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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229336/relevant-principal-factors-affecting-the-reproducibility-of-insect-primary-culture
#1
Norichika Ogata, Kikuo Iwabuchi
The primary culture of insect cells often suffers from problems with poor reproducibility in the quality of the final cell preparations. The cellular composition of the explants (cell number and cell types), surgical methods (surgical duration and surgical isolation), and physiological and genetic differences between donors may be critical factors affecting the reproducibility of culture. However, little is known about where biological variation (interindividual differences between donors) ends and technical variation (variance in replication of culture conditions) begins...
February 22, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221132/mycobacterium-bovis-in-a-free-ranging-black-rhinoceros-kruger-national-park-south-africa-2016
#2
Michele A Miller, Peter E Buss, Paul D van Helden, Sven D C Parsons
In 2016, an emaciated black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) was found in Kruger National Park, South Africa. An interferon-γ response was detected against mycobacterial antigens, and lung tissue was positive for Mycobacterium bovis. This case highlights the risk that tuberculosis presents to rhinoceros in M. bovis-endemic areas.
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198090/succession-and-dynamics-of-pristionchus-nematodes-and-their-microbiome-during-decomposition-of-oryctes-borbonicus-on-la-r%C3%A3-union-island
#3
Jan M Meyer, Praveen Baskaran, Christian Quast, Vladislav Susoy, Christian Rödelsperger, Frank O Glöckner, Ralf J Sommer
Insects and nematodes represent the most species-rich animal taxa and they occur together in a variety of associations. Necromenic nematodes of the genus Pristionchus are found on scarab beetles with more than 30 species known from worldwide samplings. However, little is known about the dynamics and succession of nematodes and bacteria during the decomposition of beetle carcasses. Here, we study nematode and bacterial succession of the decomposing rhinoceros beetle Oryctes borbonicus on La Réunion Island. We show that Pristionchus pacificus exits the arrested dauer stage seven days after the beetles' deaths...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177084/judas-beetles-discovering-cryptic-breeding-sites-by-radio-tracking-coconut-rhinoceros-beetles-oryctes-rhinoceros-coleoptera-scarabaeidae
#4
Aubrey Moore, Diego C Barahona, Katherine A Lehman, Dominick D Skabeikis, Ian R Iriarte, Eric B Jang, Matthew S Siderhurst
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176810/extinctions-genetic-erosion-and-conservation-options-for-the-black-rhinoceros-diceros-bicornis
#5
Yoshan Moodley, Isa-Rita M Russo, Desiré L Dalton, Antoinette Kotzé, Shadrack Muya, Patricia Haubensak, Boglárka Bálint, Gopi K Munimanda, Caroline Deimel, Andrea Setzer, Kara Dicks, Barbara Herzig-Straschil, Daniela C Kalthoff, Hans R Siegismund, Jan Robovský, Paul O'Donoghue, Michael W Bruford
The black rhinoceros is again on the verge of extinction due to unsustainable poaching in its native range. Despite a wide historic distribution, the black rhinoceros was traditionally thought of as depauperate in genetic variation, and with very little known about its evolutionary history. This knowledge gap has hampered conservation efforts because hunting has dramatically reduced the species' once continuous distribution, leaving five surviving gene pools of unknown genetic affinity. Here we examined the range-wide genetic structure of historic and modern populations using the largest and most geographically representative sample of black rhinoceroses ever assembled...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170027/snp-discovery-and-characterisation-in-white-rhino-ceratotherium-simum-with-application-to-parentage-assignment
#6
Christiaan Labuschagne, Desiré L Dalton, J Paul Grobler, Antoinette Kotzé
The white rhino is one of the great success stories of modern wildlife conservation, growing from as few as 50-100 animals in the 1880s, to approximately 20,000 white rhinoceros remaining today. However, illegal trade in conservational rhinoceros horns is adding constant pressure on remaining populations. Captive management of ex situ populations of endangered species using molecular methods can contribute to improving the management of the species. Here we compare for the first time the utility of 33 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and nine microsatellites (MS) in isolation and in combination for assigning parentage in captive White Rhinoceros...
February 6, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155294/pulmonary-gas-exchange-and-acid-base-status-during-immobilisation-of-black-rhinoceroses-i-diceros-bicornis-i-in-zimbabwe
#7
Åsa Fahlman, Anna Edner, Sandra Wenger, Chris Foggin, Görel Nyman
When immobilising wildlife, adverse side effects can include hypoxaemia, acidosis and hypertension. Pulmonary gas exchange and acid-base status were evaluated during immobilisation of 25 free-ranging and one boma-held black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in Zimbabwe. The effect of different body positions on arterial oxygenation was evaluated. A combination of the following drugs was used: an opioid (etorphine or thiafentanil), azaperone and an a2 -adrenoceptor agonist (detomidine or xylazine). Respiratory and heart rates, rectal temperature and pulse oximetry-derived haemoglobin oxygen saturation were recorded...
