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Giovanni Benelli, Mary Frances Duggan
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are spread by direct and/or indirect contacts between a pathogen or parasite and their hosts. Arthropod vectors have evolved as excellent bloodsuckers, providing an elegant transportation mode for a wide number of infectious agents. The nature of pathogen and parasite transfer and the models used to predict how a disease might spread are magnified in complexity when an arthropod vector is part of the disease cycle. One Health is a worldwide strategy for expanding interdisciplinary collaborations and communications in all aspects of health care for humans, animals and the environment...
February 15, 2018: Acta Tropica
Jerome T Galea, Milagros Wong, Maribel Muñoz, Emiliano Valle, Segundo R Leon, Dayana Díaz Perez, Lenka Kolevic, Molly Franke
AIDS deaths among adolescents are increasing globally. This qualitative study investigated the barriers and facilitators to cART adherence among Peruvian adolescents living with HIV. Guided by a social ecological model, we analyzed transcripts from 24 psychosocial support groups for HIV-positive adolescents aged 13-17 years and 15 individual, in-depth interviews with cART providers and caregivers to identify the barriers and facilitators to cART adherence at the individual, family/caregiver and hospital levels...
2018: PloS One
Jong In Kim, Gukbin Kim
BACKGROUND: Inequality in life expectancy (ILE) is defined as inequality in the distribution of expected span of life-based on data from survival tables estimated using the Atkinson inequality index. ILE can be influenced by socio-ecological indicators including the Gini coefficient, secondary education, output per worker, and old age pension. This study examined the effects on ILE from a social ecology perspective. METHODS: This analysis is based on ILE data from 108 countries obtained from the United Nations Development Programme...
February 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Steluta Manolache, Andreea Nita, Cristiana M Ciocanea, Viorel D Popescu, Laurentiu Rozylowicz
Successful management of complex social-ecological landscapes overlapping Natura 2000 sites requires collaboration between various actors such as law enforcement agencies, NGOs and enterprises. Natura 2000 governance is stimulated by central actors (e.g., Natura 2000 administrators), with successes and failures of management activities depending on the capacity of the network leader to implement a collaborative approach to environmental governance. By using social network analysis, we analysed the cooperation, information flow and capacity for collective action within Natura 2000 governance networks within two Romanian protected areas: Lower Siret Floodplain and Iron Gates Natural Park...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Derek Vollmer, Kashif Shaad, Nicholas J Souter, Tracy Farrell, David Dudgeon, Caroline A Sullivan, Isabelle Fauconnier, Glen M MacDonald, Matthew P McCartney, Alison G Power, Amy McNally, Sandy J Andelman, Timothy Capon, Naresh Devineni, Chusit Apirumanekul, Cho Nam Ng, M Rebecca Shaw, Raymond Yu Wang, Chengguang Lai, Zhaoli Wang, Helen M Regan
Degradation of freshwater ecosystems and the services they provide is a primary cause of increasing water insecurity, raising the need for integrated solutions to freshwater management. While methods for characterizing the multi-faceted challenges of managing freshwater ecosystems abound, they tend to emphasize either social or ecological dimensions and fall short of being truly integrative. This paper suggests that management for sustainability of freshwater systems needs to consider the linkages between human water uses, freshwater ecosystems and governance...
January 29, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Heidi Igarashi, Michael R Levenson, Carolyn M Aldwin
Objectives: This study examined the development of wisdom within the context of difficult life events (DLEs), and the importance of individuals and their social environments in this process of growth. Social support has long been studied in adulthood, yet less is known about the ways social transactions can promote wisdom. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with men (n = 14) and women (n = 36), ages 56-91 years (M = 71.71; SD = 8.8) who described a DLE and how they coped with it...
