional and pharmaco-therapeutic properties that is native to central and occidental Africa. The potential effects of plants on health are associated with their chemical composition. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify chemical variations in essential oils of Lippia multiflora as a function of geographic origin and time of annual harvest to determine optimal chemical profiles for ethno-pharmacotherapeutic applications...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616586/homogeneous-diet-of-contemporary-japanese-inferred-from-stable-isotope-ratios-of-hair
#20
Soichiro Kusaka, Eriko Ishimaru, Fujio Hyodo, Takashi Gakuhari, Minoru Yoneda, Takakazu Yumoto, Ichiro Tayasu
The globalization of food production and distribution has homogenized human dietary patterns irrespective of geography, but it is uncertain how far this homogenization has progressed. This study investigated the carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in the scalp hair of 1305 contemporary Japanese and found values of -19.4 ± 0.6‰ and 9.4 ± 0.6‰ (mean ± SD), respectively. Within Japan, the inter-regional differences for both isotope ratios was less than 1‰, which indicates low dietary heterogeneity among prefectural divisions...
2016: Scientific Reports
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