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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816320/formation-of-titanium-dioxide-core-shell-microcapsules-through-a-binary-phase-spray-technique
#1
Jonatan Bergek, Björn Elgh, Anders E C Palmqvist, Lars Nordstierna
Core-shell microcapsules consisting of a titanium dioxide shell and a hydrophobic solvent core have been prepared with diameters of a few micrometers and a narrow size distribution using a simple and fast airbrush technique. These microcapsules were prepared at room temperature in a single-step process in which an oil with a dissolved titanium alkoxide precursor was forced together with an aqueous solution, containing a surface-active polymer, through a narrow spray nozzle using a nitrogen gas propellant. Several different parameters of chemical, physical, and processing origin were investigated to find an optimal recipe...
August 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811083/phenotypic-chlorhexidine-and-triclosan-susceptibility-in-clinical-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-in-australia
#2
C Hughes, J Ferguson
Antiseptics such as chlorhexidine gluconate and triclosan are widely used in healthcare settings for both skin antisepsis and decolonisation of Staphylococcus aureus. We determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 198 methicillin susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates to both chlorhexidine and triclosan using an agar dilution method. Of these, 10% (19/198) showed a raised MIC to chlorhexidine and 3% (6/198) showed an elevated MIC to triclosan. The multilocus sequence type (MLST) of each isolate was predicted using a binary method, and although ST93-MRSA-IV was the most common, ST22-MRSA-IV was shown to have statistically higher chlorhexidine MIC values compared with non ST22-MRSA-IV isolates (z = -8...
August 12, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808539/soil-conditioning-effects-of-phragmites-australis-on-native-wetland-plant-seedling-survival
#3
Ellen V Crocker, Eric B Nelson, Bernd Blossey
Interactions between introduced plants and soils they colonize are central to invasive species success in many systems. Belowground biotic and abiotic changes can influence the success of introduced species as well as their native competitors. All plants alter soil properties after colonization but, in the case of many invasive plant species, it is unclear whether the strength and direction of these soil conditioning effects are due to plant traits, plant origin, or local population characteristics and site conditions in the invaded range...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806422/silver-nanoparticles-as-a-control-agent-against-facades-coated-by-aerial-algae-a-model-study-of-apatococcus-lobatus-green-algae
#4
Paulina Nowicka-Krawczyk, Joanna Żelazna-Wieczorek, Tomasz Koźlecki
Aerial algae are an important biological factor causing the biodegradation of building materials and facades. Conservation procedures aimed at the protection of historic and utility materials must be properly designed to avoid an increase of the degradation rate. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) synthetized with features contributing to the accessibility and toxicity (spherical shape, small size) on the most frequently occurring species of green algae in aerial biofilms and thus, the most common biodegradation factor-Apatococcus lobatus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802720/application-of-green-fluorescent-protein-to-measure-antimicrobial-efficacy-and-the-kinetics-of-cell-death-against-escherichia-coli
#5
Richard Greenhalgh, Malcolm Greenhalgh, Fadwa Alshareef, Geoffrey D Robson
Industrial antimicrobials have been extensively used to control unwanted microbial growth by incorporation into a variety of products such as plastics and paints, reducing biodeterioration and biofouling and extending the lifespan of the product. Industrial antimicrobials generally have broad sites of action affecting core cellular functions such as central metabolism, enzyme function, cell wall or DNA synthesis and can either be biocidal or biostatic. In addition, susceptibility can be affected by the metabolic state of the microbe, with metabolically inactive cells generally more resistant than metabolically active cells...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801935/biocidal-potential-and-chemical-composition-of-industrial-essential-oils-from-hyssopus-officinalis-lavandula-x-intermedia-var-super-and-santolina-chamaecyparissus
#6
Gonzalo Ortiz de Elguea-Culebras, Raúl Sánchez-Vioque, María Isabel Berruga, David Herraiz-Peñalver, Azucena González-Coloma, María Fé Andrés, Omar Santana-Méridas
This work presents the biocidal (insecticidal, ixodicidal, nematicidal and phytotoxic) effects and chemical compositions of three essential oils obtained from the industrial steam distillation (IEOs) of hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.), lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia or L. x hybrida var. Super) and cotton lavender (Santolina chamaecyparissus L.). Their chemical composition analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry showed 1,8-cineole (53%) and β-pinene (16%) as the major components of H...
