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Psychostimulants

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821667/fibroblast-growth-factor-2-in-the-dorsomedial-striatum-is-a-novel-positive-regulator-of-alcohol-consumption
#1
Oren Even-Chen, Yossi Sadot-Sogrin, Ohad Shaham, Segev Barak
Repeated alcohol intake leads to mesostriatal neuroadaptations, resulting in drinking escalation and addiction phenotypes. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) has been shown to interact with the mesostriatal dopaminergic system, and has been implicated in the actions of psychostimulants in the brain, and in several psychiatric disorders. Here, we report on a positive regulatory feedback loop of alcohol and FGF2 in rodent models. Specifically, we found that acute alcohol exposure (2.5 g/kg, i.p.) increased the mRNA expression of Fgf2 in the dorsal hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816509/shp465-mixed-amphetamine-salts-in-the-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-results-of-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#2
Matthew Brams, Ann C Childress, Michael Greenbaum, Ming Yu, Brian Yan, Margo Jaffee, Brigitte Robertson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of SHP465 mixed amphetamine salts (MAS) in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: This randomized, double-blind dose-optimization study enrolled children and adolescents (6-17 years) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision ADHD criteria and having baseline ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV) total scores ≥28...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811141/the-pharmacokinetic-profile-of-synthetic-cathinones-in-a-pregnancy-model
#3
Lauren G Strange, Kerri Kochelek, Robert Keasling, Stacy D Brown, Brooks B Pond
In recent years, the abuse of synthetic cathinones or 'bath salts' has become a major public health concern. Although these compounds were initially sold legally and labeled "not for human consumption", the 'bath salts' are psychostimulants, with similar structures and pharmacologic mechanisms to cocaine, the amphetamines, and 3,4 methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Molly, or Ecstasy). The reported use of these substances by women of child-bearing age highlights the necessity of studies seeking to delineate risks of prenatal exposure...
August 12, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777172/narcolepsy-and-other-central-hypersomnias
#4
Yves Dauvilliers, Lucie Barateau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article focuses on the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and management of narcolepsy type 1 and narcolepsy type 2, idiopathic hypersomnia, Kleine-Levin syndrome, and other central disorders of hypersomnolence, as defined in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition (ICSD-3). RECENT FINDINGS: In ICSD-3, the names of some central disorders of hypersomnolence have been changed: narcolepsy with cataplexy and narcolepsy without cataplexy have been renamed narcolepsy type 1 and narcolepsy type 2, respectively...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762862/a-clinician-s-guide-to-adhd-treatment-options
#5
Gregory W Mattingly, Joshua Wilson, Anthony L Rostain
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental condition of children and adolescents that often persists into adulthood. Primary care physicians are commonly the first to diagnosis ADHD and initiate a treatment plan with the patient. Guidelines recommend psychostimulant treatment as a first-line therapy in the management plan because it has a substantial impact on alleviating the core symptoms of ADHD. The recent development of a variety of methylphenidate and amphetamine formulations provides many options to meet individual patient lifestyle needs...
August 1, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760535/a-randomized-phase-i-study-to-assess-the-effect-of-alcohol-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-an-extended-release-orally-disintegrating-tablet-formulation-of-amphetamine-in-healthy-adults
#6
Jeffrey H Newcorn, Jeffrey G Stark, Sherilyn Adcock, Russ McMahen, Carolyn Sikes
PURPOSE: There is a strong association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and alcohol abuse, yet no studies have systematically assessed the effect of alcohol on the pharmacokinetics of psychostimulants such as amphetamine (AMP) in vivo. This study evaluated the effects of alcohol on the rate and extent of absorption of Adzenys™ XR-ODT*, a new extended-release orally disintegrating AMP tablet (AMP XR-ODT) for ADHD. METHODS: A Phase I single-dose, open-label study was conducted in 32 healthy adults...
July 28, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750831/potential-role-of-tyrosine-hydroxylase-in-the-loss-of-psychostimulant-effect-of-amphetamine-under-conditions-of-impaired-dopamine-transporter-activity
#7
Egle Janenaite, Valentina Vengeliene, Anton Bespalov, Berthold Behl
Amphetamine and methylphenidate are known to have stimulatory effect in healthy subjects but not in humans with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and in rodents with impaired dopamine transporter (DAT) function. This phenomenon is called the paradoxical calming effect of psychostimulants. It has been previously demonstrated that psychostimulants may regulate the enzymatic activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Hence, the objective of the present study was to determine whether the lack of activity-stimulating effects of amphetamine in hyperactive rats is associated with changes in TH activity...
