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Almut Prkno, Matthias Kaiser, Daniela Goerigk, Martin Pfeffer, Thomas W Vahlenkamp, Donata Hoffmann, Martin Beer, Alexander Starke
Cowpox virus (CPXV) infection is a reportable and potentially zoonotic disease that occurs sporadically in a variety of animals. During the past six decades, CPXV infection has been extensively researched and described in both domestic (cat, dog, horse, cattle) and zoo animals (e. g. elephant, rhinoceros, okapi). Of note, a review of the literature produced only three reports of CPXV in individual or small groups of South American camelids. The goal of this review was to describe the current knowledge as it relates to clinical features of CPXV infection in South American camelids and to compare the clinical manifestations with those described in other animal species...
February 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Anne Caroline Oenning, Alexandre Rodrigues Freire, Ana Cláudia Rossi, Felippe Bevilacqua Prado, Paulo Henrique Ferreira Caria, Lourenço Correr-Sobrinho, Francisco Haiter-Neto
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have suggested a relationship between resorption in second molars and pressure from the eruptive force of the third molar. The aim of this study was to simulate functional forces in a mandible model by means of finite element analysis and then assess the biomechanical response produced by impacted third molars on the roots of the second molar. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cone beam computed tomography scan presenting an impacted mandibular third molar was segmented (Mimics V17 software)...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Sabrina N Linn, Michael Boeer, Marina Scheumann
Describing vocal repertoires represents an essential step towards gaining an overview about the complexity of acoustic communication in a given species. The analysis of infant vocalisations is essential for understanding the development and usage of species-specific vocalisations, but is often underrepresented, especially in species with long inter-birth intervals such as the white rhinoceros. Thus, this study aimed for the first time to characterise the infant and juvenile vocal repertoire of the Southern white rhinoceros and to relate these findings to the adult vocal repertoire...
2018: PloS One
Jan Pluháček, Beatrice L Steck, Satya P Sinha, Friederike von Houwald
Rhinoceroses are among the most endangered mammals in the world. Despite a recent increase in numbers in most wild populations, poaching or political instability may exterminate large populations very quickly. Therefore, captive or ex situ rhinoceros populations can play an important role in their conservation. Previous studies identified infant mortality and interbirth intervals among the main parameters affecting the viability and survival of rhinoceros populations. In our study, we tested the recently suggested prediction that in captive Indian rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis , longer interbirth intervals may result in higher infant mortality...
June 2017: Current Zoology
Monica A Stoops, G Douglas Winget, Christopher J DeChant, Ray L Ball, Terri L Roth
Genetic sexing of animals with long gestation time benefits the management of captive populations. Here, X and Y chromosome-specific primers, based on equine gene sequencing data, were developed and tested on captive rhinoceroses (10 males, 20 females) representing four species (Diceros bicornis, Certaotherium simum simum, Rhinoceros unicornis, and Dicerorhinus sumatrensis). The Y chromosome-specific primer set targeted SRY (Sex-determining region Y), and amplified a 177-bp product following PCR of DNA extracted from males, but not females, of all species...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
R Pradeep Kumar, Anil John, Praveen Kumar, K V Dinesh Babu, D A Evans
BACKGROUND: Oryctes rhinoceros Linn. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is one of the serious pests of coconuts and other palms. Symbiotic gut bacteria play significant roles in digestion of cellulosic materials as well as in some other physiological processes essential for the existence of the O. rhinoceros larvae. The study was undertaken to isolate compound with antibacterial and larvicidal activities from the leaves of Adiantum latifolium Lam. following bioassay-guided method. RESULT: Methanol extract (ME) of dry leaf powder of A...
