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Nicotinamide AND diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322013/dillenia-indica-l-attenuates-diabetic-nephropathy-via-inhibition-of-advanced-glycation-end-products-accumulation-in-stz-nicotinamide-induced-diabetic-rats
#1
Navpreet Kaur, Lalit Kishore, Randhir Singh
The present study was aimed to evaluate advanced glycation end products (AGEs) inhibitory activity of alcohol and hydro-alcohol extract (DAE and DHE) of Dillenia indica L. (Family: Dilleniaceae) and its potential in treatment of diabetic nephropathy by targeting markers of oxidative stress. D. indica was evaluated for its in vitro inhibitory activity against formation of AGEs by using bovine serum albumin. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg i.p.) 15 min after nicotinamide (230 mg/kg, i...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311486/effect-of-seleno-l-methionine-on-oxidative-stress-in-the-pancreatic-islets-of-a-short-term-induced-diabetic-mouse-model-in-insufficient-selenium-status
#2
Hitoshi Ueno, Ryo Shimizu, Tomofumi Okuno, Hirofumi Ogino, Tomohiro Arakawa, Koichi Murano, Katsuhiko Nakamuro
The protective effects of seleno-L-methionine (SeMet) on oxidative stress in pancreatic islets were investigated with a short-term nicotinamide (NA) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mouse model. ICR mice were intraperitoneally injected twice with 100 mg/kg STZ and 120 mg/kg NA at a 1-d interval and were then orally administered 158 µg Se/kg SeMet with free access to a selenium-deficient diet for 5 weeks. Administration of SeMet significantly improved the levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), non-fasting and oral glucose tolerance-tested (OGTT) blood glucose, plasma adiponectin and hepatic glycogen that deteriorated by NA/STZ treatment...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305011/transcriptional-regulation-of-metabolism-by-sirt1-and-sirt7
#3
Kazuya Yamagata, Tatsuya Yoshizawa
Sirtuins are a family of evolutionally conserved nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent protein deacetylases/deacylases that regulate metabolism. The mammalian sirtuin family consists of seven sirtuins (SIRT1-7). Recent findings have identified critical roles for SIRT1 and SIRT7 in glucose/lipid metabolism in multiple tissues. This review focuses on the metabolic roles of these two sirtuins and the benefits of modulating the activity of sirtuins for the treatment of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295624/nad-deficiency-is-a-common-central-pathological-factor-of-a-number-of-diseases-and-aging-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-implications
#4
Mingchao Zhang, Weihai Ying
Increasing evidence has indicated critical roles of NAD+ in various biological functions. NAD+ deficiency has been found in models of a number of diseases such as cerebral ischemia, myocardial ischemia and diabetes, and in models of aging. Application of NAD+ or other approaches that can restore NAD+ levels are highly protective in these models of diseases and aging. NAD+ produces its beneficial effects by targeting at multiple pathological pathways, including attenuating mitochondrial alterations, DNA damage and oxidative stress by modulating such enzymes as sirtuins, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and AP endonuclease...
January 2, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286118/amelioration-of-streptozotocin%C3%A2-induced-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-damage-by-morin-involvement-of-the-ampk%C3%A2-foxo3%C3%A2-catalase-signaling-pathway
#5
Ning Wang, Jiahui Zhang, Mengting Qin, Wenjing Yi, Shuang Yu, Yi Chen, Jing Guan, Rui Zhang
Pancreatic β cells are sensitive to oxidative stress, which is one of the predominant causes of cell damage and the emergence of diabetes. The identification of effective therapeutic strategies to protect pancreatic cells from oxidative stress has increased interest in the screening of antioxidants from natural products. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of morin against streptozotocin (STZ)‑induced cell damage in a rat insulinoma cell line (RINm5F pancreatic β cells) and to identify the underlying mechanisms...
