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Marica Bakovic

Nagisa Nosrati, Marica Bakovic, Gopinadhan Paliyath
A unique feature of bioactive food ingredients is their broad antioxidant function. Antioxidants having a wide spectrum of chemical structure and activity beyond basic nutrition; display different health benefits by the prevention and progression of chronic diseases. Functional food components are capable of enhancing the natural antioxidant defense system by scavenging reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, protecting and repairing DNA damage, as well as modulating the signal transduction pathways and gene expression...
September 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Faisal J Alibhai, Cristine J Reitz, Willem T Peppler, Poulami Basu, Paul Sheppard, Elena Choleris, Marica Bakovic, Tami A Martino
Aims: Circadian rhythms are important for healthy cardiovascular physiology and they are regulated by the molecular circadian mechanism. Previously, we showed that disruption of the circadian mechanism factor CLOCK in male Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice led to development of age-dependent cardiomyopathy. Here, we investigate the role of biological sex in protecting against heart disease in aging female Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice. Methods and results: Female Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice are protected from the development of cardiomyopathy with age, as heart structure and function are similar to 18 months of age versus female WT mice...
September 12, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
Ratnesh K Singh, Edmund Lui, David Wright, Adrian Taylor, Marica Bakovic
We investigated whether North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) could reduce development of the metabolic syndrome phenotype in a mouse model (ETKO) of the disease. Young ETKO mice have no disease but similar to humans start to develop the fatty liver, hypertriglyceridemia, obesity, and insulin resistance at 25-30 weeks of age, and the disease continues to progress with ageing. ETKO mice were orally given an ethanol extract of ginseng roots at 4 and 32 weeks of age. Treatments with ginseng eliminated the ETKO fatty liver, reduced hepatic and intestinal lipoprotein secretion, and reduced the level of circulating lipids...
June 30, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Paula M Miotto, Meaghan Horbatuk, Ross Proudfoot, Sarthak Matravadia, Marica Bakovic, Adrian Chabowski, Graham P Holloway
α-Linolenic acid (ALA) supplementation or exercise training can independently prevent hepatic lipid accumulation and reduced insulin signaling; however, this may occur through different mechanisms of action. In the current study, obese Zucker rats displayed decreased phospholipid (PL) content in association with hepatic lipid abundance, and therefore, we examined whether ALA and exercise training would prevent these abnormalities differently to reveal additive effects on the liver. To achieve this aim, obese Zucker rats were fed control diet alone or supplemented with ALA and were sedentary or exercise trained for 4 wk (C-Sed, ALA-Sed, C-Ex, and ALA-Ex)...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Adrian Taylor, Laila Cigana Schenkel, Maiya Yokich, Marica Bakovic
It was hypothesized that choline supplementation in insulin resistant (IR) CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase deficient (Pcyt2(+/-)) mice would ameliorate muscle function by remodeling glucose and fatty acid (FA) metabolism. Pcyt2(+/-) mice either received no treatment or were allowed access to 2 mg/mL choline in drinking water for 4 weeks. Skeletal muscle was harvested from choline treated and untreated mice. Lipid analysis and metabolic gene expression and signaling pathways were compared between untreated Pcyt2(+/-) mice, treated Pcyt2(+/-) mice, and Pcyt2(+/+) mice...
April 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Nazanin N Abbasi, Peter P Purslow, Susan M Tosh, Marica Bakovic
Oat β-glucan consumption is linked to reduced risk factors associated with diabetes and obesity by lowering glycemic response and serum level of low-density lipoproteins. The purpose of this study was to identify the mechanism of action of oat β-glucan at the interface between the gut wall and the lumen responsible for attenuating glucose levels. We proposed that viscous oat β-glucan acts as a physical barrier to glucose uptake in normally absorptive gut epithelial cells IEC-6 by affecting the expression of intestinal glucose transporters...