July 24, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743602/menthol-disrupts-nicotine-s-psychostimulant-properties-in-an-age-and-sex-dependent-manner-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#8
Benjamin W Fait, David C Thompson, Tenna N Mose, Peter Jatlow, Sven E Jordt, Marina R Picciotto, Yann S Mineur
Menthol is a commonly used flavorant in tobacco and e-cigarettes, and could contribute to nicotine sensitivity. To understand how menthol could contribute to nicotine intake and addiction, it is important to determine whether specific mechanisms related to sex and age could underlie behavioral changes induced by menthol-laced nicotinic products. Using a validated paradigm of nicotine-dependent locomotor stimulation, adolescent and adult C57BL/6J mice of both sexes were exposed to nicotine, or nicotine laced with menthol, as their sole source of fluid, and psychostimulant effects were evaluated by recording home cage locomotor activity for ten days...
July 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741627/chronic-exposure-to-methamphetamine-disrupts-reinforcement-based-decision-making-in-rats
#9
Stephanie M Groman, Katherine M Rich, Nathaniel J Smith, Daeyeol Lee, Jane R Taylor
The persistent use of psychostimulant drugs, despite the detrimental outcomes associated with continued drug use, may be due to disruptions in reinforcement-learning processes that enable behavior to remain flexible and goal-directed in dynamic environments. To identify the reinforcement-learning processes that are affected by chronic exposure to the psychostimulant methamphetamine (MA), the current study sought to use computational and biochemical analyses to characterize decision-making processes, assessed by probabilistic reversal learning, in rats before and after they were exposed to an escalating dose regimen of MA (or saline control)...
July 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741623/effects-of-suvorexant-a-dual-orexin-hypocretin-receptor-antagonist-on-impulsive-behavior-associated-with-cocaine
#10
Taylor A Gentile, Steven J Simmons, Mia N Watson, Krista L Connelly, Eugen Brailoiu, Yanan Zhang, John W Muschamp
Hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin) peptides mediate arousal, attention, and reward processing. Fibers containing orexins project to brain structures that govern motivated behavior, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA). A number of psychiatric conditions, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders, are characterized by deficits in impulse control, however the relationship between orexin and impulsive behavior is incompletely characterized. The effects of systemic or centrally administered orexin receptor (OXR) antagonists on measures of impulsive-like behavior in rats were evaluated using the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) and delay discounting procedures...
July 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740637/antipsychotic-induced-hyperprolactinemia-in-tourette-syndrome
#11
REVIEW
Judith J G Rath, Marlies E J Deen, Hessel van Houten, Sebastiaan F T M de Bruijn, Joop van Gerven, Dick Mul
For many years, Tourette syndrome (TS) was considered to be a rare disorder, but tics and TS are now recognized as fairly common childhood-onset conditions. Children and adolescents with TS are frequently treated with antipsychotics, either as monotherapy or in combination with psychostimulants, melatonin and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Antipsychotics are most often used in schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, and in these conditions hyperprolactinemia is one of the most common adverse effects associated with antipsychotics, occurring in 40-50% of patients...
July 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740391/attention-memory-training-yields-behavioral-and-academic-improvements-in-children-diagnosed-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-comorbid-with-a-learning-disorder
#12
Antonio Carlos Farias, Mara L Cordeiro, Erico Pg Felden, Tiago S Bara, Cássia R Benko, Daniele Coutinho, Leandra F Martins, Rosilda Tc Ferreira, James T McCracken
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may benefit from computerized cognitive training. Therapy implementation is especially complicated when ADHD is associated with learning disorders (LDs). This study tested the efficacy of a computer-based cognitive training program, namely, computerized cognitive training (CCT), in children with ADHD comorbid with an LD (ADHD-LD), with or without psychostimulant medication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After diagnostic evaluations, 27 children with ADHD-LD (8 unmedicated and 19 medicated) participated in CCT, which is intended to improve attention, memory, reasoning, visual processing, and executive functioning...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737225/psychostimulant-effect-of-dopaminergic-treatment-and-addictions-in-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Benoit Delpont, Eugénie Lhommée, Hélène Klinger, Emmanuelle Schmitt, Amélie Bichon, Valérie Fraix, Anna Castrioto, Jean-Louis Quesada, Pierre Pélissier, Andrea Kistner, Sébastien Carnicella, Christian Lüscher, Emmanuel Broussolle, Pierre Pollak, Stéphane Thobois, Paul Krack
BACKGROUND: Dopamine replacement therapy in PD has been associated with both behavioral addictions and dopamine addiction. OBJECTIVES: To investigate potential association between l-dopa induced neuropsychiatric fluctuations and addictions in PD. METHODS: A cohort of 102 patients with PD suffering from motor complications of l-dopa treatment was prospectively analyzed. We evaluated dopamine addiction, behavioral addictions, and neuropsychiatric fluctuations using the Ardouin scale of behavior in PD...
