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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441468/histological-study-of-white-rhinoceros-integument
#1
Jeffrey H Plochocki, Saul Ruiz, José R Rodriguez-Sosa, Margaret I Hall
In this study, we report findings from a microscopic analysis of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) integumentary ultrastructure. Skin samples from the cheek, shoulder, flank and rump were taken from a 46-year-old female southern white rhinoceros and examined using H&E and elastic histological stains. The epidermis was thickest in the flank (1.003 mm) followed by the rump, cheek and shoulder. The stratum corneum comprised more than half the epidermal thickness. Numerous melanin granules were found in the basal and spinosum layers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419525/method-comparison-and-generation-of-plasma-biochemistry-ris-for-the-white-rhinoceros-on-a-point-of-care-and-wet-chemistry-analyzer
#2
Emma H Hooijberg, Gerhard Steenkamp, Peter Buss, Amelia Goddard
BACKGROUND: Plasma biochemistry analysis may aid the management of White rhinoceros with poaching or other injuries. Analyzer- and species-specific RIs are necessary to evaluate health status and identify abnormalities. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to perform a comparison study between the IDEXX VetTest and Roche Cobas Integra 400 Plus, and to generate analyzer-specific RIs for White rhinoceros according to published guidelines. METHODS: Comparison was carried out using White rhinoceros plasma samples from healthy and diseased animals...
April 17, 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330916/climate-warming-and-humans-played-different-roles-in-triggering-late-quaternary-extinctions-in-east-and-west-eurasia
#3
Xinru Wan, Zhibin Zhang
Climate change and humans are proposed as the two key drivers of total extinction of many large mammals in the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene, but disentangling their relative roles remains challenging owing to a lack of quantitative evaluation of human impact and climate-driven distribution changes on the extinctions of these large mammals in a continuous temporal-spatial dimension. Here, our analyses showed that temperature change had significant effects on mammoth (genus Mammuthus), rhinoceros (Rhinocerotidae), horse (Equidae) and deer (Cervidae)...
March 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316883/middle-pleistocene-protein-sequences-from-the-rhinoceros-genus-stephanorhinus-and-the-phylogeny-of-extant-and-extinct-middle-late-pleistocene-rhinocerotidae
#4
Frido Welker, Geoff M Smith, Jarod M Hutson, Lutz Kindler, Alejandro Garcia-Moreno, Aritza Villaluenga, Elaine Turner, Sabine Gaudzinski-Windheuser
BACKGROUND: Ancient protein sequences are increasingly used to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships between extinct and extant mammalian taxa. Here, we apply these recent developments to Middle Pleistocene bone specimens of the rhinoceros genus Stephanorhinus. No biomolecular sequence data is currently available for this genus, leaving phylogenetic hypotheses on its evolutionary relationships to extant and extinct rhinoceroses untested. Furthermore, recent phylogenies based on Rhinocerotidae (partial or complete) mitochondrial DNA sequences differ in the placement of the Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281770/tremors-in-white-rhinoceroses-i-ceratotherium-simum-i-during-etorphine-azaperone-immobilisation
#5
Stephanie S De Lange, Andrea Fuller, Anna Haw, Markus Hofmeyr, Peter Buss, Michele Miller, Leith C R Meyer
Little is known about the mechanisms causing tremors during immobilisation of rhinoceros and whether cardiorespiratory supportive interventions alter their intensity. Therefore, we set out to determine the possible mechanisms that lead to muscle tremors and ascertain whether cardiorespiratory supportive interventions affect tremor intensity. We studied tremors and physiological responses during etorphine-azaperone immobilisation in eight boma-held and 14 free-living white rhinoceroses. Repeated measures analysis of variance and a Friedman test were used to determine differences in variables over time and between interventions...
February 24, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273061/neanderthal-behaviour-diet-and-disease-inferred-from-ancient-dna-in-dental-calculus
#6
Laura S Weyrich, Sebastian Duchene, Julien Soubrier, Luis Arriola, Bastien Llamas, James Breen, Alan G Morris, Kurt W Alt, David Caramelli, Veit Dresely, Milly Farrell, Andrew G Farrer, Michael Francken, Neville Gully, Wolfgang Haak, Karen Hardy, Katerina Harvati, Petra Held, Edward C Holmes, John Kaidonis, Carles Lalueza-Fox, Marco de la Rasilla, Antonio Rosas, Patrick Semal, Arkadiusz Soltysiak, Grant Townsend, Donatella Usai, Joachim Wahl, Daniel H Huson, Keith Dobney, Alan Cooper
Recent genomic data have revealed multiple interactions between Neanderthals and modern humans, but there is currently little genetic evidence regarding Neanderthal behaviour, diet, or disease. Here we describe the shotgun-sequencing of ancient DNA from five specimens of Neanderthal calcified dental plaque (calculus) and the characterization of regional differences in Neanderthal ecology. At Spy cave, Belgium, Neanderthal diet was heavily meat based and included woolly rhinoceros and wild sheep (mouflon), characteristic of a steppe environment...
April 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270249/errors-on-the-moca-s-animal-naming-findings-from-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#7
Yassar Alamri, Tim Anderson, John Dalrymple-Alford, Michael Macaskill
We read the findings by Cecato et al. (2016) with great interest. In their study, naming the rhinoceros discriminated between patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) but not healthy controls (HC). Of note, HC participants were significantly younger than aMCI and AD patients. All participants were administered the original version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) instrument.
March 8, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229336/relevant-principal-factors-affecting-the-reproducibility-of-insect-primary-culture
#8
Norichika Ogata, Kikuo Iwabuchi
The primary culture of insect cells often suffers from problems with poor reproducibility in the quality of the final cell preparations. The cellular composition of the explants (cell number and cell types), surgical methods (surgical duration and surgical isolation), and physiological and genetic differences between donors may be critical factors affecting the reproducibility of culture. However, little is known about where biological variation (interindividual differences between donors) ends and technical variation (variance in replication of culture conditions) begins...
February 22, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221132/mycobacterium-bovis-in-a-free-ranging-black-rhinoceros-kruger-national-park-south-africa-2016
#9
Michele A Miller, Peter E Buss, Paul D van Helden, Sven D C Parsons
In 2016, an emaciated black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) was found in Kruger National Park, South Africa. An interferon-γ response was detected against mycobacterial antigens, and lung tissue was positive for Mycobacterium bovis. This case highlights the risk that tuberculosis presents to rhinoceros in M. bovis-endemic areas.
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198090/succession-and-dynamics-of-pristionchus-nematodes-and-their-microbiome-during-decomposition-of-oryctes-borbonicus-on-la-r%C3%A3-union-island
#10
Jan M Meyer, Praveen Baskaran, Christian Quast, Vladislav Susoy, Christian Rödelsperger, