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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633952/chronic-methylphenidate-regulates-genes-and-proteins-mediating-neuroplasticity-in-the-juvenile-rat-brain
#1
Emmanuel Quansah, Tiziana Sgamma, Estabraq Jaddoa, Tyra S C Zetterström
Methylphenidate (MPH) is the front-line psychostimulant medication prescribed for alleviating the symptoms associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Here, we investigated the effects of chronic MPH (2.0mg/kg, twice daily for 15 days) exposure to young rats (20-25days old at start of treatment) on the expression of genes and proteins associated with neuroplasticity, such as activity regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), insulin receptor substrate protein 53 (IRSp53), cell division control protein 42 (Cdc42), and actin-related protein 2 (Arp2)...
June 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631099/discontinuation-of-pharmacological-treatment-of-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-meta-analysis-of-63-studies-enrolling-11-788-patients
#2
M Riera, X Castells, A Tobias, R Cunill, L Blanco, D Capellà
BACKGROUND: The risk-benefit balance of pharmacological treatment for children and adolescents with ADHD and the factors that moderate this relationship are unclear. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trials (RPCCTs) investigating the efficacy of pharmacological treatment in children or adolescents with ADHD was carried out. Meta-analysis of treatment discontinuation, clinician-, parent- and teacher-rated efficacy and adverse events was performed...
June 19, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625719/atypical-dopamine-transporter-inhibitors-r-modafinil-and-jhw-007-differentially-affect-d2-autoreceptor-neurotransmission-and-the-firing-rate-of-midbrain-dopamine-neurons
#3
Alicia J Avelar, J Cao, Amy Hauck Newman, Michael J Beckstead
Abuse of psychostimulants like cocaine that inhibit dopamine (DA) reuptake through the dopamine transporter (DAT) represents a major public health issue, however FDA-approved pharmacotherapies have yet to be developed. Recently a class of ligands termed "atypical DAT inhibitors" has gained attention due to their range of effectiveness in increasing extracellular dopamine (DA) levels without demonstrating significant abuse liability. These compounds not only hold promise as therapeutic agents to treat stimulant use disorders but also as experimental tools to improve our understanding of DAT function...
June 15, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624586/modeling-the-development-of-drug-addiction-in-male-and-female-animals
#4
REVIEW
Wendy J Lynch
An increasing emphasis has been placed on the development and use of animal models of addiction that capture defining features of human drug addiction, including escalation/binge drug use, enhanced motivation for the drug, preference for the drug over other reward options, use despite negative consequences, and enhanced drug-seeking/relapse vulnerability. The need to examine behavior in both males and females has also become apparent given evidence demonstrating that the addiction process occurs differently in males and females...
June 14, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621212/methamphetamine-causes-neurotoxicity-by-promoting-polarization-of-macrophages-and-inflammatory-response
#5
X Li, F Wu, L Xue, B Wang, J Li, Y Chen, T Chen
Macrophages, especially their activation state, are closely related to the progression of neurotoxicity. Classically activated macrophages (M1) are proinflammatory effectors, while alternatively activated macrophages (M2) exhibit anti-inflammatory properties. As a powerful addictive psychostimulant drug, coupled with its neurotoxicity, methamphetamine (Meth) abuse may lead to long-lasting abnormalities in the neuronal system. The present study investigated the effect of Meth at subtoxic concentration on macrophage activation state and its underlying toxicity to neuronal cells...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619473/cocaine-adulteration
#6
REVIEW
Oliver Kudlacek, Tina Hofmaier, Anton Luf, Felix P Mayer, Thomas Stockner, Constanze Nagy, Marion Holy, Michael Freissmuth, Rainer Schmid, Harald H Sitte
Cocaine is a naturally occurring and illicitly used psychostimulant drug, which exerts its activity at monoaminergic neurotransmitter transporters. These transporters mediate the reuptake of the monoamines dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine and are blocked by cocaine. The increase of monoamines in the extracellular space is the phenomenon underlying the drug effects that cocaine users seek. Currently, it is one of the most important illicit drugs on the European market. However, this increase in monoamines is also the underlying cause for the development of addiction and a number of severe side effects...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615331/comparison-of-the-vta-and-lc-response-to-methylphenidate-a-concomitant-behavioral-and-neuronal-study-of-adolescent-male-rats
#7
Tahseen Jalal Karim, Cruz Reyes-Vazquez, Nachum Dafny
Methylphenidate (MPD), also known as Ritalin, is a psychostimulant used to treat attention hyperactivity disorder. However, it is increasingly being misused by normal adolescents for recreation and academic advantage. Therefore, it is important to elucidate the behavioral and neurophysiological effects of MPD in normal subjects. MPD inhibits the reuptake of catecholamines, mainly found in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and locus coeruleus (LC). The VTA and LC normally mediate attention, motivation, and drug reward behaviors...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613368/-rapid-tranquillisation-for-agitated-patients-with-psychostimulant-intoxication
#8
P Geerts, K Titeca, G M D Lemmens, J De Fruyt
Because psychostimulant intoxication can lead to serious health risks for the patient, it is often necessary to ensure that the patient receives both adequate medical surveillance and rapid tranquillisation.<br/> AIM: To find out whether there is scientific evidence that psychopharmacological intervention helps patients with psychostimulant intoxication to manage aggression and agitation.<br/> METHOD: We searched the literature systematically.<br/> RESULTS: Our study showed that intravenous droperidol worked faster and was more effective than intravenous lorazepam in inducing sedation in patients intoxicated with psychostimulants...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612521/could-modafinil-prevent-psychostimulant-addiction-an-experimental-study-in-rats
#9
Verônica Tironi Dias, Luciana Taschetto Vey, Higor Zuquetto Rosa, Lívia Ferraz D'avila, Raquel Cristine Silva Barcelos, Marilise Escobar Burger
Addiction is a serious health problem which leads to general social impairment. The period of adolescence plays a significant role in drug abuse liability. Psychostimulants, such as modafinil (MOD), are majorly used by teenagers seeking improvements in cognition, which contributes to its indiscriminate use. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of MOD (64 mg/kg by gavage, once a day) treatment during adolescence (PND 28-42) on amphetamine (AMPH, 4 mg/kg i.p.) conditioned place preference (CPP) in early adulthood (PND 60)...
June 14, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612507/hiv-and-drug-abuse-mediate-astrocyte-senescence-in-a-%C3%AE-catenin-dependent-manner-leading-to-neuronal-toxicity
#10
Chunjiang Yu, Srinivas D Narasipura, Maureen H Richards, Xiu-Ti Hu, Bryan Yamamoto, Lena Al-Harthi
Emerging evidence suggests that cell senescence plays an important role in aging-associated diseases including neurodegenerative diseases. HIV leads to a spectrum of neurologic diseases collectively termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Drug abuse, particularly methamphetamine (meth), is a frequently abused psychostimulant among HIV+ individuals and its abuse exacerbates HAND. The mechanism by which HIV and meth lead to brain cell dysregulation is not entirely clear. In this study, we evaluated the impact of HIV and meth on astrocyte senescence using in vitro and several animal models...
June 13, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599833/the-effects-of-methylphenidate-on-the-neural-signatures-of-sustained-attention
#11
Paul M Dockree, Jessica J Barnes, Natasha Matthews, Angela J Dean, Rafael Abe, L Sanjay Nandam, Simon P Kelly, Mark A Bellgrove, Redmond G O'Connell
BACKGROUND: Although it is well established that methylphenidate (MPH) enhances sustained attention, the neural mechanisms underpinning this improvement remain unclear. We examined how MPH influenced known electrophysiological precursors of lapsing attention over different time scales. METHODS: We measured the impact of MPH, compared with placebo, on behavioral and electrocortical markers while healthy adults (n = 40) performed a continuous monitoring paradigm designed to elicit attentional lapses...
