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adolescent adhd

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635543/anxiety-modulates-the-relation-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-severity-and-working-memory-related-brain-activity
#1
Dennis van der Meer, Pieter J Hoekstra, Daan van Rooij, Anderson M Winkler, Hanneke van Ewijk, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Jaap Oosterlaan, Stephen V Faraone, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar, Catharina A Hartman
OBJECTIVES: Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often have heightened levels of anxiety, which has been associated with worse performance on working memory tasks. Knowledge of the neural pathways underlying the combined presence of ADHD and anxiety may aid in a better understanding of their co-occurrence. Therefore, we investigated how anxiety modulates the effect of ADHD severity on neural activity during a visuospatial working memory (VSWM) task. METHODS: Neuroimaging data were available for 371 adolescents and young adults participating in the multicentre cohort study NeuroIMAGE (average age 17...
March 1, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631964/evidence-based-assessment-of-adhd-diagnosis-in-children-and-adolescents
#2
Xuechun Zhou, Cecil R Reynolds, Jianjun Zhu, Randy W Kamphaus, Ou Zhang
This study illustrates the accuracy and efficiency of using an evidence-based assessment (EBA) strategy for diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by integrating the scale scores obtained on BASC-3 teacher and parent rating scales. The examined process used empirical diagnostic likelihood ratios (DLRs) derived from a sample of children with ADHD (N = 339) matched on demographic characteristics from the normative sample. The results show that behavioral scales of executive functioning and functional communication provided incremental utility in ADHD diagnosis...
February 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631099/discontinuation-of-pharmacological-treatment-of-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-meta-analysis-of-63-studies-enrolling-11-788-patients
#3
M Riera, X Castells, A Tobias, R Cunill, L Blanco, D Capellà
BACKGROUND: The risk-benefit balance of pharmacological treatment for children and adolescents with ADHD and the factors that moderate this relationship are unclear. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trials (RPCCTs) investigating the efficacy of pharmacological treatment in children or adolescents with ADHD was carried out. Meta-analysis of treatment discontinuation, clinician-, parent- and teacher-rated efficacy and adverse events was performed...
June 19, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630890/drd4-gene-polymorphisms-as-a-risk-factor-for-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-iranian-population
#4
Seyed Mahmoud Tabatabaei, Shahrokh Amiri, Sara Faghfouri, Seyed Gholamreza Noorazar, Shahin AbdollahiFakhim, Ali Fakhari
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Dopamine dysfunction is known to be associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) is one of the important genes in this pathway. This study intended to investigate the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in exon 3 of the DRD4 gene in Iranian children and adolescents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 130 children with ADHD, aged 6-14 years, and 130 healthy children, within the same age range, were enrolled...
2017: International Scholarly Research Notices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622159/weeding-out-the-justification-for-marijuana-treatment-in-patients-with-developmental-and-behavioral-conditions
#5
Theodora Nelson, Yi Hui Liu, Kara S Bagot, Martin T Stein
Alex is a 13-year-old adolescent with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-combined type, anxiety, and depression. He has been resistant to engaging in therapy and treatment with various medications has been unsuccessful. Alex's parents are concerned about his anxiety, isolation, oppositional behaviors, academic underachievement, truancy, and substance use. A recent altercation with his stepfather led to a police intervention and a brief removal of Alex from the home...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617801/gastrointestinal-adverse-events-during-methylphenidate-treatment-of-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-and-trial-sequential-analysis-of-randomised-clinical-trials
#6
Mathilde Holmskov, Ole Jakob Storebø, Carlos R Moreira-Maia, Erica Ramstad, Frederik Løgstrup Magnusson, Helle B Krogh, Camilla Groth, Donna Gillies, Morris Zwi, Maria Skoog, Christian Gluud, Erik Simonsen
OBJECTIVES: To study in more depth the relationship between type, dose, or duration of methylphenidate offered to children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their risks of gastrointestinal adverse events based on our Cochrane systematic review. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We use data from our review including 185 randomised clinical trials. Randomised parallel-group trials and cross-over trials reporting gastrointestinal adverse events associated with methylphenidate were included...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616427/specific-genes-associated-with-adverse-events-of-methylphenidate-use-in-the-pediatric-population-a-systematic-literature-review
#7
REVIEW
Beinta Joensen, Morten Meyer, Lise Aagaard
The aim of this study was to review empirical studies examining associations between candidate genes and adverse events (AEs) from methylphenidate (MPH) use in children and adolescents. The PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases were searched from their inception until March 2017. We included empirically based articles on pharmacogenetic studies in 0-17-year-old patients that investigated associations between specific candidate genes, their polymorphisms, and reported AEs. We extracted information about study design, setting, type of AE reporter, studied genes and their polymorphisms, age and gender, administered doses, method of genotyping, outcome measures, and main findings...