February 7, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Juliet P Lee, Anna Pagano, Roland S Moore, Nick Tilsen, Jeffrey A Henderson, Andrew Iron Shell, Sharice Davids, Lyle LeBeaux, Paul Gruenewald
On a Northern Plains reservation where alcohol was prohibited, we investigated community members' views on the impacts of alcohol availability. Our methods combined elements of Tribal community participatory research with qualitative inquiry to elicit these perspectives. We used rapid appraisal techniques to conduct confidential interviews with 31 key leaders representing 7 relevant major community systems, and representing a variety of perspectives. Topics included respondents' understandings of the current systems of alcoholavailability and use on the reservation, the impacts of these systems on reservation residents, and possible ways to measure these impacts...
January 27, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
D J Eastburn, Leslie M Roche, Morgan P Doran, Philip R Blake, Chip S Bouril, George Gamble, Elise S Gornish
The historical management of agroecological systems, such as California's rangelands, have received criticism for a singular focus on agricultural production goals, while society has shifting expectations to the supply of multiple ecosystem services from these working landscapes. The sustainability and the multiple benefits derived from these complex social-ecological systems is increasingly threatened by weed invasion, extreme disturbance, urban development, and the impacts of a rapidly changing and increasingly variable climate...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Yu-Huan Chao, Tzu-I Lee, Shuh-Jen Sheu
Breast cancer significantly threatens the life of women, while the adverse effects of cancer treatment degrade quality of life and psychological well-being. The quality of transitional care following the completion of treatment significantly affects the ability of breast cancer patients to transition successfully into survivorship. This paper introduces multiple theoretical perspectives and provides an overview of the tenets of each in order to identify the positions of breast cancer survivors and to highlight the factors and strategies that influence their transitional care...
February 2018: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
Catherine O Adegoke, Miemsie G Steyn
Although there is a growing body of research exploring the influence of culture on the resilience of African youth, few studies have examined how culture constrains or enables resilience among HIV-positive adolescent girls from the perspective of the young women themselves. This paper reports on the findings from a qualitative study of five purposively selected girls living with HIV in Ibadan, Nigeria. By analysing data drawn mainly from interviews and observations, we explored how cultural influences promote or limit resilience in participants...
February 1, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Nathan J Bennett, Tara S Whitty, Elena Finkbeiner, Jeremy Pittman, Hannah Bassett, Stefan Gelcich, Edward H Allison
There has been increasing attention to and investment in local environmental stewardship in conservation and environmental management policies and programs globally. Yet environmental stewardship has not received adequate conceptual attention. Establishing a clear definition and comprehensive analytical framework could strengthen our ability to understand the factors that lead to the success or failure of environmental stewardship in different contexts and how to most effectively support and enable local efforts...
January 31, 2018: Environmental Management
Christopher R Browning, Catherine A Calder, Brian Soller, Aubrey L Jackson, Jonathan Dirlam
Drawing on the social disorganization tradition and the social ecological perspective of Jane Jacobs, the authors hypothesize that neighborhoods composed of residents who intersect in space more frequently as a result of routine activities will exhibit higher levels of collective efficacy, intergenerational closure, and social network interaction and exchange. They develop this approach employing the concept of ecological networks-two-mode networks that indirectly link residents through spatial overlap in routine activities...
May 2017: AJS; American Journal of Sociology
Rahul Garg, Usha Sambamoorthi, Xi Tan, Soumit K Basu, Treah Haggerty, Kimberly M Kelly
Newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) can pose significant challenges to care coordination. We utilized a social-ecological model to understand the impact of DLBCL diagnosis on visits to primary care providers (PCPs) and specialists, a key component of care coordination, over a 3-year period of cancer diagnosis and treatment. We used hurdle models and multivariable logistic regression with the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Result-Medicare linked dataset to analyze visits to PCPs and specialists by DLBCL patients (n = 5,455) compared with noncancer patients (n = 14,770)...
