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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527411/trends-in-reports-of-driving-following-illicit-drug-consumption-among-regular-drug-users-in-australia-2007-2013-has-random-roadside-drug-testing-had-a-deterrent-effect
#1
Danielle Horyniak, Paul Dietze, Simon Lenton, Rosa Alati, Raimondo Bruno, Allison Matthews, Courtney Breen, Lucy Burns
INTRODUCTION: Driving following illicit drug consumption ('drug-driving') is a potential road safety risk. Roadside drug testing (RDT) is conducted across Australia with the dual aims of prosecuting drivers with drugs in their system and deterring drug-driving. We examined trends over time in self-reported past six-month drug-driving among sentinel samples of regular drug users and assessed the impact of experiences of RDT on drug-driving among these participants. METHODS: Data from 1913 people who inject drugs (PWID) and 3140 regular psychostimulant users (RPU) who were first-time participants in a series of repeat cross-sectional sentinel studies conducted in Australian capital cities from 2007 to 2013 and reported driving in the past six months were analysed...
May 17, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525569/comparative-effects-of-methylphenidate-modafinil-and-mdma-on-response-inhibition-neural-networks-in-healthy-subjects
#2
André Schmidt, Felix Müller, Patrick C Dolder, Yasmin Schmid, Davide Zanchi, Matthias E Liechti, Stefan Borgwardt
Background: Psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH) and modafinil are increasingly used by healthy people for cognitive enhancement purposes, whereas the acute effect of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) on cognitive functioning in healthy subjects remains unclear. This study directly compared the acute effects of MPH, modafinil and MDMA on the neural mechanisms underlying response inhibition in healthy subjects. Methods: Using a double-blind within-subject placebo-controlled cross-over design, MPH, modafinil and MDMA were administrated to 21 healthy subjects, while performing a Go/No-Go event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging task to assess brain activation during motor response inhibition...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507321/pet-imaging-of-dopamine-d2-receptor-internalization-in-schizophrenia
#3
J J Weinstein, E van de Giessen, R J Rosengard, X Xu, N Ojeil, G Brucato, R B Gil, L S Kegeles, M Laruelle, M Slifstein, A Abi-Dargham
Recent genetic, molecular and post-mortem studies suggest impaired dopamine (DA)-D2 receptor (D2R) trafficking in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). Imaging and preclinical studies have shown agonist-induced D2R internalization can be imaged with positron emission tomography (PET) using D2R radiotracers combined with psychostimulant challenge. This is feasible if radiotracer binding is measured when postchallenge DA levels have returned to baseline, following the initial competition phase between DA and radiotracer for binding to D2R...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499899/the-wake-promoting-drug-modafinil-prevents-motor-impairment-in-sickness-behavior-induced-by-lps-in-mice-role-for-dopaminergic-d1-receptor
#4
Adriano Zager, Wesley Nogueira Brandão, Rafael Oliveira Margatho, Jean Pierre Peron, Sergio Tufik, Monica Levy Andersen, Birgitte Rahbek Kornum, João Palermo-Neto
The wake-promoting drug Modafinil has been used for many years for treatment of Narcolepsy and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness, due to a dopamine-related psychostimulant action. Recent studies have indicated that Modafinil prevents neuroinflammation in animal models. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Modafinil pretreatment in the Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sickness and depressive-like behaviors. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were pretreated with Vehicle or Modafinil (90mg/Kg) and, 30min later, received a single saline or LPS (2mg/Kg) administration, and were submitted to the open field and elevated plus maze test 2h later...
May 9, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498499/heterogeneous-extracellular-dopamine-regulation-in-the-subregions-of-the-olfactory-tubercle
#5
Jinwoo Park, Ken T Wakabayashi, Caitlin Szalkowski, Rohan V Bhimani
Recent studies show that dense dopamine (DA) innervation from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the olfactory tubercle (OT) may play an important role in processing multisensory information pertaining to arousal and reward, yet little is known about DA regulation in the OT. This is mainly due to the anatomical limitations of conventional methods of determining DA dynamics in small heterogeneous OT subregions located in the ventral most part of the brain. Additionally, there is increasing awareness that anteromedial and anterolateral subregions of the OT have distinct functional roles in natural and psychostimulant drug reinforcement as well as in regulating other types of behavioral responses, such as aversion...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496953/estrogen-and-progesterone-replacement-therapy-prevent-methamphetamine-induced-synaptic-plasticity-impairment-in-ovariectomized-rats
#6
Hamed Ghazvini, Mohammad Shabani, Majid Asadi-Shekaari, Solmaz Khalifeh, Khadijeh Esmaeilpour, Mehdi Khodamoradi, Vahid Sheibani
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (METH) is one of the most popular psychostimulants which produce long lasting learning and memory impairment. Previous studies have indicated that estrogen and progesterone replacement therapy attenuate cognitive impairment against a wide array of neurodegenerative diseases. Present study was designed to figure out the effects of estrogen, progesterone alone or in combination, on early long-term potentiation (E-LTP) at the cornu ammonis (CA1) area of the hippocampus in METH-exposed ovariectomized (OVX) rat...
July 2016: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495886/the-sigma-1-receptor-modulates-dopamine-transporter-conformation-and-cocaine-binding-and-may-thereby-potentiate-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats
#7
Weimin Conrad Hong, Hideaki Yano, Takato Hiranita, Frederick T Chin, Christopher R McCurdy, Tsung-Ping Su, Susan G Amara, Jonathan L Katz
The dopamine transporter (DAT) regulates dopamine (DA) neurotransmission by recapturing DA into the presynaptic terminals, and is a principal target of the psychostimulant cocaine. The sigma-1 receptor (σ1R) is a molecular chaperone, and its ligands have been shown to modulate dopamine neuronal signaling, although their effects on DAT activity are unclear. Here, we report that the prototypical σ1R agonist (+)-pentazocine potentiated the dose response of cocaine self-administration in rats, consistent with effects of the σR agonists PRE-084 and DTG reported previously...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495376/gabaa-receptor-positive-allosteric-modulators-modify-the-abuse-related-behavioral-and-neurochemical-effects-of-methamphetamine-in-rhesus-monkeys
#8
Laís F Berro, Monica L Andersen, Sergio Tufik, Leonard L Howell
GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators (GABAA receptor modulators) are commonly used for the treatment of insomnia. Nevertheless, the effects of these compounds on psychostimulant-induced sleep impairment are poorly understood. Because GABAA receptor modulators have been shown to decrease the abuse-related effects of psychostimulants, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of temazepam (0.3, 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg) and eszopiclone (0.3, 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg), two GABAA receptor modulators, on the behavioral neuropharmacology of methamphetamine in adult rhesus macaques (n = 5)...
May 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494249/evaluation-of-problematic-psychoactive-substances-use-in-people-placed-in-police-custody
#9
Marie Gérardin, Gabriel Guigand, Laura Wainstein, Pascale Jolliet, Caroline Victorri-Vigneau, Renaud Clément
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: In France, the law states that any person held in custody could be examined by a doctor. The main objective of the medical examination is to give medical evidence of health compatibility with custody. This review identifies health risks such as addictive behaviour. We wanted to know which psychoactive substances are used in this particular population, and how problematic these uses are. DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective, monocentric, open-ended study conducted via a structured questionnaire was carried out on detainees who reported having taken drugs or illegal substances...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479264/role-of-nitric-oxide-pathway-in-the-conditioned-rewarding-effects-of-mdma-in-mice
#10
M P García-Pardo, M Rodríguez-Arias, J Miñarro, M A Aguilar
It is estimated that 2.1 million young adults used MDMA/Ecstasy in the last year in Europe. Vulnerable subjects can develop dependence after MDMA abuse but currently there does not exist an effective treatment for this disorder. The nitric oxide (NO) pathway seems to have an important role on the rewarding effects of different drugs and has been proposed as a new pharmacological treatment for psychostimulant addiction. In the present study, we intend to evaluate whether the blockade of the NO synthesis (NOS) interferes with the rewarding effects of MDMA in the conditioned preference place (CPP) paradigm in young adult male mice...
May 4, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473458/effects-of-acute-and-chronic-treatments-with-d2-and-d3-receptor-ligands-on-cocaine-vs-food-choice-in-rats
#11
Morgane Thomsen, Andrew C Barrett, Paul Butler, S Stevens Negus, S Barak Caine
Dopamine D3 receptor ligands are potential medications for psychostimulant addiction. Medication assessment may benefit from preclinical studies that evaluate chronic medication effects on choice between an abused drug and an alternative, non-drug reinforcer. This study compared acute and chronic effects of dopamine D2- and D3-preferring ligands on choice between intravenous cocaine and palatable food in rats. Under baseline conditions, cocaine maintained dose-dependent increases in cocaine choice and reciprocal decreases in food choice...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471611/clinical-profile-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-impact-of-ethnic-and-social-diversities-in-israel
#12
Muhammad Mahajnah, Rajech Sharkia, Nadeem Shorbaji, Nathanel Zelnik
BACKGROUND: Despite the increased worldwide recognition of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there is a variability in the diagnostic rate of both ADHD and its co-morbidities. These diversities are probably related to the methodology and instruments used for the diagnosis of ADHD and to awareness and cultural interpretation of its existence. OBJECTIVES: To identify consistent differences in the clinical profile of Arab and Jewish children with ADHD in Israel who differ in their cultural, ethnic and socioeconomic background...
June 2016: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467994/making-the-case-for-power-abuse-disorder-as-a-nosologic-entity
#13
Gerald Zernig, Christoph Hiemke
The development of societies and cultures arguably is based on the ability of human primates to form hierarchies in which some individuals acquire and wield power, that is, control resources and influence and control the behavior of their conspecifics. In the following, we focus on the type of human primate power wielding that (a) harms and (b) produces excessive negative emotions in (1) the victim(s) of the power wielder and (2) the power wielder her/himself. If such a harmful behavior of the power wielder is not accompanied by an ethically justifiable benefit for the involved human primate groups, it can be considered "power abuse...
May 4, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466533/synergic-effects-of-sugar-and-caffeine-on-insulin-mediated-metabolomic-alterations-after-an-acute-consumption-of-soft-drinks
#14
Raúl González-Domínguez, Rosa María Mateos, Alfonso María Lechuga-Sancho, José Joaquín González-Cortés, Manuel Corrales-Cuevas, Juan Alberto Rojas-Cots, Carmen Segundo, Mónica Schwarz
High sugar consumption elicits numerous deleterious effects on health by inducing insulin resistance, which is closely associated with the development of metabolic disorders such as obesity or type-2 diabetes. Furthermore, there is also growing evidence that caffeine may play an important role in the regulation of insulin release and the appearance of related metabolic impairments. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the impact of acute sugar and caffeine intake on the metabolic health status by using a metabolomic multi-platform based on the combination of flow injection mass spectrometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry...
May 3, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465083/cocaine-sensitization-in-adult-long-evans-rats-perinatally-exposed-to-polychlorinated-biphenyls
#15
Mellessa M Miller, Jenna L N Sprowles, Jason N Voeller, Abby E Meyer, Helen J K Sable
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental toxicants known to adversely affect the nervous system and more specifically the dopamine system. Developmental PCB exposure in rats has been shown to produce alterations in dopaminergic signaling that persist into adulthood. The reinforcing properties of psychostimulants are typically modulated via the dopaminergic system, so this project used a behavioral sensitization paradigm to evaluate whether perinatal PCB exposure altered sensitization to the psychostimulant cocaine...
