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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088842/unbiased-split-variable-selection-for-random-survival-forests-using-maximally-selected-rank-statistics
#1
Marvin N Wright, Theresa Dankowski, Andreas Ziegler
The most popular approach for analyzing survival data is the Cox regression model. The Cox model may, however, be misspecified, and its proportionality assumption may not always be fulfilled. An alternative approach for survival prediction is random forests for survival outcomes. The standard split criterion for random survival forests is the log-rank test statistic, which favors splitting variables with many possible split points. Conditional inference forests avoid this split variable selection bias. However, linear rank statistics are utilized by default in conditional inference forests to select the optimal splitting variable, which cannot detect non-linear effects in the independent variables...
January 15, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088810/leptin-influences-healing-in-the-sprague-dawley-rat-fracture-model
#2
Pengcheng Liu, Ming Cai
BACKGROUND Leptin plays a crucial role in bone metabolism, and its level is related to bone callus formation in the fracture repair process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant leptin on the healing process of femoral fractures in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty-eight male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with an average body weight of 389 g (range: 376-398 g) and an average age of 10 weeks were included in this animal research, and all rats were randomly divided into two major groups...
January 15, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088806/effects-of-aloe-sterol-supplementation-on-skin-elasticity-hydration-and-collagen-score-a-12-week-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Miyuki Tanaka, Yuki Yamamoto, Eriko Misawa, Kazumi Nabeshima, Marie Saito, Koji Yamauchi, Fumiaki Abe, Fukumi Furukawa
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Our previous study confirmed that Aloe sterol stimulates collagen and hyaluronic acid production in human dermal fibroblasts. This study aims to investigate whether Aloe sterol intake affects skin conditions. METHODS: We performed a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effects of oral Aloe sterol supplementation on skin elasticity, hydration, and the collagen score in 64 healthy women (age range 30-59 years; average 44...
January 14, 2017: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088774/association-between-e-alert-implementation-for-detection-of-acute-kidney-injury-and-outcomes-a-systematic-review
#4
Philippe Lachance, Pierre-Marc Villeneuve, Oleksa G Rewa, Francis P Wilson, Nicholas M Selby, Robin M Featherstone, Sean M Bagshaw
BACKGROUND: Electronic alerts (e-alerts) for acute kidney injury (AKI) in hospitalized patients are increasingly being implemented; however, their impact on outcomes remains uncertain. METHODS: We performed a systematic review. Electronic databases and grey literature were searched for original studies published between 1990 and 2016. Randomized, quasi-randomized, observational and before-and-after studies that included hospitalized patients, implemented e-alerts for AKI and described their impact on one of care processes, patient-centred outcomes or resource utilization measures were included...
January 14, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088768/in-vitro-activity-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-against-urinary-isolates-from-patients-in-a-phase-3-clinical-trial-programme-for-the-treatment-of-complicated-urinary-tract-infections
#5
Gregory G Stone, Patricia A Bradford, Katrina Yates, Paul Newell
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the in vitro activity of ceftazidime/avibactam relative to comparator agents against Gram-negative isolates from a Phase 3 clinical trial programme for complicated urinary tract infections (RECAPTURE). METHODS: The in vitro activity of ceftazidime/avibactam was evaluated against 840 Gram-negative pathogens isolated at baseline from 1033 randomized patients in two pivotal Phase 3 clinical trials for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088748/a-dna-probe-based-on-phosphorescent-resonance-energy-transfer-for-detection-of-transgenic-35s-promoter-dna
#6
Jinzhi Lv, Yanming Miao, Jiajia Yang, Jin Qin, Dongxia Li, Guiqin Yan
A QDs-DNA nano-probe was made by combining Mn-doped ZnS room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) quantum dots (QDs) and DNA. Then an RTP sensor for quantitative detection of genetically-modified mark sequence cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (Ca MV 35S) DNA was built on basis of phosphorescent resonance energy transfer (PRET). The underlying principles were that a QDs-DNA water-soluble nano-probe was built by connecting single-strand DNA to the surfaces of QDs via a ligand exchange method. This probe had good RTP performance and could well identify Ca MV 35S...
January 7, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088704/an-examination-of-the-anxiolytic-effects-of-exercise-for-people-with-anxiety-and-stress-related-disorders-a-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Brendon Stubbs, Davy Vancampfort, Simon Rosenbaum, Joseph Firth, Theodore Cosco, Nicola Veronese, Giovanni A Salum, Felipe B Schuch
The literature regarding exercise for people with established anxiety disorders is equivocal. To address this issue, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis investigating the benefits of exercise compared to usual treatment or control conditions in people with an anxiety and/or stress-related disorders. Major electronic databases were searched from inception until December/2015 and a random effect meta-analysis conducted. Altogether, six randomized control trials (RCTs) including 262 adults (exercise n=132, 34...