December 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277549/the-mtor-promotes-oxidative-stress-induced-apoptosis-of-mesangial-cells-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#6
Qian Lu, Yuexian Zhou, Meng Hao, Chengcheng Li, Jin Wang, Fanglin Shu, Lei Du, Xia Zhu, Qiaoli Zhang, Xiaoxing Yin
Glomerular mesangial cell (MC) apoptosis is one of the important mechanisms of glomerulosclerosis, which induces an increased severity of albuminuria and promotes the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the mechanism by which high glucose (HG) induces MCs apoptosis is not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of mTOR signalling on apoptosis in cultured MCs exposed to HG and in type I diabetes, and tried to clarify the specific mechanisms underlying these effects...
December 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248832/polyphenol-rich-ethyl-acetate-fraction-isolated-from-molineria-latifolia-ameliorates-insulin-resistance-in-experimental-diabetic-rats-via-irs1-akt-activation
#7
Der Jiun Ooi, Hadiza Altine Adamu, Mustapha Umar Imam, Hairuszah Ithnin, Maznah Ismail
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) isolated from Molineria latifolia rhizome as dietary interventions for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its underlying molecular mechanisms in vivo. Experimental rats were induced by high fat diet feeding coupled with combined exposure to streptozotocin and nicotinamide. Treatment with EAF improved glucose tolerance and lipid profiles, but the insulin secretion was unaltered. Gene expression analyses on insulin/adipocytokine signalling-related genes demonstrated tissue-specific transcriptional responses...
December 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229552/caspase-6-is-a-dispensable-enabler-of-adult-mammalian-axonal-degeneration
#8
V Woo, C Cheng, A Duraikannu, A Chandrasekhar, K Purdy, J A Martinez, D W Zochodne
The progress of axonal degeneration (AxD) following injury or insult impacts both recovery from axonal transection and protection of axons from diverse insults, or axonopathy. Here we provide evidence that increases in capase-6 (Casp6) expression and action contribute to the progression of AxD. The expression of Casp6 protein and mRNA in distal branches of sensory axons undergoing AxD was confirmed. We developed and utilized a new model of axonopathy in live mice by serially visualizing the viability of cutaneous axons in the ear pinna that expressed an axonal YFP transgene, in response to capasaicin-induced AxD...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212824/targeted-microbiome-intervention-by-microencapsulated-delayed-release-niacin-beneficially-affects-insulin-sensitivity-in-humans
#9
Daniela Fangmann, Eva-Maria Theismann, Kathrin Türk, Dominik M Schulte, Isabelle Relling, Katharina Hartmann, Julia K Keppler, Jörg-Rainer Knipp, Ateequr Rehman, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Andre Franke, Lennart Lenk, Sandra Freitag-Wolf, Esther Appel, Stanislav Gorb, Charles Brenner, Dirk Seegert, Georg H Waetzig, Philip Rosenstiel, Stefan Schreiber, Karin Schwarz, Matthias Laudes
OBJECTIVE: Gut microbiota represent a potential novel target for future prediabetes and type 2 diabetes therapies. In that respect, niacin has been shown to beneficially affect the host-microbiome interaction in rodent models. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We characterized more than 500 human subjects with different metabolic phenotypes regarding their niacin (nicotinic acid [NA] and nicotinamide [NAM]) status and their gut microbiome. In addition, NA and NAM delayed-release microcapsules were engineered and examined in vitro and in vivo in two human intervention studies (bioavailability study and proof-of-concept/safety study)...
December 6, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207011/astragaloside-iv-prevents-kidney-injury-caused-by-iatrogenic-hyperinsulinemia-in-a-streptozotocin%C3%A2-induced-diabetic-rat-model
#10
Ke-Qiang He, Wei-Zu Li, Xiao-Qing Chai, Yan-Yan Yin, Yan Jiang, Wei-Ping Li
Diabetic patients are able to manage their blood glucose with exogenous insulin but, ultimately, remain at risk of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Long‑term use of insulin may lead to iatrogenic hyperinsulinemia, which has been suggested to cause kidney injury. However, there are no effective interventions for iatrogenic hyperinsulinemia leading to kidney damage. In the present paper, the hypothesis that astragaloside IV (AS‑IV), a novel saponin purified from Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) Bunge, may prevent DN in iatrogenic hyperinsulinemic diabetic rats through antioxidative and anti‑inflammatory mechanisms was investigated...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179217/ellagic-acid-reduces-high-glucose-induced-vascular-oxidative-stress-through-erk1-2-nox4-signaling-pathway
#11
Artur Rozentsvit, Kevin Vinokur, Sherin Samuel, Ying Li, A Martin Gerdes, Maria Alicia Carrillo-Sepulveda
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is linked to endothelial dysfunction and is one of the key contributors to the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. Emerging evidence has indicated that ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenol found in fruits and nuts, possesses numerous biological activities including radical scavenging. However, whether EA exerts a vasculo-protective effect via antioxidant mechanisms in blood vessels exposed to diabetic conditions remains unknown...
