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clinical research cardiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910583/practical-perspectives-on-the-use-of-non-vitamin-k-antagonist-oral-anticoagulants-for-stroke-prevention-in-patients-with-nonvalvular-atrial-fibrillation-a-view-from-the-middle-east-and-north-africa
#1
REVIEW
Ahmad S Hersi, Yahya S Alhebaishi, Omar Hamoui, Taher Hassan, Adel Khalifa Hamad, Mohamed Magdy, Hani Sabbour, Sameh Shaheen
Clinical guidelines for the prevention of stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) are available from several international cardiology associations. Patients with NVAF in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region present unique challenges and opportunities related to differences in geography, practice patterns, and patient demographics that are as yet unaddressed in practice guidelines. This review aims to offer a practical perspective on the management of NVAF in patients in MENA and draws on evidence-based guidelines as well as real-world evidence and expert opinion...
April 2018: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907457/what-may-the-future-hold-for-sports-cardiology
#2
REVIEW
André La Gerche, Aaron Baggish, Hein Heidbuchel, Benjamin D Levine, Dhrubo Rakhit
The field of sports cardiology has advanced significantly over recent times. It has incorporated clinical and research advances in cardiac imaging, electrophysiology and exercise physiology to enable better diagnostic and therapeutic management of our patients. One important endeavour has been to try and better differentiate athletic cardiac remodelling from inherited cardiomyopathies and other pathologies. Whilst our diagnostic tools have improved, there have also been errors resulting from assumptions that the pathological traits observed in the general population would be generalisable to athletic populations...
June 6, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903496/a-systematic-map-of-medical-data-preprocessing-in-knowledge-discovery
#3
REVIEW
A Idri, H Benhar, J L Fernández-Alemán, I Kadi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Datamining (DM) has, over the last decade, received increased attention in the medical domain and has been widely used to analyze medical datasets in order to extract useful knowledge and previously unknown patterns. However, historical medical data can often comprise inconsistent, noisy, imbalanced, missing and high dimensional data. These challenges lead to a serious bias in predictive modeling and reduce the performance of DM techniques. Data preprocessing is, therefore, an essential step in knowledge discovery as regards improving the quality of data and making it appropriate and suitable for DM techniques...
August 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892468/what-is-heart-failure-with-mid-range-ejection-fraction-a-new-subgroup-of-patients-with-heart-failure
#4
REVIEW
Sunil K Nadar, Osama Tariq
Since the publication of European Society of Cardiology guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure (HF) in 2016, a new class of HF has been defined, namely HF with mildly reduced ejection fraction (HFmrEF). Although the name was new, there had long been awareness of the existence of a grey area between the two established classes of HF: HF with reduced ejection fraction and HF with preserved ejection fraction. Patients between these two classes were previously either excluded from HF studies or were included in the other groups...
May 2018: Cardiac failure review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880572/cohort-profile-the-coronary-artery-disease-risk-determination-in-innsbruck-by-diagnostic-angiography-cardiigan-cohort
#5
Maria Wanitschek, Michael Edlinger, Jakob Dörler, Hannes F Alber
PURPOSE: The Coronary Artery disease Risk Determination In Innsbruck by diaGnostic ANgiography (CARDIIGAN) cohort is aimed to gain a better understanding of cardiovascular risk factors and their relation to the diagnosis and severity of coronary artery disease, as well as to the long-term prognosis in consecutive (including revascularised) patients referred for elective coronary angiography. PARTICIPANTS: The included patients visited the University Clinic of Cardiology at Innsbruck (Austria), which fulfils a secondary and tertiary hospital function...
June 6, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873678/do-recent-reports-about-the-adverse-effects-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-change-providers-prescription-practice
#6
M T Al-Qaisi, A Kahn, M D Crowell, G E Burdick, M F Vela, F C Ramirez
Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are utilized for a variety of indications, including treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer disease, and prevention of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Several studies have documented an increasing prevalence of inappropriate PPI use. Furthermore, recent media reports have highlighted new research data suggesting a possible association between chronic PPI use and several adverse medical outcomes, leading to frequent patient inquiries about these associations. Thus, providers face the challenge of counseling patients about the balance of risks and benefits related to PPI use...