May 10, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594147/casein-kinase-1-epsilon-deletion-increases-mu-opioid-receptor-dependent-behaviors-and-binge-eating
#12
Lisa R Goldberg, Stacey L Kirkpatrick, Neema Yazdani, Kimberly P Luttik, Olga A Lacki, R Keith Babbs, David F Jenkins, W Evan Johnson, Camron D Bryant
Genetic and pharmacological studies indicate that casein kinase-1 epsilon (Csnk1e) contributes to psychostimulant, opioid, and ethanol motivated behaviors. We previously used pharmacological inhibition to demonstrate that Csnk1e negatively regulates the locomotor stimulant properties of opioids and psychostimulants. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Csnk1e negatively regulates opioid and psychostimulant reward using genetic inhibition and the conditioned place preference assay in Csnk1e knockout mice. Similar to pharmacological inhibition, Csnk1e knockout mice showed enhanced opioid-induced locomotor activity with the mu opioid receptor agonist fentanyl (0...
June 8, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590365/the-efficacy-of-psychostimulants-in-major-depressive-episodes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Roger S McIntyre, Yena Lee, Aileen J Zhou, Joshua D Rosenblat, Evyn M Peters, Raymond W Lam, Sidney H Kennedy, Carola Rong, Jeanette M Jerrell
BACKGROUND: Psychostimulants are frequently prescribed off-label for adults with major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder. The frequent and increasing usage of stimulants in mood disorders warrants a careful appraisal of the efficacy of this class of agents. Herein, we aim to estimate the efficacy of psychostimulants in adults with unipolar or bipolar depression. METHODS: The PubMed/Medline database was searched from inception to January 16, 2016 for randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials investigating the antidepressant efficacy of psychostimulants in the treatment of adults with unipolar or bipolar depression...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590363/ethanol-interactions-with-dexmethylphenidate-and-dl-methylphenidate-spheroidal-oral-drug-absorption-systems-in-healthy-volunteers
#14
Hao-Jie Zhu, Kennerly S Patrick, Arthur B Straughn, Owen T Reeves, Hilary Bernstein, Jian Shi, Heather J Johnson, Joshua M Knight, Aaron T Smith, Robert J Malcolm, John S Markowitz
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Ethanol coadministered with immediate-release dl-methylphenidate (dl-MPH) or dexmethylphenidate (d-MPH) significantly increases the geomean maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of d-MPH 22% and 15%, respectively, and elevates overall drug exposure and psychostimulant effects. We asked the question: Are these ethanol-MPH interactions based more fundamentally on (1) inhibition of postabsorption d-MPH metabolism or (2) acceleration of MPH formulation gastric dissolution by ethanol in the stomach? This was investigated using the pulsatile, distinctly biphasic, spheroidal oral drug absorption systems of dl-MPH and d-MPH...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589520/role-of-mitochondria-in-methamphetamine-induced-dopaminergic-neurotoxicity-involvement-in-oxidative-stress-neuroinflammation-and-pro-apoptosis-a-review
#15
Eun-Joo Shin, Hai-Quyen Tran, Phuong-Tram Nguyen, Ji Hoon Jeong, Seung-Yeol Nah, Choon-Gon Jang, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Hyoung-Chun Kim
Methamphetamine (MA), an amphetamine-type psychostimulant, is associated with dopaminergic toxicity and has a high abuse potential. Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies have suggested that impaired mitochondria are critical in dopaminergic toxicity induced by MA. Mitochondria are important energy-producing organelles with dynamic nature. Evidence indicated that exposure to MA can disturb mitochondrial energetic metabolism by inhibiting the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamic processes, including mitochondrial biogenesis, mitophagy, and fusion/fission, have recently been shown to contribute to dopaminergic toxicity induced by MA...