June 2016: Nutrition Research
Laila C Schenkel, Sugashan Sivanesan, Junzeng Zhang, Birgitte Wuyts, Adrian Taylor, Adronie Verbrugghe, Marica Bakovic
Choline plays a critical role in systemic lipid metabolism and hepatic function. Here we conducted a series of experiments to investigate the effect of choline supplementation on metabolically altered Pcyt2(+/-) mice. In Pcyt2(+/-) mice, the membrane phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) turnover is reduced and the formation of fatty acids (FA) and triglycerides (TAG) increased, resulting in hypertriglyceridemia, liver steatosis and obesity. One month of choline supplementation reduced the incorporation of FA into TAG and facilitated TAG degradation in Pcyt2(+/-) adipocytes, plasma and liver...
November 2015: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Poulami Basu, Faisal J Alibhai, Elena V Tsimakouridze, Ratnesh K Singh, Sabina Paglialunga, Graham P Holloway, Tami A Martino, Marica Bakovic
Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is the most abundant inner membrane phospholipid. PE synthesis from ethanolamine and diacylglycerol is regulated primarily by CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase (Pcyt2). Pcyt2(+/-) mice have reduced PE synthesis and, as a consequence, perturbed glucose and fatty acid metabolism, which gradually leads to the development of hyperlipidemia, obesity, and insulin resistance. Glucose and fatty acid uptake and the corresponding transporters Glut4 and Cd36 are similarly impaired in male and female Pcyt2(+/-) hearts...
August 2015: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Julie J Kim, Jaeju Yu, Jnanankur Bag, Marica Bakovic, John P Cant
The rate of secretion of αs2-casein into bovine milk is approximately 25% of that of β-casein, yet mammary expression of their respective mRNA transcripts (csn1s2 and csn2) is not different. Our objective was to identify molecular mechanisms that explain the difference in translation efficiency between csn1s2 and csn2. Cell-free translational efficiency of csn2 was 5 times that of csn1s2. Transcripts of csn1s2 distributed into heavier polysomes than csn2 transcripts, indicating an attenuation of elongation and/or termination...
2015: RNA Biology
Laila C Schenkel, Ratnesh K Singh, Vera Michel, Steven H Zeisel, Kerry-Ann da Costa, Amy R Johnson, Harvey S Mudd, Marica Bakovic
Fibroblasts from a patient with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), who presented with low plasma choline and betaine, were studied to determine the metabolic characteristics of the choline deficiency. Choline is required for the synthesis of the phospholipid phosphatidylcholine (PC) and for betaine, an important osmoregulator. Here, choline transport, lipid homeostasis, and mitochondria function were analyzed in skin fibroblasts from POTS and compared with control cells. The choline transporter-like protein 1/solute carrier 44A1 (CTL1/SLC44A1) and mRNA expression were 2-3 times lower in POTS fibroblasts, and choline uptake was reduced 60% (P < 0...
May 2015: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Amanda L Stefanson, Marica Bakovic
It has become increasingly evident that chronic inflammation underpins the development of many chronic diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Oxidative stress is inherently a biochemical dysregulation of the redox status of the intracellular environment, which under homeostatic conditions is a reducing environment, whereas inflammation is the biological response to oxidative stress in that the cell initiates the production of proteins, enzymes, and other compounds to restore homeostasis...
September 19, 2014: Nutrients
Laila Cigana Schenkel, Marica Bakovic
Choline is an essential nutrient required for the biosynthesis of membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho). Here we elucidate the mechanism of how palmitic acid (PAM) and oleic acid (OLA) regulate choline transporter-like protein 1 (CTL1/SLC44A1) function. We evaluated the mechanism of extracellular and intracellular transport of choline, and their contribution to PtdCho and other glycerolipid-diacylglycerol (DAG) and triacylglycerol (TAG) homeostasis in differentiated skeletal muscle cells. PAM reduces total and plasma membrane CTL1/SLC44A1 protein by lysosomal degradation, and limits the choline uptake while increasing DAG and TAG synthesis...
August 2014: Lipids
Zvezdan Pavlovic, Ratnesh Kumar Singh, Marica Bakovic
CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase (Pcyt2) has an important regulatory function in biosynthesis of the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylethanolamine. We previously determined that the full-length Pcyt2α and its splice variant Pcyt2β are the main active isoforms of this enzyme. Here we report that mouse Pcyt2 could be spliced at Introns 7 and 8 to produce a unique third isoform, Pcyt2γ, in which the second cytidylyltransferase domain at the C-terminus becomes deleted. Pcyt2γ is ubiquitously expressed in embryonic and adult mouse tissues, and is the most abundant in the kidney, skeletal muscle and testis...
June 10, 2014: Gene
Laila Cigana Schenkel, Marica Bakovic
Mitochondrial membrane phospholipids are essential for the mitochondrial architecture, the activity of respiratory proteins, and the transport of proteins into the mitochondria. The accumulation of phospholipids within mitochondria depends on a coordinate synthesis, degradation, and trafficking of phospholipids between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria as well as intramitochondrial lipid trafficking. Several studies highlight the contribution of dietary fatty acids to the remodeling of phospholipids and mitochondrial membrane homeostasis...
2014: International Journal of Cell Biology
Zvezdan Pavlovic, Lin Zhu, Leanne Pereira, Ratnesh Kumar Singh, Rosemary B Cornell, Marica Bakovic
CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase (Pcyt2) is the main regulatory enzyme for de novo biosynthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine by the CDP-ethanolamine pathway. There are two isoforms of Pcyt2, -α and -β; however, very little is known about their specific roles in this important metabolic pathway. We previously demonstrated increased phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis subsequent to elevated activity and phosphorylation of Pcyt2α and -β in MCF-7 breast cancer cells grown under conditions of serum deficiency...
March 28, 2014: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Vishal M Gohil, Lin Zhu, Charli D Baker, Valentin Cracan, Abbas Yaseen, Mohit Jain, Clary B Clish, Paul S Brookes, Marica Bakovic, Vamsi K Mootha
We recently identified meclizine, an over-the-counter drug, as an inhibitor of mitochondrial respiration. Curiously, meclizine blunted respiration in intact cells but not in isolated mitochondria, suggesting an unorthodox mechanism. Using a metabolic profiling approach, we now show that treatment with meclizine leads to a sharp elevation of cellular phosphoethanolamine, an intermediate in the ethanolamine branch of the Kennedy pathway of phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis. Metabolic labeling and in vitro enzyme assays confirmed direct inhibition of the cytosolic enzyme CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase (PCYT2)...
December 6, 2013: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Adronie Verbrugghe, Marica Bakovic
Research in various species has indicated that diets deficient in labile methyl groups (methionine, choline, betaine, folate) produce fatty liver and links to steatosis and metabolic syndrome, but also provides evidence of the importance of labile methyl group balance to maintain normal liver function. Cats, being obligate carnivores, rely on nutrients in animal tissues and have, due to evolutionary pressure, developed several physiological and metabolic adaptations, including a number of peculiarities in protein and fat metabolism...
July 2013: Nutrients
Zvezdan Pavlovic, Marica Bakovic
Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is the most abundant lipid on the protoplasmatic leaflet of cellular membranes. It has a pivotal role in cellular processes such as membrane fusion, cell cycle regulation, autophagy, and apoptosis. CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase (Pcyt2) is the main regulatory enzyme in de novo biosynthesis of PE from ethanolamine and diacylglycerol by the CDP-ethanolamine Kennedy pathway. The following is a summary of the current state of knowledge on Pcyt2 and how splicing and isoform specific differences could lead to variations in functional properties in this family of enzymes...
2013: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Vera Michel, Marica Bakovic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2012: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Lin Zhu, Marica Bakovic
Metabolic pulse-chase experiments demonstrated that 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OH), the endogenous activator of the liver X receptor (LXR), significantly reduced the biosynthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine via CDP-ethanolamine (Kennedy) pathway at the step catalyzed by CTP: phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase (Pcyt2). In the mouse embryonic fibroblasts C3H10T1/2, the LXR synthetic agonist TO901317 lowered Pcyt2 promoter-luciferase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, 25-OH and TO901317 reduced mouse Pcyt2 mRNA and protein levels by 35-60%...
2008: Research Letters in Biochemistry
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