June 4, 2018: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870068/j-wave-syndromes-as-a-cause-of-malignant-cardiac-arrhythmias
#7
REVIEW
José M Di Diego, Charles Antzelevitch
The J wave syndromes, including the Brugada (BrS) and early repolarization (ERS) syndromes, are characterized by the manifestation of prominent J waves in the electrocardiogram appearing as an ST segment elevation and the development of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. BrS and ERS differ with respect to the magnitude and lead location of abnormal J waves and are thought to represent a continuous spectrum of phenotypic expression termed J wave syndromes (JWS). Despite over 25 years of intensive research, risk stratification and the approach to therapy of these two inherited cardiac arrhythmia syndromes are still rapidly evolving...
June 5, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29844073/energetics-of-blood-flow-in-cardiovascular-disease-concept-and-clinical-implications-of-adverse-energetics-in-patients-with-a-fontan-circulation
#8
REVIEW
Friso M Rijnberg, Mark G Hazekamp, Jolanda J Wentzel, Patrick J H de Koning, Jos J M Westenberg, Monique R M Jongbloed, Nico A Blom, Arno A W Roest
Visualization and quantification of the adverse effects of distorted blood flow are important emerging fields in cardiology. Abnormal blood flow patterns can be seen in various cardiovascular diseases and are associated with increased energy loss. These adverse energetics can be measured and quantified using 3-dimensional blood flow data, derived from computational fluid dynamics and 4-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging, and provide new, promising hemodynamic markers. In patients with palliated single-ventricular heart defects, the Fontan circulation passively directs systemic venous return to the pulmonary circulation in the absence of a functional subpulmonary ventricle...
May 29, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29794080/atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-in-south-asians-in-the-united-states-epidemiology-risk-factors-and-treatments-a-scientific-statement-from-the-american-heart-association
#9
REVIEW
Annabelle Santos Volgman, Latha S Palaniappan, Neelum T Aggarwal, Milan Gupta, Abha Khandelwal, Aruna V Krishnan, Judith H Lichtman, Laxmi S Mehta, Hena N Patel, Kevin S Shah, Svati H Shah, Karol E Watson
South Asians (from Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka) make up one quarter of the world's population and are one of the fastest-growing ethnic groups in the United States. Although native South Asians share genetic and cultural risk factors with South Asians abroad, South Asians in the United States can differ in socioeconomic status, education, healthcare behaviors, attitudes, and health insurance, which can affect their risk and the treatment and outcomes of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD)...
May 24, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790954/clinical-use-of-intracoronary-imaging-part-1-guidance-and-optimization-of-coronary-interventions-an-expert-consensus-document-of-the-european-association-of-percutaneous-cardiovascular-interventions-endorsed-by-the-chinese-society-of-cardiology
#10
Lorenz Räber, Gary S Mintz, Konstantinos C Koskinas, Thomas W Johnson, Niels R Holm, Yoshinubo Onuma, Maria D Radu, Michael Joner, Bo Yu, Haibo Jia, Nicolas Menevau, Jose M de la Torre Hernandez, Javier Escaned, Jonathan Hill, Francesco Prati, Antonio Colombo, Carlo di Mario, Evelyn Regar, Davide Capodanno, William Wijns, Robert A Byrne, Giulio Guagliumi
This Consensus Document is the first of two reports summarizing the views of an expert panel organized by the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) on the clinical use of intracoronary imaging including intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The first document appraises the role of intracoronary imaging to guide percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) in clinical practice. Current evidence regarding the impact of intracoronary imaging guidance on cardiovascular outcomes is summarized, and patients or lesions most likely to derive clinical benefit from an imaging-guided intervention are identified...