June 7, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585320/serotonin-transporter-blockade-contributes-to-the-behavioral-neuronal-and-molecular-effects-of-cocaine
#16
Linda D Simmler, Allison M J Anacker, Michael H Levin, Nina M Vaswani, Paul J Gresch, Alex G Nackenoff, Noelle C Anastasio, Sonja J Stutz, Kathryn A Cunningham, Jing Wang, Bing Zhang, L Keith Henry, Adele Stewart, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele, Randy D Blakely
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The psychostimulant cocaine induces complex molecular, cellular and behavioral responses as a consequence of inhibiting presynaptic dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin (5-HT) transporters. To elucidate 5-HT transporter (SERT)-specific contributions to cocaine action, we evaluated cocaine effects in the SERT Met172 knock-in mouse, which expresses a SERT coding substitution that eliminates high-affinity cocaine recognition. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We validated the impact of SERT Met172 on cocaine antagonism of 5-HT re-uptake using ex vivo synaptosome preparations and in vivo microdialysis...
June 5, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584928/effects-of-the-serotonin-2c-receptor-agonist-way163909-on-the-abuse-related-effects-and-mesolimbic-dopamine-neurochemistry-induced-by-abused-stimulants-in-rhesus-monkeys
#17
Laís F Berro, Maylen Perez Diaz, Eric Maltbie, Leonard L Howell
RATIONALE: Accumulating evidence shows that the serotonergic system plays a major role in psychostimulant abuse through its interactions with the dopaminergic system. Studies indicate that serotonin 5-HT2C receptors are one of the main classes of receptors involved in mediating the influence of serotonin in drug abuse. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the selective serotonin 5-HT2C receptor agonist WAY163909 on the behavioral neuropharmacology of cocaine and methamphetamine in adult rhesus macaques...
June 5, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571709/phospho-specific-antibodies-targeting-the-amino-terminus-of-the-human-dopamine-transporter
#18
Caline S Karam, Namita Sen, Jonathan A Javitch
The dopamine transporter (DAT), which mediates the inactivation of released dopamine through its reuptake, is the primary molecular target for the actions of psychostimulants. An increasing number of studies support an essential role for phosphorylation of serines (Ser) in the distal amino (N) terminus of DAT in regulating its function. Still, the molecular details of the regulation of phosphorylation and its impact on function are not fully understood. To address this, we have developed and characterized two distinct phospho-antibodies that recognize human DAT when it is phosphorylated at Ser7 or Ser12...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566957/additive-effects-of-former-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-and-cannabis-use-on-subclinical-psychotic-symptoms
#19
Berker Duman, Nilay Sedes, Bora Baskak
INTRODUCTION: Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is an amphetamine-derived psychostimulant, usually known as "ecstasy." The long-term neuropsychological effects of MDMA are examined in several studies with conflicting results. The most common findings reported are depression, anxiety, and memory and attention deficits. In addition to acute psychotic reactions observed after MDMA use, serotonergic and dopaminergic toxicities may increase the psychosis risk in the long-term. Cannabis usage among MDMA users is very high...
March 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559209/short-post-weaning-social-isolation-induces-long-term-changes-in-the-dopaminergic-system-and-increases-susceptibility-to-psychostimulants-in-female-rats
#20
Carine Lampert, Danusa Mar Arcego, Natividade de Sá Couto-Pereira, Aline Dos Santos Vieira, Ana Paula Toniazzo, Rachel Krolow, Emily Garcia, Deusa Aparecida Vendite, Maria Elisa Calcagnotto, Carla Dalmaz
Childhood and adolescence are sensitive periods of development, marked by high brain maturation and plasticity. Exposure to early life stress, such as social isolation, is able to prompt changes in sensitive brain circuitries, essentially in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and increase the risk for addictive behaviors later in life. Post-weaning social isolation can stimulate the consumption of rewarding substances, like drugs of abuse and palatable foods. However, most studies analyze long periods of social isolation and very little is known about the effects of a brief social isolation in a sensitive period of development and its association with palatable food on the reward system sensitization...
May 27, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
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