January 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088688/randomized-phase-iii-study-to-assess-efficacy-and-safety-of-adjuvant-capox-with-or-without-bevacizumab-in-patients-after-resection-of-colorectal-liver-metastases-hepatica-study
#8
Nikol Snoeren, Richard van Hillegersberg, Sander B Schouten, Andre M Bergman, Erikv van Werkhoven, Otilia Dalesio, Rob A E M Tollenaar, Henk M Verheul, Joost van der Sijp, Inne H M Borel Rinkes, E E Voest
Bevacizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Recurrence after resection of colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs), presumably caused by VEGF-mediated outgrowth of micrometastases, might decrease when VEGF is inhibited. This study examines the efficacy and safety of adding bevacizumab to an adjuvant regimen of CAPOX in patients undergoing radical resection for their CRLMs. Patients with resected CRLMs were randomized after surgery to receive CAPOX and bevacizumab (arm A) or CAPOX alone (arm B) as adjuvant treatment...
January 12, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088681/maintenance-effects-of-working-memory-intervention-cogmed-in-children-with-symptomatic-epilepsy
#9
Amanda Fuentes, Elizabeth N Kerr
PURPOSE: To extend previous research documenting the benefits of working memory (WM) intervention (Cogmed) immediately post-intervention in children with epilepsy by assessing the 3-month maintenance effects. METHODS: Participants involved in a previous randomized clinical trial (RCT) were invited to participate if they completed Cogmed within the last 3months (n=15) and additional participants (n=13) were prospectively recruited. Standardized assessments of near-transfer effects (i...
January 12, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088628/methods-needed-to-measure-predictive-accuracy-a-study-of-diabetic-patients
#10
Hafiz M R Khan, Sarah Mende, Aamrin Rafiq, Kemesha Gabbidon, P Hemachandra Reddy
Diabetes is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality and it can result in several complications such as kidney failure, heart failure, stroke, and blindness making it a major medical and public health concern in the United States. Statistical methods are important to detect risk factors and identify the best sampling plan to determine predictive bounds for diabetic patients' data. The main objective of this paper is to identify the best fit bootstrapping sampling method and to draw the predictive bound considering diabetes patient data...
January 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088597/phase-ii-randomized-trial-of-negative-pressure-wound-therapy-to-decrease-surgical-site-infection-in-patients-undergoing-laparotomy-for-gastrointestinal-pancreatic-and-peritoneal-surface-malignancies
#11
Perry Shen, Aaron Blackham, Stacey Lewis, Clancy Clark, Russell Howerton, Harveshp Mogal, Rebecca Dodson, Gregory B Russell, Edward A Levine
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSI) remain a major source of morbidity and cost after resection of intra-abdominal malignancies. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been reported to significantly reduce SSI when applied to the closed laparotomy incision. This paper reports results of a randomized clinical trial examining the effect of NPWT on SSI rates in surgical oncology patients with increased risk for infectious complications. STUDY DESIGN: From 2012-2016, 265 patients underwent open resection of intra-abdominal neoplasms stratified into three groups: gastrointestinal (n=57), pancreas (n=73), and peritoneal surface malignancy (n=135)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088596/indirect-evidence-of-reporting-biases-was-found-in-a-survey-of-medical-research-studies
#12
Loai N Albarqouni, José A López-López, Julian Pt Higgins
OBJECTIVE: To explore indirect evidence of reporting biases by examining the distribution of P-values reported in published medical articles, and to compare P-values distributions across different contexts. METHODS: We selected a random sample (N=1500) of articles published in PubMed in March 2014. We extracted information on study type, design, medical discipline and P-values for the first reported outcome and primary outcome (if specified) from each article. We plotted the P-values transformed to the z-score scale and used caliper tests to investigate threshold effects...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088595/clinical-trial-registration-was-not-an-indicator-for-low-risk-of-bias
#13
Cynthia M Farquhar, Marian G Showell, Emily A E Showell, Penny Beetham, Nora Baak, Selma Mourad, Vanessa M B Jordan
BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that systematic review authors should only include registered clinical trials in an effort to improve the overall quality of the evidence summarized. PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of registered trials and to evaluate the risk of bias between registered and unregistered clinical trials. DATA SOURCES: The Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group's specialized register was searched on 5(th) November 2015 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published from 2010-2014...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088592/a-systematic-review-found-that-deviations-from-intention-to-treat-are-common-in-randomized-trials-and-systematic-reviews
#14
Iosief Abraha, Francesco Cozzolino, Massimiliano Orso, Mauro Marchesi, Antonella Germani, Guido Lombardo, Paolo Eusebi, Rita De Florio, Maria Laura Luchetta, Alfonso Iorio, Alessandro Montedori
OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics, and estimate the incidence, of trials included in systematic reviews deviating from the intention-to-treat (ITT) principle. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A 5% random sample of reviews (Medline 2006 to 2010). Trials from reviews were classified based on the intention-to-treat: 1) ITT trials (trials reporting standard ITT analyses); 2) mITT trials (modified ITT; trials deviating from standard ITT); or 3) no ITT trials. RESULTS: Of 222 reviews, 81 (36%) included at least one mITT trial...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088586/a-case-control-study-of-risk-sources-for-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-in-hubei-province-china
#15
Xuesen Xing, Xuhua Guan, Li Liu, Junqiang Xu, Guoming Li, Jianbo Zhan, Gongping Liu, Xiaoqing Jiang, Xingfu Shen, Yongzhong Jiang, Yang Wu, Hao Zhang, Jing Huang, Fan Ding, Sha Sha, Man Liu, Faxian Zhan
BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel bunyavirus, was discovered in rural areas of Central China in 2009. METHODS: A case-control study based on hospital data was applied to detect the potential risk sources for SFTS in SFTS-endemic counties in Hubei Province. Cases were defined as hospitalized SFTSV confirmed patients. Controls were randomly selected from non-SFTSV patients in the same hospital ward within 2 weeks of inclusion of the cases, and they were matched by age (+/- 5 years) and gender according to 1:2 matching condition...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088581/a-stepwise-algorithm-using-a-at-a-glance-first-line-test-for-the-non-invasive-diagnosis-of-advanced-liver-fibrosis-and-cirrhosis
#16
Jérôme Boursier, Victor de Ledinghen, Vincent Leroy, Rodolphe Anty, Sven Francque, Dominique Salmon, Adrien Lannes, Sandrine Bertrais, Frederic Oberti, Isabelle Fouchard-Hubert, Paul Calès
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic liver diseases (CLD) are highly frequent and thus mainly managed by non-hepatologists. Because they lack access to the best non-invasive tests of liver fibrosis, these physicians cannot accurately determine the disease severity and the need for referral to a hepatologist. We aimed to implement an algorithm, comprising a new first-line test usable by all physicians, for the detection of advanced liver fibrosis in all CLD patients. METHODS: Diagnostic study: 3,754 CLD patients with liver biopsy were 2:1 randomized into derivation and validation sets...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088557/meta-analysis-of-organizational-skills-interventions-for-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#17
REVIEW
Aida Bikic, Brian Reichow, Spencer A McCauley, Karim Ibrahim, Denis G Sukhodolsky
BACKGROUND: In addition to problems with attention and hyperactivity, children with ADHD present with poor organizational skills required for managing time and materials in academic projects. Organizational skills training (OST) has been increasingly used to address these deficits. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of OST in children with ADHD. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to systematically review the evidence of the effects of OST for children with ADHD for organizational skills, attention, and academic performance...
December 29, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088504/novel-insights-into-the-transport-mechanism-of-the-human-amino-acid-transporter-lat1-slc7a5-probing-critical-residues-for-substrate-translocation
#18
Lara Napolitano, Michele Galluccio, Mariafrancesca Scalise, Chiara Parravicini, Luca Palazzolo, Ivano Eberini, Cesare Indiveri
BACKGROUND: LAT1 (SLC7A5) is the transport competent unit of the heterodimer formed with the glycoprotein CD98 (SLC3A2). It catalyzes antiport of His and some neutral amino acids such as Ile, Leu, Val, Cys, Met, Gln and Phe thus being involved in amino acid metabolism. Interestingly, LAT1 is over-expressed in many human cancers that are characterized by increased demand of amino acids. Therefore LAT1 was recently acknowledged as a novel target for cancer therapy. However, knowledge on molecular mechanism of LAT1 transport is still scarce...
January 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088498/vaginal-misoprostol-prior-to-intrauterine-device-insertion-in-women-delivered-only-by-elective-cesarean-section-a-randomized-double-blind-clinical-trial
#19
Mohamed S Abdellah, Ahmed M Abbas, Aml M Hegazy, Ihab M El-Nashar
OBJECTIVE: The current study aims to evaluate if vaginal misoprostol (400 mcg) administered prior to intrauterine device (IUD) insertion increase the ease and success of insertion among women who had delivered only by elective Cesarean delivery (CD). STUDY DESIGN: The current study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, conducted in Assiut Women's Health Hospital, Egypt between the 1st of April 2015 and the 31st of March 2016 included women delivered only by elective CD...
January 11, 2017: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088480/sensing-membrane-curvature-in-macroautophagy
#20
REVIEW
Nathan Nguyen, Vladimir Shteyn, Thomas J Melia
In response to intracellular stress events ranging from starvation to pathogen invasion, the cell activates one or more forms of macroautophagy. The key event in these related pathways is the de novo formation of a new organelle called the autophagosome, which surrounds and sequesters either random portions of the cytoplasm or selectively targets individual intracellular challenges. Thus the autophagosome is a flexible membrane platform with dimensions that ultimately depend upon the target cargo. The intermediate membrane, termed the phagophore or isolation membrane, is a cup-like structure with a clear concave face and a highly curved rim...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
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