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Michael J Manfredo, Jeremy T Bruskotter, Tara L Teel, David Fulton, Shalom H Schwartz, Robert Arlinghaus, Shigehiro Oishi, Ayse K Uskul, Kent Redford, Shinobu Kitayama, Leeann Sullivan
The hope for creating widespread change in social values has endured among conservation professionals since early calls by Aldo Leopold for a "Land Ethic". However, there has been little serious attention in conservation to the fields of investigation that address values, how they are formed, and how they change. We introduce a social-ecological systems approach in which values are seen not just as motivational goals that people hold, but they are also deeply embedded in the world around us, in our material culture, collective behaviors, traditions, and social institutions...
October 19, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Thomas L McKenzie
Physical activity is place-based, and being able to assess the number of people and their characteristics in specific locations is important both for public health surveillance and for practitioners in their design of physical activity spaces and programs. Although physical activity measurement has improved recently, many investigators avoid or are at a loss regarding the assessment of physical activity in explicit locations, especially in open environments where many people come and go in a seemingly indiscriminate fashion...
October 17, 2016: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Edwin Wouters, Frederik le Roux Booysen, Caroline Masquillier
Reviews of impact evaluations of community-based health workers and peer support groups highlight the considerable variability in the effectiveness of such support in improving antiretroviral treatment (ART) outcomes. Evidence indicates that community-based support interventions targeting patients known to be at risk will probably display better results than generic interventions aimed at the entire population of people living with HIV. It is however difficult to identify these at-risk populations, rendering knowledge on the characteristics of patients groups who are in need of community-based support a clear research priority...
2016: PloS One
Rachel Nicholls, Lin Perry, Christine Duffield, Robyn Gallagher, Heather Pierce
BACKGROUND: There is growing recognition of the influence of the workplace environment on the eating habits of the workforce, which in turn may contribute to increased overweight and obesity. Overweight and obesity exact enormous costs in terms of reduced well-being, worker productivity and increased risk of non-communicable diseases. The workplace is an ideal place to intervene and support healthy behaviours. This review aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to nurses' healthy eating in the workplace...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Eunju Lee, Marianne E Krasny
This study investigated the indicators of adaptive capacity along with disturbances in community forest management systems in the East Asian countries, China, Japan and South Korea. Although these countries have centuries-old traditions of community-based forest management, they have been less researched in light of adaptive capacity for resilient social-ecological systems. Recent social and ecological disturbances bring about new challenges and/or opportunities to the capacity of forest related communities to adapt to rapidly changing conditions...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Management
Maike Hamann, Reinette Biggs, Belinda Reyers
We take a social-ecological systems perspective to investigate the linkages between ecosystem services and human well-being in South Africa. A recent paper identified different types of social-ecological systems in the country, based on distinct bundles of ecosystem service use. These system types were found to represent increasingly weak direct feedbacks between nature and people, from rural "green-loop" communities to urban "red-loop" societies. Here we construct human well-being bundles and explore whether the well-being bundles can be used to identify the same social-ecological system types that were identified using bundles of ecosystem service use...
2016: PloS One
Kim Foster, Alexandra Young, Rebecca Mitchell, Connie Van, Kate Curtis
INTRODUCTION: Physical injury is a leading cause of death and disability among children worldwide and the largest cause of paediatric hospital admission. Parents of critically injured children are at increased risk of developing mental and emotional distress in the aftermath of child injury. In the Australian context, there is limited evidence on parent experiences of child injury and hospitalisation, and minimal understanding of their support needs. The aim of this investigation was to explore parents' experiences of having a critically injured child during the acute hospitalisation phase of injury, and to determine their support needs during this time...
September 23, 2016: Injury
Cath Jackson, Lisa Dyson, Helen Bedford, Francine M Cheater, Louise Condon, Annie Crocker, Carol Emslie, Lana Ireland, Philippa Kemsley, Susan Kerr, Helen J Lewis, Julie Mytton, Karen Overend, Sarah Redsell, Zoe Richardson, Christine Shepherd, Lesley Smith
BACKGROUND: Gypsies, Travellers and Roma (referred to as Travellers) are less likely to access health services, including immunisation. To improve immunisation rates, we need to understand what helps and hinders individuals in these communities in taking up immunisations. AIMS: (1) Investigate the barriers to and facilitators of acceptability and uptake of immunisations among six Traveller communities across four UK cities; and (2) identify possible interventions to increase uptake of immunisations in these Traveller communities that could be tested in a subsequent feasibility study...
September 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Orla Shortall, Annmarie Ruston, Martin Green, Marnie Brennan, Wendela Wapenaar, Jasmeet Kaler
There is seen to be a need for better biosecurity - the control of disease spread on and off farm - in the dairy sector. Veterinarians play a key role in communicating and implementing biosecurity measures on farm, and little research has been carried out on how veterinarians see their own and farmers' roles in improving biosecurity. In order to help address this gap, qualitative interviews were carried out with 28 veterinarians from Royal College of Veterinary Surgeon farm accredited practices in England. The results were analysed using a social ecology framework and frame analysis to explore not only what barriers vets identified, but also how vets saw the problem of inadequate biosecurity as being located...