April 29, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462433/occurrence-and-behaviour-of-pharmaceutical-compounds-in-a-portuguese-wastewater-treatment-plant-removal-efficiency-through-conventional-treatment-processes
#16
Vanessa de Jesus Gaffney, Vitor Vale Cardoso, Eugénia Cardoso, Ana Paula Teixeira, José Martins, Maria João Benoliel, Cristina Maria Martins Almeida
Wastewater treatments can eliminate or remove a substantial amount of pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs), but there may still be significant concentrations of them in effluents discharged into surface water bodies. Beirolas wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is located in the Lisbon area and makes its effluent discharges into Tagus estuary (Portugal). The main objective of this study is to quantify a group of 32 PhACs in the different treatments used in this WWTP. Twelve sampling campaigns of wastewater belonging to the different treatments were made in 2013-2014 in order to study their removal efficiency...
May 1, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456841/changes-in-gene-expression-and-sensitivity-of-cocaine-reward-produced-by-a-continuous-fat-diet
#17
M Carmen Blanco-Gandía, Auxiliadora Aracil-Fernández, Sandra Montagud-Romero, Maria A Aguilar, Jorge Manzanares, José Miñarro, Marta Rodríguez-Arias
RATIONALE: Preclinical studies report that free access to a high-fat diet (HFD) alters the response to psychostimulants. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to examine how HFD exposure during adolescence modifies cocaine effects. Gene expression of CB1 and mu-opioid receptors (MOr) in the nucleus accumbens (N Acc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) and ghrelin receptor (GHSR) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were assessed. METHODS: Mice were allowed continuous access to fat from PND 29, and the locomotor (10 mg/kg) and reinforcing effects of cocaine (1 and 6 mg/kg) on conditioned place preference (CPP) were evaluated on PND 69...
April 29, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449313/neurovascular-unit-alteration-in-somatosensory-cortex-and-enhancement-of-thermal-nociception-induced-by-amphetamine-involves-central-at1-receptor-activation
#18
Victoria Belén Occhieppo, Natalia Andrea Marchese, Iara Diamela Rodríguez, Osvaldo Martín Basmadjian, Gustavo Baiardi, Claudia Bregonzio
The use of psychostimulants, such as amphetamine (Amph), is associated with inflammatory processes, involving glia and vasculature alterations. Brain Angiotensin II (Ang II), through AT1 -receptors (AT1 -R), modulates neurotransmission and plays a crucial role in inflammatory responses in brain vasculature and glia. Our aim for the present work was to evaluate the role of AT1 -R in long-term alterations induced by repeated exposure to Amph. Astrocyte reactivity, neuronal survival and brain microvascular network were analyzed at the somatosensory cortex...
April 27, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444326/preclinical-evidence-that-5-ht1b-receptor-agonists-show-promise-as-medications-for-psychostimulant-use-disorders
#19
Raul Garcia, Austin R Cotter, Kenneth Leslie, M Foster Olive, Janet L Neisewander
Background: 5-HT1B receptor (5-HT1BR) agonists enhance cocaine intake during daily self-administration sessions, but decrease cocaine intake when tested after prolonged abstinence. We examined if 5-HT1BR agonists produce similar abstinence-dependent effects on methamphetamine intake. Methods: Male rats were trained to self-administer methamphetamine (0.1 mg/kg, IV) on low (FR5 and VR5) and high (progressive ratio; PR) effort schedules of reinforcement until intake was stable...
April 22, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441487/the-isomeric-preference-of-an-atypical-dopamine-transporter-inhibitor-contributes-to-its-selection-of-the-transporter-conformation
#20
Ara M Abramyan, Sebastian Stolzenberg, Zheng Li, Claus J Loland, Frank Noé, Lei Shi
Cocaine, a widely abused psychostimulant, inhibits the dopamine transporter (DAT) by trapping the protein in an outward-open conformation, whereas atypical DAT inhibitors such as benztropine have low abuse liability and prefer less outward-open conformations. Here, we use a spectrum of computational modeling and simulation approaches to obtain the underlying molecular mechanism in atomistic detail. Interestingly, our quantum mechanical calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest that a benztropine derivative JHW007 prefers a different stereoisomeric conformation of tropane in binding to DAT compared to that of a cocaine derivative, CFT...
May 4, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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