February 2, 2018: Pest Management Science
James Hust, Mark D Lavine, Amy M Worthington, Robert Zinna, Hiroki Gotoh, T Niimi, Laura Lavine
Males of the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus, possess exaggerated head and thoracic horns that scale dramatically out of proportion to body size. While studies of insulin signaling suggest that this pathway regulates nutrition-dependent growth including exaggerated horns, what regulates disproportionate growth has yet to be identified. The Fat signaling pathway is a potential candidate for regulating disproportionate growth of sexually-selected traits, a hypothesis we advanced in a previous paper (Gotoh et al...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Mark Jeon, Khursheed R Mama, Jeffrey R Zuba, Nadine Lamberski, James E Oosterhuis, Meredith M Clancy, Katie W Delk, Matthew E Kinney, Patrick J Morris, Francisco Olea-Popelka
Rhinoceros conservation efforts are essential to the survival of the species. One such effort is focused on using advanced reproductive technologies to produce viable northern white rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum cottoni) embryos for implantation into southern white rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum simum) surrogates. Anesthesia may be required to facilitate necessary procedures in these surrogate rhinoceros, but commonly reported side effects including hypercapnia and hypoxemia limit anesthetic recumbency time due to animal safety concerns...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Mark S Springer, John Gatesy
MC5R is one of five melanocortin receptor genes found in placental mammals. MC5R plays an important role in energy homeostasis and is also expressed in the terminal differentiation of sebaceous glands. Among placental mammals there are multiple lineages that either lack or have degenerative sebaceous glands including Cetacea (whales, dolphins, and porpoises), Hippopotamidae (hippopotamuses), Sirenia (manatees and dugongs), Proboscidea (elephants), Rhinocerotidae (rhinos), and Heterocephalus glaber (naked mole rat)...
December 19, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Herman L Mays, Chih-Ming Hung, Pei-Jen Shaner, James Denvir, Megan Justice, Shang-Fang Yang, Terri L Roth, David A Oehler, Jun Fan, Swanthana Rekulapally, Donald A Primerano
The vertebrate extinction rate over the past century is approximately 22-100 times greater than background extinction rates [1], and large mammals are particularly at risk [2, 3]. Quaternary megafaunal extinctions have been attributed to climate change [4], overexploitation [5], or a combination of the two [6]. Rhinoceroses (Family: Rhinocerotidae) have a rich fossil history replete with iconic examples of climate-induced extinctions [7], but current pressures threaten to eliminate this group entirely. The Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) is among the most imperiled mammals on earth...
December 13, 2017: Current Biology: CB
T L Roth, M W Schook, M A Stoops
Despite their size and potentially dangerous demeanor, the rhinoceros has been a preferred subject of wildlife reproductive scientists. Several factors contribute to this taxon's popularity including the ability to utilize insightful tools like non-invasive hormone metabolite monitoring and transrectal ultrasonography, the necessity for mate introductions to coincide with the female's estrus when breeding certain species or individuals, and the desire to develop assisted reproductive technologies to facilitate the genetic management and ultimate sustainability of small, managed populations in human care...
December 8, 2017: Theriogenology
Peter Buss, Michele Miller, Andrea Fuller, Anna Haw, Eliza Stout, Francisco Olea-Popelka, Leith Meyer
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of postinduction butorphanol administration in etorphine-immobilized white rhinoceros on respiration and blood gases. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized crossover study. ANIMALS: A group of six sub-adult male white rhinoceros. METHODS: Etorphine, or etorphine followed by butorphanol 12 minutes after recumbency, was administered intramuscularly [2.5 mg etorphine, 25 mg butorphanol (1000-1250 kg), or 3...
April 17, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
João Paulo Mendes Tribst, Amanda Maria de Oliveira Dal Piva, Jamil Awad Shibli, Alexandre Luiz Souto Borges, Rubens Nisie Tango
This study evaluated the effect of implantoplasty on different bone insertion levels of exposed implants. A model of the Bone Level Tapered implant (Straumann Institute, Waldenburg, Switzerland) was created through the Rhinoceros software (version 5.0 SR8, McNeel North America, Seattle, WA, USA). The abutment was fixed to the implant through a retention screw and a monolithic crown was modeled over a cementation line. Six models were created with increasing portions of the implant threads exposed: C1 (1 mm), C2 (2 mm), C3 (3 mm), C4 (4 mm), C5 (5 mm) and C6 (6 mm)...