August 12, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800825/efficacy-evaluation-of-a-new-water-sanitizer-for-increasing-the-shelf-life-of-southern-australian-king-george-whiting-and-tasmanian-atlantic-salmon-fillets
#7
Manouchehr Khazandi, Permal Deo, Sergio Ferro, Henrietta Venter, Hongfei Pi, Simon Crabb, Tony Amorico, Abiodun D Ogunniyi, Darren J Trott
The bacterial species and specific spoilage organisms associated with the Southern Australian King George Whiting (KGW) and Tasmanian Atlantic Salmon (TAS), and the efficacy of a HOCl-containing water-based sanitization product (Electro-Chemically Activated Solution, by ECAS4) in extending the shelf life of KGW and TAS fillets were evaluated. Fillets were washed with an ECAS4 solution containing either 45 ppm or 150 ppm of free chlorine and bacterial species enumerated on selective and non-selective media, followed by identification of pure isolates by 16 S rRNA gene sequencing...
December 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799224/genomic-insights-into-the-pathogenicity-and-environmental-adaptability-of-enterococcus-hirae-r17-isolated-from-pork-offered-for-retail-sale
#8
Zixin Peng, Menghan Li, Wei Wang, Hongtao Liu, Séamus Fanning, Yujie Hu, Jianzhong Zhang, Fengqin Li
Genetic information about Enterococcus hirae is limited, a feature that has compromised our understanding of these clinically challenging bacteria. In this study, comparative analysis was performed of E. hirae R17, a daptomycin-resistant strain isolated from pork purchased from a retail market in Beijing, China, and three other enterococcal genomes (Enterococcus faecium DO, Enterococcus faecalis V583, and E. hirae ATCC(™) 9790). Some 1,412 genes were identified that represented the core genome together with an additional 139 genes that were specific to E...
August 10, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792237/a-new-flow-through-bioassay-for-testing-low-emission-antifouling-coatings
#9
Christian Pansch, Per R Jonsson, Mattias Berglin, Emiliano Pinori, Anna-Lisa Wrange
Current antifouling (AF) technologies are based on the continuous release of biocides into the water, and consequently discharge into the environment. Major efforts to develop more environmentally friendly coatings require efficient testing in laboratory assays, followed by field studies. Barnacles are important fouling organisms worldwide, increasing hydrodynamic drag on ships and damaging coatings on underwater surfaces, and thus are extensively used as models in AF research, mostly in static, laboratory-based systems...
August 9, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790419/a-novel-fabrication-approach-for-multifunctional-graphene-based-thin-film-nano-composite-membranes-with-enhanced-desalination-and-antibacterial-characteristics
#10
Hanaa M Hegab, Ahmed ElMekawy, Thomas G Barclay, Andrew Michelmore, Linda Zou, Dusan Losic, Christopher P Saint, Milena Ginic-Markovic
A practical fabrication technique is presented to tackle the trade-off between the water flux and salt rejection of thin film composite (TFC) reverse osmosis (RO) membranes through controlled creation of a thinner active selective polyamide (PA) layer. The new thin film nano-composite (TFNC) RO membranes were synthesized with multifunctional poly tannic acid-functionalized graphene oxide nanosheets (pTA-f-GO) embedded in its PA thin active layer, which is produced through interfacial polymerization. The incorporation of pTA-f-GOL into the fabricated TFNC membranes resulted in a thinner PA layer with lower roughness and higher hydrophilicity compared to pristine membrane...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780853/inhibition-of-biodegradation-of-hydraulic-fracturing-compounds-by-glutaraldehyde-groundwater-column-and-microcosm-experiments
#11
Jessica D Rogers, Imma Ferrer, Shantal S Tummings, Angela Bielefeldt, Joseph N Ryan
The rapid expansion of unconventional oil and gas development has raised concerns about the potential contamination of aquifers; however, the groundwater fate and transport of hydraulic fracturing fluid compounds and mixtures remains a significant data gap. Degradation kinetics of five hydraulic fracturing compounds (2-propanol, ethylene glycol, propargyl alcohol, 2-butoxyethanol, and 2-ethylhexanol) in the absence and presence of the biocide glutaraldehyde were investigated under a range of redox conditions using sediment-groundwater microcosms and flow-through columns...
