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Psychostimulants

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673128/synthesis-analytical-characterization-and-monoamine-transporter-activity-of-the-new-psychoactive-substance-4-methylphenmetrazine-4-mpm-with-differentiation-from-its-ortho-and-meta-positional-isomers
#1
Gavin McLaughlin, Michael H Baumann, Pierce V Kavanagh, Noreen Morris, John D Power, Geraldine Dowling, Brendan Twamley, John O'Brien, Gary Hessman, Folker Westphal, Donna Walther, Simon D Brandt
The availability of new psychoactive substances on the recreational drug market continues to create challenges for scientists in the forensic, clinical and toxicology fields. Phenmetrazine (3-methyl-2-phenylmorpholine) and an array of its analogs form a class of psychostimulants that are well documented in the patent and scientific literature. The present study reports on two phenmetrazine analogs that have been encountered on the NPS drug market following the introduction of 3-fluorophenmetrazine (3-FPM), namely 4-methylphenmetrazine (4-MPM) and 3-methylphenmetrazine (3-MPM)...
April 19, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669731/involvement-of-activated-brain-stress-responsive-systems-in-excessive-and-relapse-alcohol-drinking-in-rodent-models-implications-for-therapeutics
#2
Yan Zhou, Mary Jeanne Kreek
Addictive diseases, including addiction to alcohol pose massive public health costs. Addiction is a chronic relapsing disease, caused by both the direct effects induced by drugs and persistent neuroadaptations at several (molecular, cellular and behavioral) levels. These drug-type specific neuro-adaptations are brought on largely by the reinforcing effects of drugs on the central nervous system and environment, including stress. Results from animal experiments have demonstrated important interactions between alcohol and the stress responsive systems...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663484/association-between-psychotropic-medications-and-presence-of-sleep-bruxism-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Gilberto Melo, Kamile Leonardi Dutra, Rubens Rodrigues Filho, Adriana de Oliveira Lira Ortega, André Luís Porporatti, Bruce Dick, Carlos Flores-Mir, Graziela De Luca Canto
The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature for studies that investigated the association between use of psychotropic medications and presence of sleep bruxism (SB). Observational studies were selected in a two-phase process. Searches were performed on six electronic databases and a grey literature search was conducted on three databases. SB diagnosis was based on questionnaires or clinical examinations; no polysomnography exams were performed. Risk of bias was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for Analytical Cross-Sectional Studies...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661516/lisdexamfetamine-targets-amygdala-mechanisms-that-bias-cognitive-control-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#4
Kurt P Schulz, Beth Krone, Lenard A Adler, Anne-Claude V Bédard, Stephanie Duhoux, Juan Pedraza, Sanweda Mahagabin, Jeffrey H Newcorn
BACKGROUND: Prefrontal-limbic circuits that form the neural architecture for emotion to influence behavior have been implicated in the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and represent a potentially important target of medication treatment that has not been substantively evaluated. This study tested the effect of the psychostimulant prodrug lisdexamfetamine dimesylate on amygdala activation and connectivity during the emotional bias of response execution and inhibition...
March 19, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658498/-clinical-symptoms-and-personality-traits-in-patients-using-psychostimulant-drugs-and-other-psychoactive-substances
#5
T V Agibalova, K N Poplevchenkov
AIM: To obtain preliminary data on personality and clinical/psychopathological predictors of combined use of psychoactive drugs in patients with psychostimulant dependence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-nine inpatients were examined. Family history of drug dependence, personality disorders, clinical/psychopathological characteristics and disease course (breakdowns, relapses, remissions) were compared in patients with psychostimulant dependence (n=35) and patients who used other psychoactive substances (n=54)...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656349/the-designer-drug-3-fluoromethcathinone-induces-oxidative-stress-and-activates-autophagy-in-ht22-neuronal-cells
#6
Kamila Siedlecka-Kroplewska, Agata Wrońska, Grzegorz Stasiłojć, Zbigniew Kmieć
Synthetic cathinones are psychoactive substances, derivatives of a natural psychostimulant cathinone. Although many synthetic cathinones have lost their legal status in many countries, their abuse still continues worldwide. Recently, they have been reported to exert neurotoxic effects in vitro and in vivo. The molecular mechanisms of their action have not been fully elucidated. Recently, they have been linked to the induction of oxidative stress, autophagy, and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 3-fluoromethcathinone (3-FMC), a synthetic cathinone, is able to induce oxidative stress, autophagy, and apoptosis in HT22 immortalized mouse hippocampal cells...
April 14, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627173/room-to-move-plasticity-in-early-auditory-information-processing-and-auditory-learning-in-schizophrenia-revealed-by-acute-pharmacological-challenge
#7
Neal R Swerdlow, Savita G Bhakta, Gregory A Light
Many patients with chronic psychotic disorders including schizophrenia (SZ) maintain meaningful levels of plasticity (i.e., capacity for change) within neurocognition-relevant brain mechanisms, as evidenced by gains in neurocognition and function after interventions such as targeted cognitive training. However, like many clinical features of these disorders, therapeutic responses in SZ are heterogeneous, and prospectively identifying treatment-sensitive individuals and individualized treatment modalities remains an unmet challenge...
April 4, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626740/the-relationship-between-impulsivity-and-methamphetamine-use-severity-in-a-community-sample
#8
Nathasha R Moallem, Kelly E Courtney, Lara A Ray
BACKGROUND: Abuse of psychostimulants, including methamphetamine (MA), has been linked to heightened impulsivity. While previous research has demonstrated differences in impulsivity between MA users and non-substance users, less is known about variability in impulsivity within MA users and whether the severity of MA use related problems predicts impulsivity within individuals who regularly use MA. This study aims to elucidate the relationship between impulsivity and MA use severity. METHOD: Non-treatment seeking individuals who reported regular MA use (n = 177) completed an impulsivity battery comprising self-report and behavioral measures...
March 27, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625706/pharmaceutical-cognitive-doping-in-students-a-chimeric-way-to-get-a-head
#9
Louise Carton, Nicolas Cabé, Olivier Ménard, Sylvie Deheul, Anne-Sylvie Caous, David Devos, Olivier Cottencin, Régis Bordet
For students, the pressing demands for memorization, top-level performance, and peer competition create an environment favorable for pharmaceutical cognitive doping behavior. We aimed to describe recent practices and the benefit/risk ratio of such behavior and to discuss the issues at stake. The prevalence of pharmaceutical cognitive doping among students has been reported from 1.3% to 33% across studies, with variations depending on country and definition of pharmaceutical cognitive doping. The therapeutic classes most frequently cited as being diverted for doping purposes are psychostimulants and nootropics (methylphenidate, modafinil, piracetam), corticosteroids, sedative drugs and beta-blockers...
March 6, 2018: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614992/a-research-study-review-of-effectiveness-of-treatments-for-psychiatric-conditions-common-to-end-stage-cancer-patients-needs-assessment-for-future-research-and-an-impassioned-plea
#10
Ralph J Johnson
BACKGROUND: Rates of psychiatric conditions common to end-stage cancer patients (delirium, depression, anxiety disorders) remain unchanged. However, patient numbers have increased as the population has aged; indeed, cancer is a chief cause of mortality and morbidity in older populations. Effectiveness of psychiatric interventions and research to evaluate, inform, and improve interventions is critical to these patients' care. This article's intent is to report results from a recent review study on the effectiveness of interventions for psychiatric conditions common to end-stage cancer patients; the review study assessed the state of research regarding treatment effectiveness...
April 3, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602278/dark-classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-methamphetamine
#11
Thomas J Abbruscato, Paul C Trippier
Methamphetamine has the second highest prevalence of drug abuse after cannabis, with estimates of 35 million users worldwide. The (S)-(+)-enantiomer is the illicit drug, active neurostimulant and eutomer, while the (R)-(-)-enantiomer is contained in over the counter decongestants. While designated a schedule II drug in 1970, (S)-(+)-methamphetamine is available by prescription for the treatment of attention-deficit disorder and obesity. The illicit use of (S)-(+)-methamphetamine results in the sudden 'rush' of stimulation to the motivation, movement, pleasure and reward centers in the brain, caused by rapid release of dopamine...
March 30, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599709/caffeine-and-modafinil-ameliorate-the-neuroinflammation-and-anxious-behavior-in-rats-during-sleep-deprivation-by-inhibiting-the-microglia-activation
#12
Meetu Wadhwa, Garima Chauhan, Koustav Roy, Surajit Sahu, Satyanarayan Deep, Vishal Jain, Krishna Kishore, Koushik Ray, Lalan Thakur, Usha Panjwani
Background : Sleep deprivation (SD) plagues modern society due to the professional demands. It prevails in patients with mood and neuroinflammatory disorders. Although growing evidence suggests the improvement in the cognitive performance by psychostimulants during sleep-deprived conditions, the impending involved mechanism is rarely studied. Thus, we hypothesized that mood and inflammatory changes might be due to the glial cells activation induced modulation of the inflammatory cytokines during SD, which could be improved by administering psychostimulants...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597343/dopamine-d1-like-receptor-agonist-and-d2-like-receptor-antagonist-stepholidine-reduces-reinstatement-of-drug-seeking-behavior-for-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-in-rats
#13
Callum Hicks, Peng Huang, Linnet Ramos, Sunil U Nayak, Yohanka Caro, Allen B Reitz, Garry R Smith, David Y-W Lee, Scott M Rawls, Lee-Yuan Liu-Chen
Psychostimulant reinforcement is mediated by stimulation of both dopamine (DA) D1-like and D2-like receptors, suggesting that pharmacotherapy agents with a dual DA receptor mechanism may be useful for managing psychostimulant abuse. (-)-Stepholidine (L-SPD) is a Chinese herbal extract that functions as a D1-like receptor agonist and D2-like receptor antagonist. L-SPD has been shown to attenuate the reinforcing effects of heroin; however, its effects on the synthetic cathinone 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) have not been examined...