December 7, 2017: Brazilian Oral Research
Georgina C Cole, Adrian S W Tordiffe, Gerhard Steenkamp
Blood lactate is a predictor of mortality in critically ill humans and animals. Handheld lactate meters have the potential to be used in the field to evaluate the condition of severely injured rhinoceroses but have not been compared with laboratory-based methods. Agreement between a handheld lactate meter and a laboratory method was assessed, as was the stability of rhino blood lactate in the anticoagulant sodium fluoride/potassium oxalate (fluoride/oxalate). Blood samples were obtained from 53 white rhinos that had been immobilised for management reasons...
November 10, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
Charlotte Pushparajan, Juan Daniel Claus, Sean D G Marshall, Gabriel Visnovsky
The DSIR-HA-1179 coleopteran cell line has been identified as a susceptible and permissive host for the in vitro replication of the Oryctes nudivirus, which can be used as a biopesticide against the coconut rhinoceros beetle, pest of palms. The major challenge to in vitro large-scale Oryctes nudivirus production is ensuring process economy. This rests, among other requisites, on the use of low-cost culture media tailored to the nutritional and metabolic needs of the cell line, both in uninfected and infected cultures...
December 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
J M Monné Rodríguez, J Chantrey, S Unwin, R Verin
This case report describes congenital truncus arteriosus in a 1-month-old Eastern black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis michaeli). From the first day of life the animal was underweight and from the 22nd day of life displayed respiratory signs that exacerbated with time leading eventually to collapse and death. Post-mortem examination revealed a single truncus arteriosus originating from the right ventricle leading to two separated pulmonary arteries and the aorta, with the ventricular septum showing a focal communicating defect...
November 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
Flávio Siqueira Calçada, Antônio Sérgio Guimarães, Marcelo Lucchesi Teixeira, Flávio Atsushi Takamatsu
OBJECTIVE: To assess the distribution of stress produced on TMJ disc by chincup therapy, by means of the finite element method. METHODS: a simplified three-dimensional TMJ disc model was developed by using Rhinoceros 3D software, and exported to ANSYS software. A 4.9N load was applied on the inferior surface of the model at inclinations of 30, 40, and 50 degrees to the mandibular plane (GoMe). ANSYS was used to analyze stress distribution on the TMJ disc for the different angulations, by means of finite element method...
September 2017: Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics
Tom Hill, Robert L Unckless
Viruses coevolve with their hosts to overcome host resistance and gain the upper hand in the evolutionary arms race. Drosophila innubila nudivirus (DiNV) is a double stranded DNA virus, closely related to Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus (OrNV) and Kallithea virus. DiNV is the first DNA virus found to naturally infect Drosophila and therefore has the potential to be developed as a model for DNA virus immune defense and host/virus coevolution within its well-studied host system. Here we sequence and annotate the genome of DiNV and identify signatures of adaptation, revealing clues for genes involved in host-parasite coevolution...
January 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
R Udelsman, S B Citino, M Prasad, P I Donovan, D V Fredholm
INTRODUCTION: The parathyroid gland was first identified in the Indian rhinoceros in 1849 by Sir Richard Owen. We performed a necropsy in an Indian rhinoceros, recapitulating Owen's dissection and display what appear to be the initial identification of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in situ and the anatomy and histology of the largest rhinoceros parathyroid glands yet identified. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patrick T. Rhino, a 41-year-old Indian rhinoceros was born in 1974...
February 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Keisuke Matsuda, Hiroki Gotoh, Yuki Tajika, Takamichi Sushida, Hitoshi Aonuma, Teruyuki Niimi, Masakazu Akiyama, Yasuhiro Inoue, Shigeru Kondo
The external organs of holometabolous insects are generated through two consecutive processes: the development of imaginal primordia and their subsequent transformation into the adult structures. During the latter process, many different phenomena at the cellular level (e.g. cell shape changes, cell migration, folding and unfolding of epithelial sheets) contribute to the drastic changes observed in size and shape. Because of this complexity, the logic behind the formation of the 3D structure of adult external organs remains largely unknown...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
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