August 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780361/untreated-urban-waste-contaminates-indian-river-sediments-with-resistance-genes-to-last-resort-antibiotics
#12
Nachiket P Marathe, Chandan Pal, Swapnil S Gaikwad, Viktor Jonsson, Erik Kristiansson, D G Joakim Larsson
Efficient sewage treatment is critical for limiting environmental transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In many low and middle income countries, however, large proportions of sewage are still released untreated into receiving water bodies. In-depth knowledge of how such discharges of untreated urban waste influences the environmental resistome is largely lacking. Here, we highlight the impact of uncontrolled discharge of partially treated and/or untreated wastewater on the structure of bacterial communities and resistome of sediments collected from Mutha river flowing through Pune city in India...
July 25, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779976/fate-of-triclosan-in-laboratory-scale-activated-sludge-reactors-effect-of-culture-acclimation
#13
Aybala Koc Orhon, Kemal Berk Orhon, Ulku Yetis, Filiz B Dilek
Triclosan (TCS); a widely used antimicrobial biocide, exists in several pharmaceutical and personal care products. Due to its wide usage, TCS is detected in wastewater at varying concentrations. Biological treatability of TCS and its effect on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency were investigated running laboratory-scale pulse-fed sequencing batch reactors with acclimated and non-acclimated cultures. The culture was acclimatized to TCS by gradually increasing its concentration in the synthetic feed wastewater from 100 ng/L to 100 mg/L...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776914/phosphite-a-novel-p-fertilizer-for-weed-management-and-pathogen-control
#14
REVIEW
V Mohan M Achary, Babu Ram, Mrinalini Manna, Dipanwita Datta, Arun Bhatt, Malireddy K Reddy, Pawan K Agrawal
The availability of orthophosphate (Pi) is a key determinant of crop productivity because its accessibility to plants is poor due to its conversion to unavailable forms. Weed's competition for this essential macronutrient further reduces its bio-availability. To compensate for the low Pi use efficiency and address the weed hazard, excess Pi fertilizers and herbicides are routinely applied, resulting in increased production costs, soil degradation and eutrophication. These outcomes necessitate the identification of a suitable alternate technology that can address the problems associated with the overuse of Pi-based fertilizers and herbicides in agriculture...
August 4, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774778/frontiers-in-endocrine-disruption-impacts-of-organotin-on-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid-axis
#15
REVIEW
Ana Paula Santos-Silva, Marcelle Novaes Andrade, Paula Pereira-Rodrigues, Francisca Diana Paiva-Melo, Paula Soares, Jones Bernardes Graceli, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock Dias, Andrea Claudia Freitas Ferreira, Denise Pires de Carvalho, Leandro Miranda-Alves
Endocrine disruptors (EDs), chemical substances widely used in industry and ubiquitously distributed in the environment, are able to interfere with the synthesis, release, transport, metabolism, receptor binding, action, or elimination of endogenous hormones. EDs affect homeostasis mainly by acting on nuclear and nonnuclear steroid receptors but also on serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and orphan receptors in addition to thyroid hormone receptors. Tributyltin (TBT), an ED widely used as a pesticide and biocide in antifouling paints, has well-documented actions that include inhibiting aromatase and affecting the nuclear receptors PPARγ and RXR...