January 23, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
Alexander Krieg, Li Ma, Patricia Robinson
Impression management has important implications for success at work. This study explores differences in impression management in the East and West by examining the use of self-promotion, ingratiation, and exemplification directed towards three targets: supervisors, peers, and subordinates among 945 company employees from Japan, Korea, and the United States. Our results show that Korean employees used all three strategies most frequently, followed by United States, and then Japanese employees. Japanese and Korean employees used impression management strategies differentially across the three targets, and U...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Psychology
Carmen H Logie, Ashley Lacombe-Duncan, Kathleen S Kenny, Kandasi Levermore, Nicolette Jones, Stefan D Baral, Ying Wang, Annecka Marshall, Peter A Newman
BACKGROUND: Globally, men who have sex with men (MSM) experience social marginalization and criminalization that increase HIV vulnerability by constraining access to HIV prevention and care. People who sell sex also experience criminalization, rights violations, and violence, which elevate HIV exposure. MSM who sell sex may experience intersectional stigma and intensified social marginalization, yet have largely been overlooked in epidemiological and social HIV research. In Jamaica, where same sex practices and sex work are criminalized, scant research has investigated sex selling among MSM, including associations with HIV vulnerability...
2018: Global Health Action
Vanessa L Castro, Derek M Isaacowitz
Objectives: Despite a proliferation of research in interpersonal perception and aging, no research has identified the nature of the social and emotional perceptions made by aging individuals in everyday life. In this study, we aimed to identify the social ecological features that characterize everyday interpersonal perception across the adult lifespan. Method: Three studies were conducted. Study 1 identified and compared the targets and locations of young, middle-age, and older adults' everyday interpersonal perceptions; these perceptions were categorized into types in Study 2...
January 10, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Flávia Rosa Santoro, André Luiz Borba Nascimento, Gustavo Taboada Soldati, Washington Soares Ferreira Júnior, Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque
The interest in theoretical frameworks that improve our understanding of social-ecological systems is growing within the field of ethnobiology. Several evolutionary questions may underlie the relationships between people and the natural resources that are investigated in this field. A new branch of research, known as evolutionary ethnobiology (EE), focuses on these questions and has recently been formally conceptualized. The field of cultural evolution (CE) has significantly contributed to the development of this new field, and it has introduced the Darwinian concepts of variation, competition, and heredity to studies that focus on the dynamics of local knowledge...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Adrien Comte, Linwood H Pendleton
Coral reef ecosystems and the people who depend on them are increasingly exposed to the adverse effects of global environmental change (GEC), including increases in sea-surface temperature and ocean acidification. Managers and decision-makers need a better understanding of the options available for action in the face of these changes. We refine a typology of actions developed by Gattuso et al. (2015) that could serve in prioritizing strategies to deal with the impacts of GEC on reefs and people. Using the typology we refined, we investigate the scientific effort devoted to four types of management strategies: mitigate, protect, repair, adapt that we tie to the components of the chain of impact they affect: ecological vulnerability or social vulnerability...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Nasser Yassin, Rima Afifi, Neil Singh, Reem Saad, Lilian Ghandour
Alcohol-related research from the Arab world has rarely touched on the experiences or views of Arab adolescents. In this article, we present an in-depth analysis of youth alcohol drinking patterns and determinants derived from focus group discussions completed with more than 100 Lebanese high school/vocational students (15-19 years). The social ecology of alcohol use framework guided our research and analysis. Findings reveal that alcohol drinking is perceived as a pervasive and serious public health problem, triggered by a complex web of social relations, and facilitated by lax policies...
January 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Michelle L Kaiser, Anne Cafer
The United States is facing two interconnected social and public health crises of severe obesity and food insecurity within the social-ecological environment. Marginalized groups experience the highest rates and the greatest impacts in terms of morbidity, mortality, and financial burdens. Consequences include experiencing multimorbidities, mental health issues, and decreased quality of life. Food pantries have served as spaces to obtain food to meet household needs, but for some, food pantries have become long-term solutions...
2018: Social Work in Public Health
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