July 24, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734204/molecular-dynamics-of-conformation-specific-dopamine-transporter-inhibitor-complexes
#14
Bernandie Jean, Christopher K Surratt, Jeffry D Madura
The recreational psychostimulant cocaine inhibits dopamine reuptake from the synapse, resulting in excessive stimulation of postsynaptic dopamine receptors in brain areas associated with reward and addiction. Cocaine binds to and stabilizes the outward- (extracellular-) facing conformation of the dopamine transporter (DAT) protein, while the low abuse potential DAT inhibitor benztropine prefers the inward- (cytoplasmic-) facing conformation. A correlation has been previously postulated between psychostimulant abuse potential and preference for the outward-facing DAT conformation...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731367/methamphetamine-causes-photoreceptor-cell-damage-through-promoting-polarization-of-macrophages-and-inducing-inflammatory-response
#15
Aihui Zhang, Laiwei Wu, Zilin Chen, Guoqiang Huang, Xiaohe Lu
Classically activated macrophages (M1) are proinflammatory effectors and closely related to the progression of neurotoxicity. As a powerful psychostimulant and addictive drug, methamphetamine (Meth) abuse could result in long-lasting abnormalities in retina. This study investigated the effect of Meth at nontoxic concentration on macrophage activation state and its resultant toxicity to photoreceptor cells. Results showed that cytotoxicity was caused by Meth on 661 W cells after coculturing with RAW264.7 macrophage...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731336/triple-reuptake-inhibitors-as-potential-therapeutics-for-depression-and-other-disorders-design-paradigm-and-developmental-challenges
#16
Murugaiah A M Subbaiah
Although first-line antidepressants offer therapeutic benefit, about 35% of depressed patients are not adequately treated, creating a large unmet medical need. These medicines mostly enhance the synaptic levels of serotonin and/or norepinephrine. Evidence from preclinical and clinical studies implicate dopamine hypofunction in the pathophysiology of depression. Triple reuptake inhibitors (TRIs), which elevate dopamine in addition to serotonin and norepinephrine, may demonstrate greater efficacy, with the reversal of anhedonia and improved tolerability...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729901/aptamer-functionalized-neural-recording-electrodes-for-the-direct-measurement-of-cocaine-in-vivo
#17
I Mitch Taylor, Zhanhong Du, Emma T Bigelow, James R Eles, Anthony R Horner, Kasey A Catt, Stephen G Weber, Brian G Jamieson, X Tracy Cui
Cocaine is a highly addictive psychostimulant that acts through competitive inhibition of the dopamine transporter. In order to fully understand the region specific neuropathology of cocaine abuse and addiction, it is unequivocally necessary to develop cocaine sensing technology capable of directly measuring real-time cocaine transient events local to different brain regions throughout the pharmacokinetic time course of exposure. We have developed an electrochemical aptamer-based in vivo cocaine sensor on a silicon based neural recording probe platform capable of directly measuring cocaine from discrete brain locations using square wave voltammetry (SWV)...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724279/alterations-in-striatal-circuits-underlying-addiction-like-behaviors
#18
REVIEW
Hyun Jin Kim, Joo Han Lee, Kyunghwa Yun, Joung-Hun Kim
Drug addiction is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by the compulsive pursuit of drugs of abuse despite potential adverse consequences. Although several decades of studies have revealed that psychostimulant use can result in extensive alterations of neural circuits and physiology, no effective therapeutic strategies or medicines for drug addiction currently exist. Changes in neuronal connectivity and regulation occurring after repeated drug exposure contribute to addiction-like behaviors in animal models...
June 30, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722021/activation-of-the-gabaergic-parafacial-zone-maintains-sleep-and-counteracts-the-wake-promoting-action-of-the-psychostimulants-armodafinil-and-caffeine
#19
Christelle Anaclet, Kobi Griffith, Patrick M Fuller
We previously reported that acute and selective activation of GABA-releasing parafacial zone (PZ(Vgat)) neurons in behaving mice produces slow-wave-sleep (SWS), even in the absence of sleep deficit, suggesting that these neurons may represent, at least in part, a key cellular substrate underlying sleep drive. It remains, however, to be determined if PZ(Vgat) neurons actively maintain, as oppose to simply gate, SWS. To begin to experimentally address this knowledge gap, we asked whether activation of PZ(Vgat) neurons could attenuate or block the wake-promoting effects of two widely used wake-promoting psychostimulants, armodafinil or caffeine...
July 19, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720013/the-5-ht1b-serotonin-receptor-regulates-methylphenidate-induced-gene-expression-in-the-striatum-differential-effects-on-immediate-early-genes
#20
David Alter, Joel A Beverley, Ronak Patel, Carlos A Bolaños-Guzmán, Heinz Steiner
Drug combinations that include a psychostimulant such as methylphenidate (Ritalin) and a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor such as fluoxetine are indicated in several medical conditions. Co-exposure to these drugs also occurs with "cognitive enhancer" use by individuals treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Methylphenidate, a dopamine reuptake inhibitor, by itself produces some addiction-related gene regulation in the striatum. We have demonstrated that co-administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors potentiates these methylphenidate-induced molecular effects, thus producing a more "cocaine-like" profile...
August 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
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