May 22, 2018: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778588/increased-burden-of-comorbidities-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-death-in-atrial-fibrillation-patients-in-europe-over-ten-years-a-comparison-between-eorp-af-pilot-and-ehs-af-registries
#11
Marco Proietti, Cécile Laroche, Robby Nieuwlaat, Harry J G M Crijns, Aldo P Maggioni, Deirdre A Lane, Giuseppe Boriani, Gregory Y H Lip
BACKGROUND: In 2002, the European Society of Cardiology conducted the Euro Heart Survey (EHS), while in 2014concluded 1-year follow-up of the EURObservational Research Programme AF (EORP-AF) Pilot Registry. METHODS: We analysed differences in clinical profiles, therapeutic approaches and outcomes between these two cohorts after propensity score matching (PSM). RESULTS: After PSM, 5206 patients were analysed. In EORP-AF there were more elderly patients than EHS (p < ...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755366/normal-values-of-corrected-heart-rate-variability-in-10-second-electrocardiograms-for-all-ages
#12
Marten E van den Berg, Peter R Rijnbeek, Maartje N Niemeijer, Albert Hofman, Gerard van Herpen, Michiel L Bots, Hans Hillege, Cees A Swenne, Mark Eijgelsheim, Bruno H Stricker, Jan A Kors
Purpose: Heart-rate variability (HRV) measured on standard 10-s electrocardiograms (ECGs) has been associated with increased risk of cardiac and all-cause mortality, but age- and sex-dependent normal values have not been established. Since heart rate strongly affects HRV, its effect should be taken into account. We determined a comprehensive set of normal values of heart-rate corrected HRV derived from 10-s ECGs for both children and adults, covering both sexes. Methods: Five population studies in the Netherlands (Pediatric Normal ECG Study, Leiden University Einthoven Science Project, Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease Study, Utrecht Health Project, Rotterdam Study) provided 10-s, 12-lead ECGs...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754667/is-there-a-role-for-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-guided-dosing-for-novel-oral-anticoagulants
#13
REVIEW
Noel Chan, Philip T Sager, Jack Lawrence, Thomas's Ortel, Paul Reilly, Scott Berkowitz, Dagmar Kubitza, John Eikelboom, Jeffry Florian, Norman Stockbridge, Martin Rose, Robert Temple, Jonathan H Seltzer
The novel direct oral anticoagulants (NOACs) represent a major advance in oral anticoagulant therapy and are replacing vitamin K antagonists as the preferred options for many indications. Given in fixed doses without routine laboratory monitoring, they have been shown to be at least as effective in reducing thromboembolic stroke as dose-adjusted warfarin in phase 3 randomized trials and less likely to cause hemorrhagic stroke. Pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic subanalyses of the major NOAC trials in patients with atrial fibrillation have established relationships between clinical characteristics, and drug levels and/or pharmacodynamic responses with both efficacy and safety...
May 2018: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737026/medical-simulation-in-interventional-cardiology-more-research-is-needed
#14
EDITORIAL
Peter Tajti, Emmanouil S Brilakis
Medical simulation is being used for training fellows to perform coronary angiography. Medical simulation training was associated with 2 min less fluoroscopy time per case after adjustment. Whether medical simulation really works needs to be evaluated in additional, well-designed and executed clinical studies.
May 1, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735391/cardiovascular-disease-risk-prediction-equations-in-400-000-primary-care-patients-in-new-zealand-a-derivation-and-validation-study
#15
Romana Pylypchuk, Sue Wells, Andrew Kerr, Katrina Poppe, Tania Riddell, Matire Harwood, Dan Exeter, Suneela Mehta, Corina Grey, Billy P Wu, Patricia Metcalf, Jim Warren, Jeff Harrison, Roger Marshall, Rod Jackson
BACKGROUND: Most cardiovascular disease risk prediction equations in use today were derived from cohorts established last century and with participants at higher risk but less socioeconomically and ethnically diverse than patients they are now applied to. We recruited a nationally representative cohort in New Zealand to develop equations relevant to patients in contemporary primary care and compared the performance of these new equations to equations that are recommended in the USA. METHODS: The PREDICT study automatically recruits participants in routine primary care when general practitioners in New Zealand use PREDICT software to assess their patients' risk profiles for cardiovascular disease, which are prospectively linked to national ICD-coded hospitalisation and mortality databases...