November 28, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169424/-sodium-hydrosulfide-attenuates-myocardial-injury-through-activating-thioredoxin-system-in-diabetic-rats
#12
Qiang Jia, Rui Yang, Xiaofen Liu, Qiyi Wang, Haoyu Lu, Shanfeng Ma
Objective To investigate the effect of exogenous hydrogen sulfide from sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) on cardiac thioredoxin (Trx) system in diabetic rats. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a normal group, a diabetic group, and three NaHS (14, 28 and 56 μmol/kg) treatment groups, with 6 rats in each group. Type 1 diabetes was induced in the groups by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin. At the fifth week after modeling, the NaHS treatment groups were injected (i...
October 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157816/effect-of-ipomoea-aquatica-ethanolic-extract-in-streptozotocin-stz-induced-diabetic-rats-via-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomics-approach
#13
Azliana Abu Bakar Sajak, Ahmed Mediani, Maulidiani, Nur Sumirah Mohd Dom, Chandradevan Machap, Muhajir Hamid, Amin Ismail, Alfi Khatib, Faridah Abas
BACKGROUND: Ipomoea aquatica (locally known as "kangkung") has previously been reported to have hypoglycemic activities on glucose level in diabetes patients. However, the effect of I. aquatica ethanolic extract on the metabolites in the body has remained unknown. PURPOSE: This study provides new insights on the changes of endogenous metabolites caused by I. aquatica ethanolic extract and improves the understanding on the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of I...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155147/selective-and-membrane-permeable-small-molecule-inhibitors-of-nicotinamide-n-methyltransferase-reverse-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#14
Harshini Neelakantan, Virginia Vance, Michael D Wetzel, Hua-Yu Leo Wang, Stanton F McHardy, Celeste C Finnerty, Jonathan D Hommel, Stanley J Watowich
There is a critical need for new mechanism-of-action drugs that reduce the burden of obesity and associated chronic metabolic comorbidities. A potentially novel target to treat obesity and type 2 diabetes is nicotinamide-N-methyltransferase (NNMT), a cytosolic enzyme with newly identified roles in cellular metabolism and energy homeostasis. To validate NNMT as an anti-obesity drug target, we investigated the permeability, selectivity, mechanistic, and physiological properties of a series of small molecule NNMT inhibitors...