April 2017: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614354/maternal-prenatal-anxiety-and-child-comt-genotype-predict-working-memory-and-symptoms-of-adhd
#8
Kieran J O'Donnell, Vivette Glover, Jari Lahti, Marius Lahti, Rachel D Edgar, Katri Räikkönen, Thomas G O'Connor
Maternal prenatal anxiety is an important risk factor for altered child neurodevelopment but there is uncertainty concerning the biological mechanisms involved and sources of individual differences in children's responses. We sought to determine the role of functional genetic variation in COMT, which encodes catechol-O-methyltransferase, in the association between maternal prenatal anxiety and child symptoms of ADHD and working memory. We used the prospectively-designed ALSPAC cohort (n = 6,969) for our primary data analyses followed by replication analyses in the PREDO cohort (n = 425)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609313/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-and-life-satisfaction-in-a-representative-adolescent-and-adult-sample
#9
Timo Hennig, Ute Koglin, Sören Schmidt, Franz Petermann, Elmar Brähler
Although it is well documented that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with reduced life satisfaction, the mechanisms that might explain this co-occurrence are unclear. We examined the correlation of ADHD symptoms with life satisfaction and whether this association is mediated by (lacking) social support and depressive symptoms. Self-reported ADHD symptoms, life satisfaction, social support, and depressive symptoms were assessed in a representative, predominantly adult sample from the general population (14-91 years, N = 2517)...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604931/motor-vehicle-crash-risk-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#10
Allison E Curry, Kristina B Metzger, Melissa R Pfeiffer, Michael R Elliott, Flaura K Winston, Thomas J Power
Importance: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often persists into adolescence, when motor vehicle crash risk peaks. We know little about when adolescents with ADHD get licensed and, once they do, the extent to which they have increased crash risk compared with adolescents without ADHD. Objectives: To examine the association between ADHD and both driver licensing and crash involvement and whether it varies by sex, licensing age, and/or being prescribed ADHD medication at licensure...
June 12, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604499/academic-achievement-and-risk-factors-for-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-middle-school-and-early-high-school
#11
Nardia Zendarski, Emma Sciberras, Fiona Mensah, Harriet Hiscock
OBJECTIVE: Examine academic achievement of students with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during the early high school period and identify potentially modifiable risk factors for low achievement. METHOD: Data were collected through surveys (adolescent, parent, and teacher) and direct assessment of Australian adolescents (12-15 yr; n = 130) with ADHD in early high school (i.e., US middle and high school grades). Academic achievement outcomes were measured by linking to individual performance on the National Assessment Program-Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) tests, direct assessment of reading and math, and teacher report of academic competence...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602133/nutritional-and-environmental-factors-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Ismael San Mauro Martín, Javier Andrés Blumenfeld Olivares, Elena Garicano Vilar, Manuela Echeverry López, Marta García Bernat, Yaiza Quevedo Santos, Marta Blanco López, Paloma Elortegui Pascual, Elena Borregon Rivilla, Mario Rincón Barrado
OBJECTIVES: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been related to nutrient deficiencies and 'unhealthy' diets, and to date there is only one study that examined the relationship between the Mediterranean diet and ADHD. The aim was to determine the association between those environmental, nutritional, and body composition factors that may affect the pathogenesis and symptomatology of patients with ADHD in Spain. METHODS: A total of 89 children and adolescents (41 with diagnosed ADHD and 48 controls) were studied in an observation case-control study...
June 11, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601241/daily-digital-technology-use-linked-to-mental-health-symptoms-for-high-risk-adolescents
#13
Deborah L McBride
United States adolescents spend an unprecedented amount of time using digital technology to access the Internet and engage with social media. There is concerned that this continuous connectivity could increase their mental health symptoms, especially for at-risk adolescents. A new study has reported that on days that at-risk adolescents used technology more, they experienced more conduct problems and higher attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms compared to days when they used digital technologies less...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598701/a-double-blind-randomized-pilot-trial-comparing-computerized-cognitive-exercises-to-tetris-in-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#14
Aida Bikic, Torben Østergaard Christensen, James F Leckman, Niels Bilenberg, Søren Dalsgaard
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this trial was to examine the feasibility and efficacy of computerized cognitive exercises from Scientific Brain Training (SBT), compared to the computer game Tetris as an active placebo, in a pilot study of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: Eighteen adolescents with ADHD were randomized to treatment or control intervention for 7 weeks. Outcome measures were cognitive test, symptom, and motivation questionnaires...