May 4, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730624/optimal-thromboprophylaxis-in-elderly-chinese-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-chioteaf-registry-protocol-for-a-prospective-observational-nationwide-cohort-study
#16
Yutao Guo, Yutang Wang, Xiaoying Li, Zaoliang Shan, Xiangmin Shi, Guorong Xi, Gregory Y H Lip
INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a worldwide healthcare burden that is associated with the ageing population. Elderly patients with AF with multiple comorbidities usually present with a high risk of thromboembolism and bleeding. Limited prospective data are available from Asian cohorts on the epidemiology and complications of AF. The present prospective cohort study aims to explore contemporary antithrombotic strategies among the elderly Chinese population in the new era of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants and to compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes between Chinese and European AF populations...
May 5, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728831/time-trends-in-characteristics-clinical-course-and-outcomes-of-13-791-patients-with-acute-heart-failure
#17
Pere Llorens, Patricia Javaloyes, Francisco Javier Martín-Sánchez, Javier Jacob, Pablo Herrero-Puente, Víctor Gil, José Manuel Garrido, Eva Salvo, Marta Fuentes, Héctor Alonso, Fernando Richard, Francisco Javier Lucas, Héctor Bueno, John Parissis, Christian E Müller, Òscar Miró
OBJECTIVES: To analyse time trends in patient characteristics, clinical course, hospitalisation rate, and outcomes in acute heart failure along a 10-year period (2007-2016). METHODS: The EAHFE registry has prospectively collected 13,971 consecutive AHF patients diagnosed in 41 Spanish emergency departments (EDs) at five different time points (2007/2009/2011/2014/2016). Eighty patient-related variables and outcomes were described and statistically significant changes along time were evaluated...
May 4, 2018: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728065/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-primary-left-sided-valve-disease-in-a-cohort-of-15-000-patients-undergoing-echocardiography-studies-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-uganda
#18
Joselyn Rwebembera, William Manyilirah, Zhang Wan Zhu, Juliet Nabbaale, Judith Namuyonga, Isaac Ssinabulya, Sulaiman Lubega, Peter Lwabi, John Omagino, Emmy Okello
BACKGROUND: Although rheumatic heart disease remains the leading cause of valve heart disease (VHD) in developing countries, other forms of valve disease have been over shadowed and not regarded as a public health problem. However, several facts suggest that the role of non-rheumatic VHD as a significant cardiovascular disease should be reconsidered. We aimed to assess the prevalence and characteristics of different forms of primary left sided valve diseases from a series of 15,009 echocardiographic studies...
May 4, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724803/pharmacology-part-2-introduction-to-pharmacokinetics
#19
Geoffrey M Currie
Pharmacology principles provide key understanding that underpins the clinical and research roles of nuclear medicine practitioners. This article is the second in a series of articles that aims to enhance the understanding of pharmacological principles relevant to nuclear medicine. This article will build on the introductory concepts, terminology and principles of pharmacodynamics explored in the first article in the series. Specifically, this article will focus on the basic principles associated with pharmacokinetics...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717757/the-role-of-nutritional-status-in-elderly-patients-with-heart-failure
#20
M Wleklik, I Uchmanowicz, B Jankowska-Polańska, C Andreae, B Regulska-Ilow
Evidence indicates that malnutrition very frequently co-occurs with chronic heart failure (HF) and leads to a range of negative consequences. Studies show associations between malnutrition and wound healing disorders, an increased rate of postoperative complications, and mortality. In addition, considering the increasing age of patients with HF, a specific approach to their treatment is required. Guidelines proposed by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) for treating acute and chronic HF refer to the need to monitor and prevent malnutrition in HF patients...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
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