April 6, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596405/overdose-deaths-involving-opioids-cocaine-and-psychostimulants-united-states-2015-2016
#14
Puja Seth, Lawrence Scholl, Rose A Rudd, Sarah Bacon
During 1999‒2015, 568,699 persons died from drug overdoses in the United States.* Drug overdose deaths in the United States increased 11.4% from 2014 to 2015 resulting in 52,404 deaths in 2015, including 33,091 (63.1%) that involved an opioid. The largest rate increases from 2014 to 2015 occurred among deaths involving synthetic opioids other than methadone (synthetic opioids) (72.2%) (1). Because of demographic and geographic variations in overdose deaths involving different drugs (2,3),† CDC examined age-adjusted death rates for overdoses involving all opioids, opioid subcategories (i...
March 30, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593537/acute-pharmacological-effects-of-2c-b-in-humans-an-observational-study
#15
Esther Papaseit, Magí Farré, Clara Pérez-Mañá, Marta Torrens, Mireia Ventura, Mitona Pujadas, Rafael de la Torre, Débora González
2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine (2C-B) is a psychedelic phenylethylamine derivative, structurally similar to mescaline. It is a serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A (5-HT2A ), 5-hydroxytryptamine-2B (5-HT2B ), and 5-hydroxytryptamine-2C (5-HT2C ) receptor partial agonist used recreationally as a new psychoactive substance. It has been reported that 2C-B induces mild psychedelic effects, although its acute pharmacological effects and pharmacokinetics have not yet been fully studied in humans. An observational study was conducted to assess the acute subjective and physiological effects, as well as pharmacokinetics of 2C-B...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582041/psychostimulant-related-health-service-demand-in-an-inner-city-hospital-2012-2015
#16
Alon Faingold, Kirsten Morley, Bethany White, Emily Walker, Paul Haber
OBJECTIVE: To analyse routinely collected data from a hospital database of drug health consultation-liaison (CL) assessments. We aimed to investigate changes in psychostimulant-related health service demand in an inner-city hospital to inform the development of locally appropriate models of care. METHODS: We used de-identified drug health CL service data from 2012 to 2015. Psychostimulant-related consultations and admissions were compared with opioid-related consultations and admissions over time, by sex and by ward type (medical units, mental health units or emergency department)...
March 15, 2018: Public Health Research & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580130/repeated-intermittent-oral-amphetamine-administration-results-in-locomotor-tolerance-not-sensitization
#17
Amy C Turner, Agata Stramek, Igor Kraev, Michael G Stewart, Paul G Overton, Eleanor J Dommett
BACKGROUND: The phenomenon of locomotor sensitization to injected amphetamine is well-characterised. The increased locomotor activity found acutely is enhanced with repeated intermittent treatment. This effect arises due to hypersensitization of the dopaminergic system and is linked to drug addiction. A clinical population exposed to chronic repeated intermittent amphetamine treatment, such as is found for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), may be expected to be more at risk of addiction following this treatment...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577888/inhibition-of-basal-and-amphetamine-stimulated-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-erk-phosphorylation-in-the-rat-forebrain-by-muscarinic-acetylcholine-m4-receptors
#18
Nan He, Li-Min Mao, Adrian Sturich, Dao-Zhong Jin, John Q Wang
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), especially its extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) subfamily, is a group of kinases enriched in the mammalian brain. While ERK is central to cell signaling and neural activities, the regulation of ERK by transmitters is poorly understood. In this study, the role of acetylcholine in the regulation of ERK was investigated in adult rat striatum in vivo. We focused on muscarinic M1 and M4 receptors, two principal muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor subtypes in the striatum...
March 22, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574227/mtor-signaling-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-mediates-behavioral-sensitization-to-methamphetamine
#19
Shin-Han Huang, Wan-Rong Wu, Li-Ming Lee, Pei-Rong Huang, Jin-Chung Chen
Chronic psychostimulant treatment in rodents readily produces behavioral sensitization, which reflects altered brain function in response to repeated drug exposure. Numerous morphological and biochemical investigations implicate altered neural plasticity in striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) as an essential component in behavioral sensitization. The mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, a key regulator of synaptic neuroplasticity, in the ventral striatum of methamphetamine (METH) -sensitized mice was investigated to determine if a link exists with the development of METH sensitization...
March 21, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571720/prenatal-exposure-to-modafinil-alters-behavioural-response-to-methamphetamine-in-adult-male-mice
#20
Jana Ruda-Kucerova, Jana Pistovcakova, Petra Amchova, Alexandra Sulcova, Alena Machalova
Modafinil is a psychostimulant drug prescribed for treatment of narcolepsy. However, it is used as a "smart drug" especially by young adults to increase wakefulness, concentration and mental performance. Therefore, it can also be used by women with childbearing potential and its developmental effects can become a concern. The aim of this study was to assess behavioural and immune effects of prenatal modafinil exposure in mice and to evaluate the reaction to methamphetamine exposure on these animals in adult age...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
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