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Achille De Battisti, Paolo Formaglio, Sergio Ferro, Mustafa Al Aukidy, Paola Verlicchi
Lab-scale experiments using real groundwater were carried out using the CabECO® reactor system in order to evaluate its suitability for producing safe water, acceptable for civil purposes. Trials were carried out in discontinuous and in continuous mode, analyzing the influence of electrical and hydraulic process parameters on the quality of treated water. The use of highly boron-doped diamond electrodes in the reactor allowed the electrosynthesis of considerable amounts of ozone. Because of the relatively high amount of chloride in the groundwater samples, a mixture of HOCl/ClO- was also synthesized...
May 12, 2018: Chemosphere
Peter W Krug, Talina Davis, Catherine O'Brien, Michael LaRocco, Luis L Rodriguez
In the event of an intentional or accidental incursion of a transboundary animal disease (TAD) virus into the US, a major concern to the meat industry would be the potential contamination of packing plants by processing infected animals. TAD agents such as foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV), African swine fever virus (ASFV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) are found in swine products such as blood and feces and are present in the tissues of infected animals. To test the disinfection of TAD viruses in a pork-packing environment, a previously developed disinfection assay was used to test two biocides currently used by industry sanitarians, against TAD viruses dried on industry relevant surfaces in saline or swine products...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Poverenov Elena, Klein Miri
Different synthetic strategies for the formation of contact active antimicrobial materials utilizing covalent linkage of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) were reviewed. There is a demand to find methods that will prevent bacterial fouling without the release of antimicrobial agents, because biocides cause environment pollution and promote the development of bacteria resistance mechanisms. The contact active antimicrobial surfaces may provide a useful tool for this purpose. The covalent surface grafting of QACs seems to be a feasible and promising approach for the formation of safe and effective antimicrobial materials that could be utilized for medical devices, food industry, water treatment systems and other applications...
May 16, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Siavash Atashgahi, Irene Sánchez-Andrea, Hermann J Heipieper, Jan R van der Meer, Alfons J M Stams, Hauke Smidt
Prokaryotes in natural environments respond rapidly to high concentrations of chemicals and physical stresses. Exposure to anthropogenic toxic substances-such as oil, chlorinated solvents, or antibiotics-favors the evolution of resistant phenotypes, some of which can use contaminants as an exclusive carbon source or as electron donors and acceptors. Microorganisms similarly adapt to extreme pH, metal, or osmotic stress. The metabolic plasticity of prokaryotes can thus be harnessed for bioremediation and can be exploited in a variety of ways, ranging from stimulated natural attenuation to bioaugmentation and from wastewater treatment to habitat restoration...
May 18, 2018: Science
Giantommaso Scarascia, Scott A Yap, Anna H Kaksonen, Pei-Ying Hong
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous member of marine biofilm, and reduces thiosulfate to produce toxic hydrogen sulfide gas. In this study, lytic bacteriophages were isolated and applied to inhibit the growth of P. aeruginosa in planktonic mode at different temperature, pH, and salinity. Bacteriophages showed optimal infectivity at a multiplicity of infection of 10 in saline conditions, and demonstrated lytic abilities over all tested temperature (25, 30, 37, and 45°C) and pH 6-9. Planktonic P. aeruginosa exhibited significantly longer lag phase and lower specific growth rates upon exposure to bacteriophages...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Christian Imholt, Tariq Abdulla, Alexander Stevens, Peter Edwards, Jens Jacob, David Woods, Elaine Rogers, Leon Aarons, Daniel Segelcke
Compounds and products in the biocide and plant protection sector can only be registered after formal risk assessment to ensure safety for users and the environment. In bird and mammal risk assessment, this is routinely done using generic focal species as models, which are of particular exposure risk. Such a species is the common vole (Microtus arvalis) due to its high food intake relative to the low body weight. For wild species, biological samples, data and hence realistic exposure estimations are particularly difficult to obtain...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Olivier Habimana, Michele Zanoni, Stefania Vitale, Tiina O'Neill, Dimitri Scholz, Bin Xu, Eoin Casey
Attempts to deal with the problem of detrimental biofilms using nanoparticle technologies have generally focussed on exploiting biocidal approaches. However, it is now recognised that biofilm matrix-components may be targets for the disruption or dispersion of biofilms. Here, we show that the functionalization of gold nanoparticles with the enzyme, proteinase-K (PK) led to both biocidal and matrix disruption effects within Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms and released cells. This study highlights the potential mechanisms underpinning the properties of Proteinase-K functionalized gold nanoparticles...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Yigal Achmon, Nir Sade, María Del Mar Rubio Wilhelmi, Jesus D Fernández-Bayo, Duff R Harrold, James J Stapleton, Jean S VanderGheynst, Eduardo Blumwald, Christopher W Simmons
Conventional solarization and biosolarization with mature compost and tomato processing residue amendments were compared with respect to generation of pesticidal conditions and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L) plant growth in treated soils. Soil oxygen depletion was examined as a response that has previously not been measured across multiple depths during biosolarization. For biosolarized soil, volatile fatty acids were found to accumulate concurrent with oxygen depletion and the magnitude of these changes varied by soil depth...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Vanessa Maldonado, Patricio Javier Espinoza-Montero, Cory A Rusinek, Greg M Swain
The performance of a boron-doped diamond disk and a planar diamond thin-film electrode was compared for the anodic stripping voltammetric determination of Ag(I). The polished diamond disk electrode is more flexible than the planar diamond film as the former is compatible with most electrochemical cell designs including those incorporating magnetic stirring. Additionally, mechanical polishing and surface cleaning are simpler to execute. Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) was used to detect Ag(I) in standard solutions after optimization of the deposition potential, deposition time and scan rate...
May 14, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
A M El-Shamy, Ibrahim Abdelfattah, Ola I Elshafey, M F Shehata
A potential and cost-effective treatment method utilizing thermally activated bentonite was evaluated for the treatment of highly loaded real petroleum processing wastewater (COD = 4500 mg/L) in order to reduce its COD and improve the corrosion properties. A save discharging COD limit of the treated effluent (800 mg/L) is achieved by using 6 g/L of calcinated bentonite after reaching the steady state (1 h of shaking) at pH 5. The durability of bentonite is proved. The corrosion behavior of the treated wastewater was investigated for mild steel by using electrochemical and weight loss measurements...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Kahina Slimani, Yvette Pirotais, Pierre Maris, Jean-Pierre Abjean, Dominique Hurtaud-Pessel
A novel and reliable method to quantify residual levels of N-(3-aminopropyl)-N-dodecylpropane-1,3-diamine in dairy products using ion-pairing reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and fully validated. Sample extraction was done with salting-out technique using acetonitrile and sodium chloride. For LC-MS/MS, the analyte was detected using positive electrospray ionization (ESI+) and two multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions were monitored. The method was validated in the 5-150 µg kg-1 range using total error approach...
October 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
M N Moore, R J Wedderburn, K R Clarke, I R B McFadzen, D M Lowe, J W Readman
The problem of effective assessment of risk posed by complex mixtures of toxic chemicals in the environment is a major challenge for government regulators and industry. The biological effect of the individual contaminants, where these are known, can be measured; but the problem lies in relating toxicity to the multiple constituents of contaminant cocktails. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that diverse contaminant mixtures may cause a greater toxicity than the sum of their individual parts, due to synergistic interactions between contaminants with different intracellular targets...
April 2018: Environmental Pollution
Tijan Pinnock, Johanna Voordouw, Gerrit Voordouw
A consortium of sulfate-reducing bacteria consisting mostly of Desulfovibrio, Desulfomicrobium, and Desulfocurvus from oil field produced water was cultivated in a chemostat, receiving medium with 20 mM formate and 10 mM sulfate as the energy and 1 mM acetate as the carbon source. The chemostat effluent, containing 5 mM sulfide and 0.5 mM of residual acetate, was passed through 1-ml syringe columns with 60 carbon steel ball bearings (BBs) of 53.6 ± 0.1 mg each at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/h per column...