December 2, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155293/eco-epidemiological-and-pathological-features-of-wildlife-mortality-events-related-to-cyanobacterial-bio-intoxication-in-the-kruger-national-park-south-africa
#8
Roy Bengis, Danny Govender, Emily Lane, Jan Myburgh, Paul Oberholster, Peter Buss, Leon Prozesky, Dewald Keet
Over the past decade, several clustered, multispecies, wildlife mortality events occurred in the vicinity of two man-made earthen dams in the southern and south central regions of the Kruger National Park, South Africa. On field investigation, heavy cyanobacterial blooms were visible in these impoundments and analysis of water samples showed the dominance of Microcystis spp. (probably Microcystis aeruginosa). Macroscopic lesions seen at necropsy and histopathological lesions were compatible with a diagnosis of cyanobacterial intoxication...
October 31, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152184/analytic-and-quality-control-validation-and-assessment-of-field-performance-of-a-point-of-care-chemistry-analyzer-for-use-in-the-white-rhinoceros
#9
Emma H Hooijberg, Gerhard Steenkamp, Jacques P du Preez, Amelia Goddard
BACKGROUND: A chemistry point-of-care analyzer would be useful for evaluating injured wildlife, particularly White rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) that survive poaching attempts. The IDEXX VetTest could be suitable, but species-specific validation, development of a statistical quality control (QC) strategy, and evaluation under field conditions are necessary. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to (1) validate the VetTest for the White rhinoceros, (2) perform QC validation on the VetTest and generate a statistical QC strategy, and (3) apply this QC strategy to monitor performance under typical field conditions...
February 2, 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115497/a-multiplex-pcr-assay-for-differentiating-coconut-rhinoceros-beetle-coleoptera-scarabaeidae-from-oriental-flower-beetle-coleoptera-scarabaeidae-in-early-life-stages-and-excrement
#10
S Watanabe, M J Melzer
The coconut rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros (L.), is a major pest of coconut and other palm trees. An incipient coconut rhinoceros beetle population was recently discovered on the island of Oahu, Hawaii and is currently the target of a large, mutiagency eradication program. Confounding this program is the widespread presence of another scarab beetle on Oahu, the oriental flower beetle, Protaetia orientalis (Gory and Percheron 1833). Eggs, early life stages, and fecal excrement of coconut rhinoceros beetle and oriental flower beetle are morphologically indistinguishable, thereby creating uncertainty when such specimens are discovered in the field...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102907/global-lessons-from-successful-rhinoceros-conservation-in-nepal
#11
Achyut Aryal, Krishna Prasad Acharya, Uttam Babu Shrestha, Maheshwar Dhakal, David Raubenhiemer, Wendy Wright
Global populations of rhinoceros have declined alarmingly, from about 500,000 at the beginning of the 20(th) century to 29,000 in 2016, largely due to an escalation of poaching for rhinoceros horn (Traffic 2016; Biggs et al. 2013). The current global rhino population is comprised of three Asian Species and two African species, the latter located in South Africa, Kenya, Tanzania, Namibia and Zimbabwe,. In Africa, the Southern white rhinoceros population is estimated at 20,700; and there are estimated to be around 4,885 black rhinoceros...
January 19, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080922/solitary-osteochondroma-of-the-distal-third-metacarpal-bone-in-a-two-year-old-white-rhinoceros-ceratotherium-simum
#12
Yolandi Smit, Johan Steyl, Johan Marais
A privately owned, 2-yr-old, 600-kg, intact male white rhinoceros presented with a progressive lameness of the left front limb of 8-mo duration with a focal swelling situated over the dorsoproximal aspect of third metacarpophalangeal joint. Radiographs of the affected limb showed a 28 mm × 26 mm exostosis at the dorsodistal third metacarpal bone. Surgical removal of the exostosis was performed and histopathologic examination confirmed a solitary osteochondroma. A follow-up examination 1 yr after surgical removal revealed total abolishment of the left front limb lameness...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080906/oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-an-aged-captive-white-rhinoceros-ceratotherium-simum
#13
Sandra Langer, Nadine Czerwonka, Kerstin Ternes, Dr Werner Herbst, Kernt Koehler
A 48-yr-old captive white rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum ) was euthanized due to old age, pododermatitis, and progressive laminitis of the middle toe of the left fore- and hindlimbs. Severe chronic necrotizing periodontitis and dental loss was diagnosed, although food intake prior to death had not decreased. In addition, extensive ulceration of the tongue was noted. Histologically, squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue was diagnosed with chronic severe ulcerative glossitis. Metastatic lesions were not detected...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073403/arcanobacterium-wilhelmae-sp-nov-isolated-from-the-genital-tract-of-a-rhinoceros-rhinoceros-unicornis
#14
Osama Sammra, Jörg Rau, Jörn-Peter Wickhorst, Mazen Alssahen, Abdulwahed Ahmed Hassan, Christoph Lämmler, Peter Kämpfer, Stefanie P Glaeser, Hans-Jürgen Busse, Tanita Kleinhagauer, Tobias Knauf-Witzens, Ellen Prenger-Berninghoff, Amir Abdulmawjood, Günter Klein
AbstractA polyphasic taxonomic study was performed on an unidentified Arcanobacterium-like Gram-stain-positive bacterium isolated from the genital tract of a rhinoceros. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the bacterium belonged to the genus Arcanobacterium and was most closely related to the type strains of Arcanobacterium canis (98.8 %), Arcanobacterium phocisimile (97.8 %), Arcanobacterium phocae (97.7%), Arcanobacterium haemolyticum (97.4 %), Arcanobacterium hippocoleae (96.6 %), Arcanobacterium pinnipediorum (96...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058607/hair-microstructure-of-the-first-time-found-calf-of-woolly-rhinoceros-coelodonta-antiquitatis
#15
O F Chernova, A V Protopopov, T V Perfilova, I V Kirillova, G G Boeskorov
Hair microstructure of the first calf of the woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis found in Sakha in 2014 (the neck and hind leg hair) was examined by the light and electron scanning microscopy. The calf hair features were compared with those of two adults studied earlier. The calf coat color was much lighter than in adults, from pale ashy to blond. The extent of hair differentiation, dimensional and pigmentation indices were lower in the calf than in adult rhinoceroses. There was no medulla in the calf hairs, while in those of adults it was occasionally found...