June 9, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593598/brief-report-macrocephaly-phenotype-and-psychiatric-comorbidity-in-a-clinical-sample-of-mexican-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#15
Lilia Albores-Gallo, Laura Fritsche-García, Arturo Pabel Miranda-Aguirre, Montserrat Avila-Acosta
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may present with macrocephaly. Few studies have analyzed the association with psychiatric comorbidity. Participants were 94 children with any ASD with an age range from 2 to 16 years (Mdn 6 years), 82% were boys. It was found that 20% of the sample had macrocephaly and 1% microcephaly. There was no association between the presence of macrocephaly and subtype of ASD. The most associated comorbidity was attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 54.2%, followed by specific phobia 34%, dysthimia 29...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593597/the-stability-of-self-reported-anxiety-in-youth-with-autism-versus-adhd-or-typical-development
#16
Hillary Schiltz, Nancy McIntyre, Lindsay Swain-Lerro, Matthew Zajic, Peter Mundy
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at risk for anxiety symptoms. Few anxiety measures are validated for individuals with ASD, and the nature of ASD raises questions about reliability of self-reported anxiety. This study examined longitudinal stability and change of self-reported anxiety in higher functioning youth with ASD (HFASD) compared to youth with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and typical development (TD) using the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (March, 2012; March et al...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585928/predicting-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-severity-from-psychosocial-stress-and-stress-response-genes-a-random-forest-regression-approach
#17
D van der Meer, P J Hoekstra, M van Donkelaar, J Bralten, J Oosterlaan, D Heslenfeld, S V Faraone, B Franke, J K Buitelaar, C A Hartman
Identifying genetic variants contributing to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is complicated by the involvement of numerous common genetic variants with small effects, interacting with each other as well as with environmental factors, such as stress exposure. Random forest regression is well suited to explore this complexity, as it allows for the analysis of many predictors simultaneously, taking into account any higher-order interactions among them. Using random forest regression, we predicted ADHD severity, measured by Conners' Parent Rating Scales, from 686 adolescents and young adults (of which 281 were diagnosed with ADHD)...
June 6, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581338/psychiatric-disorders-and-quality-of-life-in-the-offspring-of-parents-with-bipolar-disorder
#18
Michal Goetz, Antonin Sebela, Marketa Mohaplova, Silvie Ceresnakova, Radek Ptacek, Tomas Novak
OBJECTIVE: To determine current and lifetime psychopathology and assess quality of life (QoL) in offspring of a parent with bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: We investigated 43 offspring of bipolar parents (high-risk offspring [HRO]) (mean age 12.5 ± 3.1; range 6.7-17.9 years) and 43 comparison offspring matched for sex, age, and IQ of healthy parents. Lifetime and current presence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5) diagnoses were assessed using Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL)...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580012/one-year-trajectory-analysis-for-adhd-symptoms-and-its-associated-factors-in-community-based-children-and-adolescents-in-taiwan
#19
Chia-Jui Tsai, Yi-Lung Chen, Hsiang-Yuan Lin, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
BACKGROUND: Several longitudinal studies have shown the partial symptomatic persistence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in clinic-based samples. However, little is known about the patterns and trajectories of ADHD symptoms in community-based populations. METHODS: To differentiate developmental trajectories of ADHD symptoms over 1 year, with a four-wave quarterly follow-up in children and adolescents in the community of Taiwan, we conducted this prospective study in 1281 students in grade 3, 5, and 8...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578671/serious-child-and-adolescent-behaviour-disorders-a-valuation-study-by-professionals-youth-and-parents
#20
Karin M Vermeulen, Daniëlle E M C Jansen, Erik Buskens, Erik J Knorth, Sijmen A Reijneveld
BACKGROUND: In child and youth care, quantitative estimates of the impact of serious behaviour problems have not yet been made. Such input is needed to support decision making on investments in treatment. The aim of this paper was to elicit valuations of social and conduct disorders in children and adolescents from three different perspectives: professionals, youth, and parents. METHODS: We obtained valuations from 25 youth care professionals, 50 children (age 9-10) without serious behaviour problems and 36 adolescents (age 16-17) with and without serious behaviour disorders, and 46 parents with children in the aforementioned age categories...
June 2, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
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