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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900159/can-t-play-won-t-play-longitudinal-changes-in-perceived-barriers-to-participation-in-sports-clubs-across-the-child-adolescent-transition
#1
Laura Basterfield, Lauren Gardner, Jessica K Reilly, Mark S Pearce, Kathryn N Parkinson, Ashley J Adamson, John J Reilly, Stewart A Vella
BACKGROUND: Participation in sports is associated with numerous physical and psychosocial health benefits, however, participation declines with age, and knowledge of perceived barriers to participation in children is lacking. This longitudinal study of children and adolescents aimed to use the ecological model of physical activity to assess changes in barriers to participation in sports clubs to identify age-specific and weight-specific targets for intervention. METHODS: Longitudinal study-Perceived barriers to sports participation were collected from a birth cohort, the Gateshead Millennium Study (n>500) at ages 9 and 12 years...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898736/long-term-antiretroviral-treatment-adherence-in-hiv-infected-adolescents-and-adults-in-uganda-a-qualitative-study
#2
Seth C Inzaule, Raph L Hamers, Cissy Kityo, Tobias F Rinke de Wit, Maria Roura
BACKGROUND: Long-term success of HIV antiretroviral therapy requires near-perfect adherence, maintained throughout one's lifetime. However, perceptions towards ART and patterns of adherence may change during the life course. We assessed challenges to long-term adherence in adolescents and adults in three regional HIV treatment centers in Uganda. METHODS: We conducted 24 in-depth interviews and 2 focus group discussions with a total of 33 health-care providers and expert clients (HIV patients on long-term ART who assist with adherence support of fellow patients)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894320/successful-malaria-elimination-in-the-ecuador-peru-border-region-epidemiology-and-lessons-learned
#3
Lyndsay K Krisher, Jesse Krisher, Mariano Ambuludi, Ana Arichabala, Efrain Beltrán-Ayala, Patricia Navarrete, Tania Ordoñez, Mark E Polhemus, Fernando Quintana, Rosemary Rochford, Mercy Silva, Juan Bazo, Anna M Stewart-Ibarra
BACKGROUND: In recent years, malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum) has been successfully controlled in the Ecuador-Peru coastal border region. The aim of this study was to document this control effort and to identify the best practices and lessons learned that are applicable to malaria control and to other vector-borne diseases. A proximal outcome evaluation was conducted of the robust elimination programme in El Oro Province, Ecuador, and the Tumbes Region, Peru. Data collection efforts included a series of workshops with local public health experts who played central roles in the elimination effort, review of epidemiological records from Ministries of Health, and a review of national policy documents...
November 28, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884930/diet-modification-challenges-faced-by-marginalized-and-nonmarginalized-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-qualitative-meta-synthesis
#4
REVIEW
Meredith Vanstone, Alex Rewegan, Francesca Brundisini, Mita Giacomini, Sujane Kandasamy, Deirdre DeJean
OBJECTIVES: Diet modification is an important part of the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes, but sustained dietary change remains elusive for many individuals. This paper describes and interprets the barriers to diet modification from the perspective of people with type 2 diabetes, paying particular attention to the experiences of people who experience social marginalization. METHODS: A systematic review of primary, empirical qualitative research was performed, capturing 120 relevant studies published between 2002 and 2015...
November 24, 2016: Chronic Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884521/the-consequences-of-landscape-change-on-fishing-strategies
#5
Tracy Van Holt, Beatrice Crona, Jeffrey C Johnson, Stefan Gelcich
We show how land-use change can affect fisher-harvesting behavior. We test whether fisher harvesting behavior can be predicted by landscape change patterns at local (~200km) and regional (~1200km) levels. Our data suggest that fishers harvesting in areas near tree plantations reduced benthic-invertebrate harvests in favor of demersal and pelagic finfish that are usually located further offshore. Fishers' management areas, which were near tree plantations, had higher chlorophyll-a values, and contained shellfish with more endobionts...
November 21, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884509/serious-physical-violence-among-arab-palestinian-adolescents-the-role-of-exposure-to-neighborhood-violence-perceived-ethnic-discrimination-normative-beliefs-and-parental-communication
#6
Adeem Ahmad Massarwi, Mona Khoury-Kassabri
This study adopted a social-ecological perspective to exploring perpetration of serious physical violence against others among Arab-Palestinian adolescents. A total of 3178 adolescents (aged 13-18) completed anonymous, structured, self-report questionnaire, which included selected items from several instruments that measured variables relating to the constructs examined in the study. We explored the association of individual characteristics (age, gender, normative beliefs about violence, and perceived ethnic discrimination), familial characteristics (parent-adolescent communication and socioeconomic status), and contextual characteristics (exposure to community violence in the neighborhood) with perpetration of serious physical violence against others...
