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Refractive procedures

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911101/in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-evaluation-of-inflammation-and-apoptosis-induced-after-smile-procedures-for-different-refractive-error-range
#1
Leonardo Mastropasqua, Roberta Calienno, Claudia Curcio, Rodolfo Mastropasqua, Mario Nubile, Niccolò Salgari, Manuela Lanzini
PURPOSE: To detect corneal inflammation and apoptosis induced after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) at different refractive corrections for moderate to high values of myopia. METHODS: Fifty patients (50 eyes) suffering from medium to high myopia (spherical equivalent refraction from -3.75 to -10.00 diopters (D) with refractive astigmatism under -0.75 D) underwent SMILE in order to correct myopic error. In vivo evaluation was done by corneal confocal microscopy (IVCM) and ex vivo by immunohistochemistry...
December 2, 2016: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910295/combined-application-of-prophylactic-corneal-cross-linking-and-laser-in-situ-keratomileusis-a-review-of-literature
#2
REVIEW
Tommy C Y Chan, Alex L K Ng, Karen K W Chan, George P M Cheng, Ian Y H Wong, Vishal Jhanji
Laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is safe and effective laser refractive procedures in treating refractive errors. However, regression of treatment and iatrogenic keratectasia remain to be a major concern, especially in treating thin cornea with high ametropia. Collagen cross-linking (CXL) is an effective method in stopping keratoconus progression through increasing the biomechanical strength of the cornea. Adjuvant cross-linking to refractive procedures can theoretically help prevent regression and reduce the risk of keratectasia development by increasing the mechanical stability of cornea...
December 2, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904945/-sarcoidosis-and-uveitis-an-update
#3
REVIEW
J G Garweg
Ocular involvement in sarcoidosis is present in up to one third of patients and is frequently manifested before the underlying systemic disease has been diagnosed. With a view to the therapeutic consequences an early diagnosis of the underlying disease is advantageous. In cases of visual loss early diagnostic measures include invasive procedures, such as ultrasound-guided bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy, if nodular conjunctival or cutaneous manifestations which would confirm the diagnosis are not present...
November 30, 2016: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900381/thin-layered-drawing-media-probed-by-thz-time-domain-spectroscopy
#4
J Tasseva, A Taschin, P Bartolini, J Striova, R Fontana, R Torre
Dry and wet drawing materials were investigated by THz time-domain spectroscopy in transmission mode. Carbon-based and iron-gall inks have been studied, some prepared following ancient recipes and others using current synthetic materials; a commercial ink was studied as well. We measured the THz signals on the thin films of liquid inks deposited on polyethylene pellicles, comparing the results with the thick pellets of dried inks blended with polyethylene powder. This study required the implementation of an accurate experimental method and data analysis procedure able to provide a reliable extraction of the material transmission parameters from a structured sample composed of thin layers, down to a thickness of a few tens of micrometers...
November 30, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898449/modern-phacoemulsification-and-intraocular-lens-implantation-refractive-lens-exchange-is-safe-and-effective-in-treating-high-myopia
#5
Bhaskar Srinivasan, Hiu Ying Leung, He Cao, Shu Liu, Lizhen Chen, Alex Hoi Fan
Improved efficacy, predictability, and safety of modern phacoemulsification have resulted in cataract surgery being considered as a refractive procedure. Refractive lens exchange by definition is a surgery aimed at replacing the cataractous or clear crystalline lens with an intraocular lens (IOL) in cases of high ametropia. The excellent intraocular optics of this procedure provide a better visual outcome as compared with laser refractive surgery in high myopia. With advances in technology and IOL formulas, the predictability of refractive outcome after cataract surgery in high myopes has improved...
November 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898448/laser-vision-correction-in-treating-myopia
#6
Germano Leal Ehlke, Ronald R Krueger
Myopia is a generally benign refractive error with an increasing prevalence worldwide. It can be corrected temporarily with glasses and contact lenses and permanently with laser vision correction. The 2 main procedures currently being performed for myopia correction are photorefractive keratectomy and laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis. Each technique has its advantages, but they appear to yield similar visual outcomes 1 year after surgery. Laser vision correction for myopia was considered a paradigm shift because healthy eyes could now undergo a surgical procedure to permanently and safely correct the error by altering the center of the cornea, which was previously off limits because of the potential for loss of transparency...
November 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897442/pupillary-offset-in-keratoconus-and-its-relationship-with-clinical-and-topographical-features
#7
Gozde Hondur, Nurullah Cagil, Ozge Sarac, Meltem Ece Ozcan, Pinar Kosekahya
PURPOSE: To evaluate the change in the location of pupillary center with corneal tomography in keratoconic patients, and determine the correlation of pupillary offset with clinical and topographical features of keratoconus. METHODS: Ninety-one eyes of the 54 patients with keratoconus in different stages and 39 eyes of 39 refractive surgery candidates with normal corneas were included in our study. Ocular aberrations and the pupillary offset parameters (x-offset and y-offset) over a 5 mm (undilated) pupil were measured with a Sirius corneal tomographer...