November 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142401/phytochemical-compositions-and-in-vitro-assessments-of-antioxidant-and-antidiabetic-potentials-of-fractions-from-ehretia-cymosa-thonn
#15
Akintayo Ogundajo, Anofi Tom Ashafa
Background: Ehretia cymosa Thonn. is a popular medicinal plant used in different parts of West Africa for the treatment of various ailments including diabetes mellitus. Objective: The current study investigates bioactive constituents and in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic potentials of fractions from extract of E. cymosa. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical investigation and antioxidant assays were carried out using standard procedures...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137280/ppar%C3%AE-sumoylation-mediated-lipid-accumulation-in-lung-cancer
#16
Ai N H Phan, Vu T A Vo, Tuyen N M Hua, Min-Kyu Kim, Se-Young Jo, Jong-Whan Choi, Hyun-Won Kim, Jaekyoung Son, Young-Ah Suh, Yangsik Jeong
Metabolic reprogramming as a crucial emerging hallmark of cancer is critical for tumor cells to maintain cellular bioenergetics, biosynthesis and reduction/oxidation (REDOX) balance. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a nuclear hormone receptor regulating transcription of diverse gene sets involved in inflammation, metabolism, and suppressing tumor growth. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), as selective PPARγ ligands, are insulin-sensitizing drugs widely prescribed for type 2 diabetic patients in the clinic...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131417/culturing-with-modified-egm2-medium-enhances-porcine-neonatal-islet-like-cell-clusters-resistance-to-apoptosis-in-islet-xenotransplantation
#17
Xiaoqian Ma, Cejun Yang, Juan Zhang, Jia Wang, Wei Li, Chang Xu, Pengfei Rong, Bin Ye, Minghua Wu, Jianhui Jiang, Shounan Yi, Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: Neonatal pig islet-like cell clusters (NICC) are an attractive source of insulin-producing tissue for potential transplantation treatment of type 1 diabetic patients. However, a considerable loss of NICC after their transplantation due to apoptosis resulted from islet isolation and instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction remains to be overcome. METHODS: EGM2 medium depleted with hydrocortisone and supplemented with 50 mmol/L isobutylmethylxanthine, 10 mmol/L nicotinamide, and 10 mmol/L glucose was used to culture NICC at day 1, the day after isolation and changed every other day...
November 12, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123192/targeted-mitochondrial-therapy-using-mitoq-shows-equivalent-renoprotection-to-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibition-but-no-combined-synergy-in-diabetes
#18
Micheal S Ward, Nicole B Flemming, Linda A Gallo, Amelia K Fotheringham, Domenica A McCarthy, Aowen Zhuang, Peter H Tang, Danielle J Borg, Hannah Shaw, Benjamin Harvie, David R Briskey, Llion A Roberts, Manuel R Plan, Michael P Murphy, Mark P Hodson, Josephine M Forbes
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a pathological mediator of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Our objective was to test the mitochondrially targeted agent, MitoQ, alone and in combination with first line therapy for DKD. Intervention therapies (i) vehicle (D); (ii) MitoQ (DMitoQ;0.6 mg/kg/day); (iii) Ramipril (DRam;3 mg/kg/day) or (iv) combination (DCoAd) were administered to male diabetic db/db mice for 12 weeks (n = 11-13/group). Non-diabetic (C) db/m mice were followed concurrently. No therapy altered glycaemic control or body weight...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120608/biochemical-gas-sensors-biosniffers-using-forward-and-reverse-reactions-of-secondary-alcohol-dehydrogenase-for-breath-isopropanol-and-acetone-as-potential-volatile-biomarkers-of-diabetes-mellitus
#19
Po-Jen Chien, Takuma Suzuki, Masato Tsujii, Ming Ye, Isao Minami, Kanako Toda, Hiromi Otsuka, Koji Toma, Takahiro Arakawa, Kouji Araki, Yasuhiko Iwasaki, Kayoko Shinada, Yoshihiro Ogawa, Kohji Mitsubayashi
This study describes two biosniffers to determine breath acetone and isopropanol (IPA) levels and applies them for breath measurement in healthy subjects and diabetic patients. Secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (S-ADH) can reduce acetone and oxidize nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH to NAD(+)) in a weak acid environment. NADH can be excited by 340 nm excitation lights and subsequently emit 490 nm fluorescence. Therefore, acetone can be measured by the decrease in NADH fluorescence intensity. S-ADH can also oxidize IPA and reduce NAD(+) to NADH when it is in an alkaline environment...
November 9, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119607/impaired-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-in-type-2-diabetic-mouse-model
#20
Pham Minh Vuong, H Tu Nguyen, Tayo Katano, Shinji Matsumura, Akira Saito, Akihiro Yamada, Hidemasa Furue, Seiji Ito
Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common and serious complications of type-2 diabetes. Diabetic neuropathy is characterized by a distal symmetrical sensorimotor polyneuropathy, and its incidence increases in patients 40 years of age or older. In spite of extensive research over decades, there are few effective treatments for diabetic neuropathy besides glucose control and improved lifestyle. The earliest changes in diabetic neuropathy occur in sensory nerve fibers, with initial degeneration and regeneration resulting in pain...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
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