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adolescent adhd

J Rydkjær, J R Møllegaard Jepsen, A K Pagsberg, B Fagerlund, B Y Glenthøj, B Oranje
BACKGROUND: Deficient mismatch negativity (MMN) has been proposed as a candidate biomarker in schizophrenia and may therefore be potentially useful in early identification and intervention in early onset psychosis. In this study we explored whether deficits in the automatic orienting and reorienting responses, measured as MMN and P3a amplitude, are present in young adolescents with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and whether findings are specific to psychosis compared to young adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
October 25, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Emel Sari Gokten, Nagihan Saday Duman, Nusret Soylu, Mehmet Erdem Uzun
It is known that children with mental and developmental problems are at risk of abuse and neglect. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is one of the most frequent neurodevelopmental disorders in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study is to examine whether children diagnosed with ADHD are under more risk in terms of child abuse and neglect compared to controls. In this case-control study, 104 children, who applied to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit of Bursa Yuksek Ihtisas Training and Research Hospital between January and June 2015, were diagnosed with ADHD, and had no other psychiatric comorbidity except for disruptive behavior disorders, and 104 healthy children were compared...
October 19, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Thomas M Kapellen, Rebecca Reimann, Wieland Kiess, Karel Kostev
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Germany. METHODS: Two different representative German databases - IMS®-Disease Analyzer, a database that includes diagnoses as well as other information, and IMS®-LRx, a database that documents prescriptions - were used to conduct a retrospective analysis. We searched the LRx database for patients who received both insulin and ADHD-specific medication...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Judith Owens, Margaret Weiss, Earl Nordbrock, Greg Mattingly, Sharon Wigal, Laurence L Greenhill, Wei-Wei Chang, Ann Childress, Robert J Kupper, Akwete Adjei
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate measures of sleep (exploratory endpoints) in two pivotal studies of a multilayer bead extended-release methylphenidate (MPH-MLR) treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children. METHODS: Study 1 evaluated the time course of response to MPH-MLR (n = 26) patients in an analog classroom setting through four phases: screening (≤28 days), open label (OL) dose optimization (4 weeks), double-blind (DB) crossover (2 weeks; placebo vs...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
María Martín-Fernández, Josep Lluís Matalí, Sara García-Sánchez, Marta Pardo, María Lleras, Carmina Castellano-Tejedor
Demand for treatment for problems related to the use of video games have increased significantly in adolescents. Most cases have a comorbid mental disorder that jeopardises both pathologies. The aim of this study is to describe profiles of adolescents with Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) according to comorbidity and analyze treatment response at 3 and 6 months. A sample of 86 patients which consulted in the Addictive Behavior Unit of a hospital was assessed with diagnostic criteria for IGD, the interview K-SADS-PL for mental disorders and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) to treatment progress...
September 29, 2016: Adicciones
Jennifer C Reneker, Vinay Cheruvu, Jingzhen Yang, Chad E Cook, Mark A James, M Clay Moughiman, Joseph A Congeni
BACKGROUND: Dizziness is often reported after a sports-related concussion. Forces experienced at the time of the concussion can cause an injury to multiple anatomical areas, including the central nervous system, the vestibular system, and the cervical spine, each of which is sufficient to cause dizziness. Medical professionals routinely use the subjective history to develop hypotheses about what may be causing a patient's dizziness. No previous studies have attempted to differentiate the source of the dizziness through precise patient descriptors or the triggers of dizziness...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Esra Cop Tasgin, Ozgur Oner, Pinar Yurtbasi, Kerim Munir
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), antisocial behavior and anxiety/depression ratings of mothers, and child and adolescents' age, gender, ADHD subtype, and comorbidity on one-month drug treatment response to OROS methylphenidate in ADHD in a naturalistic setting. METHODS: The analyses included 223 subjects (191 boys, 32 girls; age 6-15 years, mean: 9.4) treated with OROS methylphenidate (18-72 mg/day, mean: 31 mg/d; 0...