November 29, 2016: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865691/-evaluation-of-vision-quality-after-laser-vision-correction-in-healthcare-professionals
#8
J Lellouch, A Saad, E Guilbert, D Gatinel
PURPOSE: Healthcare professionals require good quality of vision. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the satisfaction and vision quality after laser vision correction in healthcare professionals. METHODS: This is a monocentric retrospective study. An online 25-question survey was sent to ametropic physicians, surgeons and nurses who underwent corneal refractive surgery with laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) or photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) between July 2012 and February 2016...
November 16, 2016: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863469/changes-in-intraocular-pressure-values-measured-with-noncontact-tonometer-nct-ocular-response-analyzer-ora-and-corvis-scheimpflug-technology-tonometer-cst-in-the-early-phase-after-small-incision-lenticule-extraction-smile
#9
Yang Shen, Xiangjian Su, Xiu Liu, Huamao Miao, Xuejun Fang, Xingtao Zhou
BACKGROUND: Corneal biomechanical properties are always compromised after corneal refractive surgeries thus leading to underestimated intraocular pressure (IOP) that complicates the management of IOP. We investigated the changes in postoperative baseline of IOP values measured with noncontact tonometer (NCT), ocular response analyzer (ORA) and corvis scheimpflug technology (CST) in the early phase after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). METHODS: Twenty-two eyes (-6...
November 18, 2016: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857306/liquid-index-matching-for-2d-and-3d-terahertz-imaging
#10
J B Perraud, J Bou Sleiman, B Recur, H Balacey, F Simoens, J P Guillet, P Mounaix
Two-dimensional (2D) terahertz imaging and 3D visualization suffer from severe artifacts since an important part of the terahertz beam is reflected, diffracted, and refracted at each interface. These phenomena are due to refractive index mismatch and reflection in the case of non-orthogonal incidence. This paper proposes an experimental procedure that reduces these deleterious optical refraction effects for a cylinder and a prism made with polyethylene material. We inserted these samples in a low absorption liquid medium to match the sample index...
November 10, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853351/the-effect-of-humidity-and-temperature-on-visual-outcomes-after-myopic-corneal-laser-refractive-surgery
#11
Christopher T Hood, Roni M Shtein, Daniel Veldheer, Munira Hussain, Leslie M Niziol, David C Musch, Shahzad I Mian
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether procedure room environmental conditions are associated with outcomes after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) or laser-assisted keratomileusis (LASEK). DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. PARTICIPANTS: Eight hundred sixty-three eyes of 458 consecutive patients at a university-based academic practice. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of consecutive patients who underwent LASIK or LASEK over a 3-year period...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846894/corneal-power-evaluation-after-myopic-corneal-refractive-surgery-using-artificial-neural-networks
#12
Robert Koprowski, Michele Lanza, Carlo Irregolare
BACKGROUND: Efficacy and high availability of surgery techniques for refractive defect correction increase the number of patients who undergo to this type of surgery. Regardless of that, with increasing age, more and more patients must undergo cataract surgery. Accurate evaluation of corneal power is an extremely important element affecting the precision of intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation and errors in this procedure could affect quality of life of patients and satisfaction with the service provided...
November 15, 2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843292/topography-modified-refraction-tmr-adjustment-of-treated-cylinder-amount-and-axis-to-the-topography-versus-standard-clinical-refraction-in-myopic-topography-guided-lasik
#13
Anastasios John Kanellopoulos
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety, efficacy, and contralateral eye comparison of topography-guided myopic LASIK with two different refraction treatment strategies. SETTING: Private clinical ophthalmology practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 100 eyes (50 patients) in consecutive cases of myopic topography-guided LASIK procedures with the same refractive platform (FS200 femtosecond and EX500 excimer lasers) were randomized for treatment as follows: one eye with the standard clinical refraction (group A) and the contralateral eye with the topographic astigmatic power and axis (topography-modified treatment refraction; group B)...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836637/a-single-image-retrieval-method-for-edge-illumination-x-ray-phase-contrast-imaging-application-and-noise-analysis
#14
Paul C Diémoz, Fabio A Vittoria, Charlotte K Hagen, Marco Endrizzi, Paola Coan, Alberto Bravin, Ulrich H Wagner, Christoph Rau, Ian K Robinson, Alessandro Olivo
PURPOSE: Edge illumination (EI) X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCI) has been under development at University College London in recent years, and has shown great potential for both laboratory and synchrotron applications. In this work, we propose a new acquisition and processing scheme. Contrary to existing retrieval methods for EI, which require as input two images acquired in different setup configurations, the proposed approach can retrieve an approximate map of the X-ray phase from a single image, thus significantly simplifying the acquisition procedure and reducing data collection times...