September 15, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Adam Fine, Alissa Mahler, Laurence Steinberg, Paul J Frick, Elizabeth Cauffman
Social ecological theories and decades of supporting research suggest that contexts exert a powerful influence on adolescent delinquency. Individual traits, such as impulse control, also pose a developmental disadvantage to adolescents through increasing risk of delinquency. However, such individual differences may also predispose some youth to struggle more in adverse environments, but also to excel in enriched environments. Despite the prominence of impulse control in both developmental and criminological literatures, researchers are only beginning to consider impulse control as an individual characteristic that may affect developmental outcomes in response to environmental input...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Valerie M Harvey, Charlene W Oldfield, Jarvis T Chen, Karl Eschbach
Cutaneous melanoma is a significant public health concern, accounting for thousands of deaths annually in the US. Early detection and diagnosis are critical given the poor prognosis and limited treatment options of advanced-stage disease. While non-Hispanic whites have higher incidence rates of melanoma, Hispanics are typically diagnosed at later disease stages and suffer higher morbidity and mortality. Currently, there is a paucity of literature investigating the root causes underlying these trends among Hispanics...
2016: Journal of Skin Cancer
Jens Newig, Daniel Schulz, Nicolas W Jager
This article attempts to shed new light on prevailing puzzles of spatial scales in multi-level, participatory governance as regards the democratic legitimacy and environmental effectiveness of governance systems. We focus on the governance re-scaling by the European Water Framework Directive, which introduced new governance scales (mandated river basin management) and demands consultation of citizens and encourages 'active involvement' of stakeholders. This allows to examine whether and how re-scaling through deliberate governance interventions impacts on democratic legitimacy and effective environmental policy delivery...
September 20, 2016: Environmental Management
Henry Brink, Robert J Smith, Kirsten Skinner, Nigel Leader-Williams
It is argued that trophy hunting of large, charismatic mammal species can have considerable conservation benefits but only if undertaken sustainably. Social-ecological theory suggests such sustainability only results from developing governance systems that balance financial and biological requirements. Here we use lion (Panthera leo) trophy hunting data from Tanzania to investigate how resource ownership patterns influence hunting revenue and offtake levels. Tanzania contains up to half of the global population of free-ranging lions and is also the main location for lion trophy hunting in Africa...
2016: PloS One
Paul E Nevin, Laura Blanar, Annie Phare Kirk, Amy Freedheim, Robert Kaufman, Laura Hitchcock, Jennifer D Maeser, Beth E Ebel
BACKGROUND: In response to the rise of distracted driving, many countries and most US states have adopted laws to restrict the use of handheld phones for drivers. Specific provisions of each law and the overall social mores of distracted driving influence enforceability and impact. OBJECTIVES: Identify multilevel interdependent factors that influence distracted driving enforcement through the perspective of police officers. DESIGN/METHODS: We conducted focus group discussions with active duty law enforcement officers from three large Washington State counties...
September 15, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Jeanette M Garcia, Sean Healy, David Rice
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to use a social-ecological approach to examine the influence of individual, social, and environmental factors on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen-time in a sample of nine year old children in Ireland. METHODS: The sample was 1509 boys and girls from the Growing Up in Ireland (GUI) national study. MVPA, screen time, and individual, social, and environmental variables were assessed via questionnaires completed by children, their parents, and their teachers...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Cathryn Clarke Murray, Megan E Mach, Rebecca G Martone, Gerald G Singh, Miriam O, Kai M A Chan
The multi-scalar complexity of social-ecological systems makes it challenging to quantify impacts from human activities on ecosystems, inspiring risk-based approaches to assessments of potential effects of human activities on valued ecosystem components. Risk assessments do not commonly include the risk from indirect effects as mediated via habitat and prey. In this case study from British Columbia, Canada, we illustrate how such "indirect risks" can be incorporated into risk assessments for seventeen ecosystem components...
2016: PloS One
Dawn X Henderson, Jessica DeCuir-Gunby, Vandna Gill
Promoting resilience prevents maladaptation among economically disadvantaged ethnic minority (EDEM) youth. EDEM youth need access to a variety of assets and promotive factors (i.e., resources) in the family, school, and community system to counter risks and promote positive adaptation. However, the field lacks a socio-ecological model of resilience for prevention targeted towards EDEM youth. We aim to review assets and promotive factors in the family, school, and community systems to present a socio-ecological model of resilience for the prevention of negative educational and health outcomes among EDEM youth...
October 2016: Journal of Primary Prevention
Nozomi Kawarazuka, Catherine Locke, Cynthia McDougall, Paula Kantor, Miranda Morgan
The demand for gender analysis is now increasingly orthodox in natural resource programming, including that for small-scale fisheries. Whilst the analysis of social-ecological resilience has made valuable contributions to integrating social dimensions into research and policy-making on natural resource management, it has so far demonstrated limited success in effectively integrating considerations of gender equity. This paper reviews the challenges in, and opportunities for, bringing a gender analysis together with social-ecological resilience analysis in the context of small-scale fisheries research in developing countries...
September 10, 2016: Ambio
Angela M Guerrero, Kerrie A Wilson
One of the key determinants of success in biodiversity conservation is how well conservation planning decisions account for the social system in which actions are to be implemented. Understanding elements of how the social and ecological systems interact can help identify opportunities for implementation. Utilizing data from a large-scale conservation initiative in the south west of Australia we explore how a social-ecological system framework can be applied to identify how social and ecological factors interact to influence the opportunities for conservation...
September 7, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Karen A Bonuck, Arthur Blank, Barbara True-Felt, Ronald Chervin
Inadequate or poor quality sleep in early childhood impairs social-emotional and cognitive function via effects on the developing brain and increases obesity risk via hormonal and endocrine effects. The prevalence of short sleep duration, behavioral sleep problems, and sleep-disordered breathing among children aged 3 to 5 years is 20% to 50%. Healthy sleep habits increase sleep duration and prevent behavioral sleep problems. Awareness of sleep-disordered breathing symptoms leads to its timely treatment. We designed a study that aims to empower families whose children are in early childhood programs with the knowledge and skills needed to obtain healthy sleep and to recognize a sleep problem...
2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
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