2016: Bulletin of Clinical Psychopharmacology [Klinik Psikofarmakoloji Bülteni]
Ola Ståhlberg, Sofia Boman, Christina Robertsson, Nóra Kerekes, Henrik Anckarsäter, Thomas Nilsson
This 3-year follow-up study compares background variables, extent of criminality and criminal recidivism in the form of all court convictions, the use of inpatient care, and number of early deaths in Swedish institutionalized adolescents (N=100) with comorbid substance use disorders (SUD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (n=25) versus those with SUD but no ADHD (n=30), and those without SUD (n=45). In addition it aims to identify whether potential risk factors related to these groups are associated with persistence in violent criminality...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Elizabeth B Owens, Stephen P Hinshaw
Using a sample of 228 females with and without childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder followed prospectively across 16 years, we measured childhood neurocognitive vulnerability via executive dysfunction using teacher-reported cognitive and learning problems. We then ascertained relations between dimensionally measured internalizing and externalizing psychopathology during adulthood and showed that childhood neurocognitive vulnerability reliably predicted such associated psychopathology. We identified six serial mediation pathways from childhood neurocognitive vulnerability to adult psychopathology through three early- and late-adolescent domains: individual (self-control and delay of gratification), peer (rejection/conflict and acceptance/friendship), and school (academic performance and school failure)...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Merve Cikili Uytun, Emel Karakaya, Didem Behice Oztop, Serife Gengec, Kazım Gumus, Sevgi Ozmen, Selim Doğanay, Semra Icer, Esra Demirci, Saliha Demirel Ozsoy
It is known that patients with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Conduct disorder (CD) commonly shows greater symptom severity than those with ADHD alone and worse outcomes. This study researches whether Default mode network (DMN) is altered in adolescents with ADHD + CD, relative to ADHD alone and controls or not. Ten medication-naïve boys with ADHD + CD, ten medication-naïve boys with ADHD and 10-age-matched typically developing (TD) controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans in the resting state and neuropsychological tasks such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Stroop Test TBAG Form (STP), Auditory Verbal learning Test (AVLT), Visual Auditory Digit Span B (VADS B) were applied to all the subjects included...
October 13, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Dennis van der Meer, Catharina A Hartman, Raimon H R Pruim, Maarten Mennes, Dirk Heslenfeld, Jaap Oosterlaan, Stephen V Faraone, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar, Pieter J Hoekstra
We recently reported that the serotonin transporter polymorphism 5-HTTLPR moderates the relation between stress exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) severity. This gene-environment interaction (GxE) has been previously tied to the processing of emotional stimuli, which is increasingly recognized to be a key factor in ADHD-related impairment. The executive control and default mode brain networks play an important role in the regulation of emotion processing, and altered connectivity of these networks has also been associated with ADHD...
October 13, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Ying Li, Jie Gao, Shu He, Yan Zhang, Qiwei Wang
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders. We carried out this comparison of multiple treatments based on sufficient data in attempt to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ADHD medication for children and adolescents. PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Database were used to search for relevant articles. Changes in the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) scores and the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised (CPRS) scores were used as outcomes for efficacy. Withdrawals due to all-cause, adverse effects and lack of efficacy were defined as primary outcomes evaluating the safety of such medications...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
M Kölch, P L Plener
Pharmacotherapeutic interventions are available for most psychiatric disorders in children. Evidence for these interventions varies, depending on the targeted disorders. For attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, a sound database on efficacy and safety of medication exists. For other common disorders or psychopathological phenomena like disruptive behavior, anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, or autism, data on efficacy and safety are much scarcer. This selective review aims to provide an overview about current psychopharmacological interventions in child and adolescent psychiatry...