May 10, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Maria Salta, Simon P Dennington, Julian A Wharton
The use of natural products (NPs) as possible alternative biocidal compounds for use in antifouling coatings has been the focus of research over the past decades. Despite the importance of this field, the efficacy of a given NP against biofilm (mainly bacteria and diatoms) formation is tested with the NP being in solution, while almost no studies test the effect of an NP once incorporated into a coating system. The development of a novel bioassay to assess the activity of NP-containing and biocide-containing coatings against marine biofilm formation has been achieved using a high-throughput microplate reader and highly sensitive confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), as well as nucleic acid staining...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mark O Winfield, Adrian Downer, Jennifer Longyear, Marie Dale, Gary L A Barker
The bacterial and eukaryotic communities forming biofilms on six different antifouling coatings, three biocidal and three fouling-release, on boards statically submerged in a marine environment were studied using next-generation sequencing. Sequenced amplicons of bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA and eukaryotic ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer were assigned taxonomy by comparison to reference databases and relative abundances were calculated. Differences in species composition, bacterial and eukaryotic, and relative abundance were observed between the biofilms on the various coatings; the main difference was between coating type, biocidal compared to fouling-release...
May 10, 2018: Biofouling
Fan Yang, Wan Qin Yang, Fu Zhong Wu, Hui Wang, Li Ying Lan, Yu Wei Liu, Cai Hong Guo, Bo Tan
As a biocide to reduce soil and litter faunal populations in field experiments, naphthalene has been widely used in the study of ecological functions of soil fauna, but the non-target effects of naphthalene bring about enormous uncertainty to its application. In order to understand whether there were non-target effects of naphthalene in subalpine forest soil, soil in the subalpine forests of west Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was taken as study object. The short-term responses of soil respiration rate, nutrient content and enzyme activity to naphthalene were studied in microcosms...
June 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Mitra S Ganewatta, Md Anisur Rahman, Louis Mercado, Tinom Shokfai, Alan W Decho, Theresa M Reineke, Chuanbing Tang
Bacterial infections have become a global issue that requires urgent attention, particularly regarding to emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria. We developed quaternary amine-containing antimicrobial poly(bile acid)s that contain a hydrophobic core of lithocholic acid in the main-chain. Interestingly, by choosing appropriate monomers, these cationic polymers can form core-shell micelles. These polymers exhibited biocidal activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species. It is demonstrated that the micelles can deliver hydrophobic antibiotics that functionally have dual antimicrobial activities...
June 2018: Bioactive Materials
Chunyan Yong, Xiaoqin Chen, Qian Xiang, Qiang Li, Xiaodong Xing
There is a significant need for magnetite-silver nanocomposites that exhibit durable and recyclable antimicrobial activity. In this study, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3 O4 NPs) coated with ethylenediamine-modified chitosan/polyacrylic acid copolymeric layer (Fe3 O4 @ECS/PAA) were fabricated. Subsequently, directly deposited silver (Ag) NPs procedure was carried out to form the antibacterial heterodimers of Fe3 O4 @ECS/PAA-Ag NPs. The composition and morphology of the resultant nanostructures were confirmed by FT-IR, XRD, TEM and TGA...
March 2018: Bioactive Materials
Young-Ki Kim, Xiaoguang Wang, Pranati Mondkar, Emre Bukusoglu, Nicholas L Abbott
Liquid crystals (LCs) are anisotropic fluids that combine the long-range order of crystals with the mobility of liquids1,2 . This combination of properties has been widely used to create reconfigurable materials that optically report information about their environment, such as changes in electric fields (smart-phone displays) 3 , temperature (thermometers) 4 or mechanical shear 5 , and the arrival of chemical and biological stimuli (sensors)6,7 . An unmet need exists, however, for responsive materials that not only report their environment but also transform it through self-regulated chemical interactions...
May 9, 2018: Nature
Erika Garcia, Sally Picciotto, Andreas M Neophytou, Patrick T Bradshaw, John R Balmes, Ellen A Eisen
OBJECTIVES: Synthetic metalworking fluids (MWFs), widely used to cool and lubricate industrial machining and grinding operations, have been linked with increased risk of several cancers. Estimates of their relation with lung cancer, however, are inconsistent. Controlling for the healthy worker survivor effect, we examined the relations between lung cancer mortality and exposure to synthetic MWF, as well as to biocides added to water-based fluids to control microbial growth, in a cohort of autoworkers...
May 9, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
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