November 2016: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058601/the-first-finding-of-a-rhinoceros-of-the-genus-stephanorhinus-in-arctic-asia
#16
I V Kirillova, O F Chernova, V V Kukarskikh, F K Shidlovskiy, O G Zanina
The first skull of a rhinoceros of the genus Stephanorhinus has been found above the Arctic Circle on the middle Chondon River (Yakutia, Russia). This is the northernmost finding that extends significantly the genus range and provides additional information about the diet and environment of a genus representative. Plant remnants from the maxillary tooth cavities were identified as belonging to trees (Larix, Betula), shrubs (Ericaceae), mosses (Aulacomnium sp., Polytrichum sp.), herbs (Dicotyledones) and grasses (Poaceae), but not to sedges (Cyperaceae)...
November 2016: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048849/su-f-j-174-a-series-of-computational-human-phantoms-in-dicom-rt-format-for-normal-tissue-dose-reconstruction-in-epidemiological-studies
#17
A Pyakuryal, B Moroz, C Lee, C Pelletier, J Jung, C Lee
PURPOSE: Epidemiological studies of second cancer risk in radiotherapy patients often require individualized dose estimates of normal tissues. Prior to 3D conformal radiation therapy planning, patient anatomy information was mostly limited to 2D radiological images or not even available. Generic patient CT images are often used in commercial radiotherapy treatment planning system (TPS) to reconstruct normal tissue doses. The objective of the current work was to develop a series of reference size computational human phantoms in DICOM-RT format for direct use in dose reconstruction in TPS...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048702/tu-h-brc-01-a-new-fabrication-method-for-secondary-skin-collimation-using-3d-scanner-and-3d-printer
#18
J Jung, N Potter, T Suh, C Liu, B Lu
PURPOSE: Using secondary skin collimation (SSC) to protect the critical organ surrounding the tumors is always desirable for electron and/or ortho-voltage treatments. However, the time-consuming and labor-intensive fabrication processes of current method (manually fabricate the lead mask) restrict the general use of SSC. The aim of this study is to develop a new SSC fabrication method using 3D scanning and 3D printing technologies in order to largely decrease the human labor involvement and fabrication time, also improve the fabrication accuracy...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032205/enterovirga-rhinocerotis-gen-nov-sp-nov-isolated-from-rhinoceros-unicornis-faeces
#19
Xiu Chen, Qin-Yuan Li, Gui-Ding Li, Hui Lei, Yi Jiang, Li Han, Xue-Shi Huang, Cheng-Lin Jiang
A novel strain, YIM 100770(T), was isolated from Rhinoceros unicornis faeces collected from Yunnan Wild Animal Park, China. The taxonomic status was determined based on the physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic characteristics. Strain YIM 100770(T) was observed to be rod-shaped, non-motile, Gram-stain negative and aerobic. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 68.5 mol%. The cells of strain YIM 100770(T) contain ubiquinone Q-10 as the respiratory quinone. The major fatty acids (>1%) were identified as Summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω7c and/or C18:1 ω6c; 78...
December 28, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993990/judas-beetles-discovering-cryptic-breeding-sites-by-radio-tracking-coconut-rhinoceros-beetles-oryctes-rhinoceros-coleoptera-scarabaeidae
#20
Aubrey Moore, Diego C Barahona, Katherine A Lehman, Dominick D Skabeikis, Ian R Iriarte, Eric B Jang, Matthew S Siderhurst
The coconut rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros L., is a serious pest of coconut and other palms throughout Southeast Asia and on several Pacific Islands. Adults damage and sometimes kill palms when they bore into the crown to feed. In contrast, larvae feed only on dead plant material at breeding sites. Typically, coconut rhinoceros beetle populations are controlled with a combination of biocontrol, pheromone traps, and breeding site removal. A field trial was performed at two locations on Guam to test the feasibility of using the Judas technique, releasing radio-tagged adults to discover cryptic breeding sites, for potential coconut rhinoceros beetle control...
December 19, 2016: Environmental Entomology
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