October 13, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
Erin N Schoenfelder, Tyler Sasser
Although side effects and family concerns are common and long-term medication adherence is low, stimulant medications are a front-line treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Psychosocial treatments include classroom, family, and child-focused interventions that teach caregivers and teachers how to implement contingencies to shape behavior and provide children with skills to compensate for ADHD deficits. Such programs have a growing evidence-base and can be implemented alone or in conjunction with pharmacological treatments...
October 1, 2016: Pediatric Annals
Jeffrey A Guy, Lisa M Knight, Yinding Wang, Jeanette M Jerrell
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal injuries may be associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom severity, comorbid psychiatric or medical conditions, and the prescribed psychostimulant. METHODS: A population-based, retrospective cohort design was employed using South Carolina's Medicaid claims data set covering outpatient and inpatient medical services and medication prescriptions over an 11-year period (January 1, 1996, through December 31, 2006) for patients ≤ 17 years of age with ≥ 2 visits for ICD-9-CM diagnostic codes for ADHD...
2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
Felice Carabellese, Donatella La Tegola, Lucia Margari, Francesco Craig, Alessio Ostuni, Ermenegilda Scardaccione, Francesca Perrini, Francesco Margari
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to identify possible risk factors related to carrying out of illegal conducts by minors on their first offense, and any individual variables, family, economic and socio-cultural related to phenomenon also investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The longitudinal study involved the acquisition of a series of biographical information, family, school, behavioral and clinical characteristics of children on their first crime recruited over a year in Puglia Region...
July 2016: Rivista di Psichiatria
Shari L Hutchison, Jaswinder K Ghuman, Harinder S Ghuman, Irina Karpov, James M Schuster
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed mental health disorders and is associated with higher incidence of comorbid oppositional or conduct, mood, anxiety, pervasive developmental, and substance-use disorders. Comorbid mental health conditions may alter the presence of symptoms and treatment of ADHD. Atomoxetine (ATX), a nonstimulant medication for the treatment of ADHD, may be prescribed for individuals with ADHD and comorbid conditions despite some risk for certain undesirable side effects and lower effectiveness for the treatment of ADHD than stimulants...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
E Norén Selinus, Y Molero, P Lichtenstein, H Anckarsäter, S Lundström, M Bottai, C Hellner Gumpert
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between different levels of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and sex differences in psychosocial outcomes during adolescence. METHOD: Swedish children (n = 4635) were screened for neuropsychiatric symptoms at age 9 or 12. ADHD symptoms were divided into three levels: screen-negative, screen-intermediate, and screen-positive. At follow-up (age 15), parents and teenagers filled out questionnaires regarding (i) hyperactivity/inattention, (ii) peer problems, (iii) school problems, (iv) internalizing problems, (v) antisocial behaviour, (vi) alcohol misuse, and (vii) drug misuse...
October 7, 2016: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
F Xavier Castellanos, Yuta Aoki
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) without an explicit task, i.e., resting state fMRI, of individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is growing rapidly. Early studies were unaware of the vulnerability of this method to even minor degrees of head motion, a major concern in the field. Recent efforts are implementing various strategies to address this source of artifact along with a growing set of analytical tools. Availability of the ADHD-200 Consortium dataset, a large-scale multi-site repository, is facilitating increasingly sophisticated approaches...
May 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Sohini Chatterjee, Trevor Humby, William Davies
BACKGROUND: X-linked ichthyosis (XLI) is a rare dermatological condition arising from deficiency for the enzyme steroid sulfatase (STS). Preliminary evidence in boys with XLI, and animal model studies, suggests that individuals lacking STS are at increased risk of developmental disorders and associated traits. However, the behavioural profile of children with XLI is poorly-characterised, and the behavioural profile of adults with XLI has not yet been documented at all. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using an online survey, advertised worldwide, we collected detailed self- or parent-reported information on behaviour in adult (n = 58) and younger (≤18yrs, n = 24) males with XLI for comparison to data from their non-affected brothers, and age/gender-matched previously-published normative data...
2016: PloS One
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