July 31, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774629/characterization-of-halogenated-dbps-and-identification-of-new-dbps-trihalomethanols-in-chlorine-dioxide-treated-drinking-water-with-multiple-extractions
#16
Jiarui Han, Xiangru Zhang, Jiaqi Liu, Xiaohu Zhu, Tingting Gong
Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a widely used alternative disinfectant due to its high biocidal efficiency and low-level formation of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. A major portion of total organic halogen (TOX), a collective parameter for all halogenated DBPs, formed in ClO2-treated drinking water is still unknown. A commonly used pretreatment method for analyzing halogenated DBPs in drinking water is one-time liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), which may lead to a substantial loss of DBPs prior to analysis...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773150/effect-of-preservative-pretreatment-on-the-biological-durability-of-corn-straw-fiber-hdpe-composites
#17
Lihui Xuan, Dongxue Hui, Wanli Cheng, Andrew H H Wong, Guangping Han, Wei Khong Tan, Carlson A D Tawi
The effects of alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ) and zinc borate (ZB) on the resistance of corn stalk fiber (CSF)-reinforced high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites to biodegradation were examined. Both biocides could inhibit termites, mold fungi, and wood-decay fungi, even at high CSF formulations (i.e., 60%). Additionally, ACQ enhanced the resistance of the composite materials to certain biotic stresses better than ZB. The CSF/HDPE composites treated with ACQ at the 3.0% level exhibited a superior performance against termites, white rot fungi, and brown rot fungi...
July 12, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771329/achieving-stable-mainstream-nitrogen-removal-via-the-nitrite-pathway-by-sludge-treatment-using-free-ammonia
#18
Qilin Wang, Haoran Duan, Wei Wei, Bing-Jie Ni, Andrew Elohim Laloo, Zhiguo Yuan
Biological nitrogen removal through the nitrite pathway (NH4+→NO2-→N2) is favorable for the wastewater treatment plants without sufficient carbon source. This study demonstrates an innovative approach for attaining the nitrite pathway based on sludge treatment using free ammonia (FA i.e. NH3). This approach is based on our innovative discovery in this study that FA at 210 mg NH3-N/L is far less biocidal to ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) than to nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB). Twenty-two percent of the activated sludge from the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) receiving synthetic domestic wastewater was treated in an FA treatment unit at 210 mg NH3-N/L for one day...
August 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769900/intrinsic-and-extrinsic-aspects-on-campylobacter-jejuni-biofilms
#19
Roberta T Melo, Eliane P Mendonça, Guilherme P Monteiro, Mariana C Siqueira, Clara B Pereira, Phelipe A B M Peres, Heriberto Fernandez, Daise A Rossi
Biofilm represents a way of life that allows greater survival of microorganisms in hostile habitats. Campylobacter jejuni is able to form biofilms in vitro and on surfaces at several points in the poultry production chain. Genetic determinants related to their formation are expressed differently between strains and external conditions are decisive in this respect. Our approach combines phylogenetic analysis and the presence of seven specific genes linked to biofilm formation in association with traditional microbiology techniques, using Mueller Hinton and chicken juice as substrates in order to quantify, classify, determine the composition and morphology of the biomass of simple and mixed biofilms of 30 C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767700/environmental-impacts-of-food-consumption-by-dogs-and-cats
#20
Gregory S Okin
In the US, there are more than 163 million dogs and cats that consume, as a significant portion of their diet, animal products and therefore potentially constitute a considerable dietary footprint. Here, the energy and animal-derived product consumption of these pets in the US is evaluated for the first time, as are the environmental impacts from the animal products fed to them, including feces production. In the US, dogs and cats consume about 19% ± 2% of the amount of dietary energy that humans do (203 ± 15 PJ yr-1 vs...
2017: PloS One
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