November 8, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833928/comparison-of-a-new-optical-biometer-and-a-standard-biometer-in-cataract-patients
#15
Pipat Kongsap
BACKGROUND: Cataract surgery is the most common surgical procedure in ophthalmology. Biometry data and accurate intraocular lens (IOL) calculations are very important in achieving the desired refractive outcomes. The aim of this study was to compare measurements using a new optical low coherence reflectometry (OLCR) biometer (OA-2000) and the gold standard partial coherence interferometry (PCI) optical biometer (IOLMaster 500). METHODS: Ocular biometry of cataract patients were measured by the OA-2000 and IOLMaster 500 to compare keratometry (K), axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), white-to-white (WTW) diameter, and IOL power using the SRK/T formula...
2016: Eye and Vision (London, England)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830188/introduction-of-a-toric-intraocular-lens-to-a-non-refractive-cataract-practice-challenges-and-outcomes
#16
Clare Kirwan, John M Nolan, Jim Stack, Ian Dooley, Johnny Moore, Tara Cb Moore, Stephen Beatty
AIM: To identify challenges inherent in introducing a toric intraocular lens (IOL) to a non-refractive cataract practice, and evaluate residual astigmatism achieved and its impact on patient satisfaction. METHODS: Following introduction of a toric IOL to a cataract practice with all procedures undertaken by a single, non-refractive, surgeon (SB), pre-operative, intra-operative and post-operative data was analysed. Attenuation of anticipated post-operative astigmatism was examined, and subjectively perceived visual functioning was assessed using validated questionnaires...
May 25, 2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829051/scleral-cross-linking-using-riboflavin-uva-irradiation-for-the-prevention-of-myopia-progression-in-a-guinea-pig-model-blocked-axial-extension-and-altered-scleral-microstructure
#17
Shuai Liu, Shengjie Li, Bingjie Wang, Xiao Lin, Yi Wu, Hong Liu, Xiaomei Qu, Jinhui Dai, Xingtao Zhou, Hao Zhou
PURPOSE: To develop methods of collagen cross-linking (CXL) in the sclera for the treatment of progressive myopia and to investigate the biomechanical and histological changes that occur in as a result. METHODS: Twenty 14-day-old guinea pigs were divided into 3 groups: the cross-linking group (CL, n = 8), non cross-linking group (NCL, n = 8), and control group (n = 4). The scleras of the right eyes of the guinea pigs in the CL group were surgically exposed and riboflavin was dropped onto the irradiation zone for 20 seconds prior to ultraviolet-A (UVA) irradiation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828139/immersed-diffraction-grating-refractometers-of-liquids
#18
L F G Dib, E A Barbosa
In this work, we report the development, construction, and the performance of two liquid refractometers that use a reflective diffraction grating immersed in a test liquid. The liquid is contained in a transparent glass cell with a rectangular cross section. The grating is oriented in such a way that the propagation directions of the incident beam and the beam diffracted by the lower part of the grating immersed in the liquid are perpendicular. In this configuration, the refractive index is determined by measuring the angle of the zeroth-order diffraction beam coming from the upper part of the grating, which is in contact with air...
October 20, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826080/super-resolution-for-everybody-an-image-processing-workflow-to-obtain-high-resolution-images-with-a-standard-confocal-microscope
#19
France Lam, Damien Cladière, Cyndélia Guillaume, Katja Wassmann, Susanne Bolte
In the presented work we aimed at improving confocal imaging to obtain highest possible resolution in thick biological samples, such as the mouse oocyte. We therefore developed an image processing workflow that allows improving the lateral and axial resolution of a standard confocal microscope. Our workflow comprises refractive index matching, the optimization of microscope hardware parameters and image restoration by deconvolution. We compare two different deconvolution algorithms, evaluate the necessity of denoising and establish the optimal image restoration procedure...
November 5, 2016: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824384/refractive-lenticule-transplantation-for-correction-of-iatrogenic-hyperopia-and-high-astigmatism-after-lasik
#20
Apostolos Lazaridis, Dan Z Reinstein, Timothy J Archer, Stephan Schulze, Walter Sekundo
PURPOSE: To design a technique for intrastromal transplantation of stromal lenticules with specific refractive power for correction of post-LASIK induced hyperopia and astigmatism. METHODS: A 28-year-old patient was referred for consultation after complicated LASIK for moderate myopia and astigmatism. The refractive error of the right eye was severely overcorrected due to data entry error. Post-LASIK refraction showed high astigmatism (right eye: +6.50 -9.00 @ 84°) and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) of 20/32...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Refractive Surgery
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