November 21, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881769/sex-in-context-limitations-of-animal-studies-for-addressing-human-sex-gender-neurobehavioral-health-disparities
#7
Lise Eliot, Sarah S Richardson
Many brain and behavioral disorders differentially affect men and women. The new National Institutes of Health requirement to include both male and female animals in preclinical studies aims to address such health disparities, but we argue that the mandate is not the best solution to this problem. Sex differences are highly species-specific, tied to the mating system and social ecology of a given species or even strain of animal. In many cases, animals poorly replicate male-female differences in brain-related human diseases...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880826/social-monitoring-matters-for-deterring-social-deviance-in-stable-but-not-mobile-socio-ecological-contexts
#8
Jenny C Su, Chi-Yue Chiu, Wei-Fang Lin, Shigehiro Oishi
Previous research suggests that reputational concerns can incentivize cooperation and deter socially deviant behavior. The current research showed that social monitoring of information that has the potential to damage one's reputation has differential effects on deviant behavior in social-ecological environments that vary in level of mobility. Study 1 showed that residentially stable cities that employed more journalists-who can be regarded as social monitoring agents in a community-tended to have lower rates of violent crime than residentially stable cities that employed fewer journalists; by contrast, in residentially mobile cities, violent crime rates did not vary as a function of the number of journalists employed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878542/the-impact-of-gender-blindness-on-social-ecological-resilience-the-case-of-a-communal-pasture-in-the-highlands-of-ethiopia
#9
Lemlem Aregu, Ika Darnhofer, Azage Tegegne, Dirk Hoekstra, Maria Wurzinger
We studied how the failure to take into account gendered roles in the management of a communal pasture can affect the resilience of this social-ecological system. Data were collected using qualitative methods, including focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, and participant observations from one community in the highlands of Ethiopia. The results show that women are excluded from the informal institution that defines the access and use rules which guide the management of the communal pasture. Consequently, women's knowledge, preferences, and needs are not taken into account...
December 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878540/some-years-you-live-like-a-coyote-gendered-practices-of-cultural-resilience-in-working-rangeland-landscapes
#10
Hailey Wilmer, María E Fernández-Giménez
Rangeland researchers are increasingly interested in understanding working rangelands as integrated social-ecological systems and in investigating the contexts of human decision-making processes that support system resilience. U.S. public lands ranchers are key partners in rangeland conservation, but the role of women in building system resilience has not yet been explored. We conducted life-history interviews with 19 ranching women in the Southwestern United States. We analyzed the resulting transcripts by identifying contradictions between women's material practices and traditional discourses in the ranching livelihood that illustrated women's efforts to maintain both a way of life and a living during social and ecological change...
December 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878535/understanding-adaptive-capacity-and-capacity-to-innovate-in-social-ecological-systems-applying-a-gender-lens
#11
Philippa J Cohen, Sarah Lawless, Michelle Dyer, Miranda Morgan, Enly Saeni, Helen Teioli, Paula Kantor
Development policy increasingly focuses on building capacities to respond to change (adaptation), and to drive change (innovation). Few studies, however, focus specifically on the social and gender differentiation of capacities to adapt and innovate. We address this gap using a qualitative study in three communities in Solomon Islands; a developing country, where rural livelihoods and well-being are tightly tied to agriculture and fisheries. We find the five dimensions of capacity to adapt and to innovate (i...
December 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878530/gendered-medicinal-plant-knowledge-contributions-to-adaptive-capacity-and-health-sovereignty-in-amazonia
#12
Isabel Díaz-Reviriego, Álvaro Fernández-Llamazares, Matthieu Salpeteur, Patricia L Howard, Victoria Reyes-García
Local medical systems are key elements of social-ecological systems as they provide culturally appropriate and locally accessible health care options, especially for populations with scarce access to biomedicine. The adaptive capacity of local medical systems generally rests on two pillars: species diversity and a robust local knowledge system, both threatened by local and global environmental change. We first present a conceptual framework to guide the assessment of knowledge diversity and redundancy in local medicinal knowledge systems through a gender lens...
December 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876269/a-social-ecology-analysis-of-childbirth-among-females-emancipating-from-foster-care
#13
Svetlana Shpiegel, Michele Cascardi, Michael Dineen
PURPOSE: No research has examined childbirth from a national perspective among females emancipating from foster care. The present study fills this gap by: (1) documenting the rates of initial and repeat births among females ages 17 and 19 in a national prospective study and (2) identifying risk and protective factors at age 17 that predict childbirth between ages 17 and 19. METHODS: This study used data from the National Youth in Transition Database and Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System to identify risk and protective factors associated with childbirth in a national sample of transition-age female youth (N = 3,474)...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870045/unprecedented-remote-sensing-data-over-king-and-rim-megafires-in-the-sierra-nevada-mountains-of-california
#14
E Natasha Stavros, Zachary Tane, Van R Kane, Sander Veraverbeke, Robert J McGaughey, James A Lutz, Carlos Ramirez, David Schimel
Megafires have lasting social, ecological, and economic impacts and are increasing in the western contiguous United States. Because of their infrequent nature, there is a limited sample of megafires to investigate their unique behavior, drivers, and relationship to forest management practices. One approach is to characterize critical information pre-, during, and post-fire using remote sensing. In August 2013, the Rim Fire burned 104,131 ha and in September 2014, the King Fire burned 39,545 ha. Both fires occurred in California's Sierra Nevada...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869467/how-the-social-ecology-and-social-situation-shape-individuals-affect-valence-and-arousal
#15
Nina Vogel, Nilam Ram, David E Conroy, Aaron L Pincus, Denis Gerstorf
Many theories highlight the role social contexts play in shaping affective experience. However, little is known about how individuals' social environments influence core affect on short time-scales (e.g., hours). Using experience sampling data from the iSAHIB, wherein 150 adults aged 18 to 89 years reported on 64,213 social interactions (average 6.92 per day, SD = 2.85) across 9 weeks of daily life, we examined how 4 features of individuals' social ecology (between-person differences) and immediate social situations (within-person changes) were associated with core affect-valence and arousal-and how those associations differ with age...
November 21, 2016: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869066/developmental-and-social-ecological-perspectives-on-children-political-violence-and-armed-conflict
#16
E Mark Cummings, Christine E Merrilees, Laura K Taylor, Christina F Mondi
An increasing number of researchers and policymakers have been moved to study and intervene in the lives of children affected by violent conflicts (Masten, 2014). According to a United Nations Children's Fund (2009) report, over 1 billion children under the age of 18 are growing up in regions where acts of political violence and armed conflict are, as Ladds and Cairns (1996, p. 15) put it, "a common occurrence-a fact of life." In recent years, the United Nations Children's Fund, advocacy and human rights groups, journalists, and researchers have drawn public attention to the high rates of child casualties in these regions, and to the plights of those children still caught in the crossfire...
November 21, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866501/promoting-children-s-learning-and-development-in-conflict-affected-countries-testing-change-process-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#17
J Lawrence Aber, Carly Tubbs, Catalina Torrente, Peter F Halpin, Brian Johnston, Leighann Starkey, Anjuli Shivshanker, Jeannie Annan, Edward Seidman, Sharon Wolf
Improving children's learning and development in conflict-affected countries is critically important for breaking the intergenerational transmission of violence and poverty. Yet there is currently a stunning lack of rigorous evidence as to whether and how programs to improve learning and development in conflict-affected countries actually work to bolster children's academic learning and socioemotional development. This study tests a theory of change derived from the fields of developmental psychopathology and social ecology about how a school-based universal socioemotional learning program, the International Rescue Committee's Learning to Read in a Healing Classroom (LRHC), impacts children's learning and development...
November 21, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866498/emotional-insecurity-about-the-community-a-dynamic-within-person-mediator-of-child-adjustment-in-contexts-of-political-violence
#18
E Mark Cummings, Christine Merrilees, Laura K Taylor, Marcie Goeke-Morey, Peter Shirlow
Over 1 billion children worldwide are exposed to political violence and armed conflict. The current conclusions are qualified by limited longitudinal research testing sophisticated process-oriented explanatory models for child adjustment outcomes. In this study, consistent with a developmental psychopathology perspective emphasizing the value of process-oriented longitudinal study of child adjustment in developmental and social-ecological contexts, we tested emotional insecurity about the community as a dynamic, within-person mediating process for relations between sectarian community violence and child adjustment...
November 21, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856752/multiplex-social-ecological-network-analysis-reveals-how-social-changes-affect-community-robustness-more-than-resource-depletion
#19
Jacopo A Baggio, Shauna B BurnSilver, Alex Arenas, James S Magdanz, Gary P Kofinas, Manlio De Domenico
Network analysis provides a powerful tool to analyze complex influences of social and ecological structures on community and household dynamics. Most network studies of social-ecological systems use simple, undirected, unweighted networks. We analyze multiplex, directed, and weighted networks of subsistence food flows collected in three small indigenous communities in Arctic Alaska potentially facing substantial economic and ecological changes. Our analysis of plausible future scenarios suggests that changes to social relations and key households have greater effects on community robustness than changes to specific wild food resources...
November 16, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855680/screening-and-vaccination-as-determined-by-the-social-ecological-model-and-the-theory-of-triadic-influence-a-systematic-review
#20
Anayawa Nyambe, Guido Van Hal, Jarl K Kampen
BACKGROUND: Vaccination and screening are forms of primary and secondary prevention methods. These methods are recommended for controlling the spread of a vast number of diseases and conditions. To determine the most effective preventive methods to be used by a society, multi-level models have shown to be more effective than models that focus solely on individual level characteristics. The Social Ecological Model (SEM) and the Theory of Triadic Influence (TTI) are such models. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify main differences and similarities of SEM and TTI regarding screening and vaccination in order to prepare potentially successful prevention programs for practice...
November 17, 2016: BMC Public Health
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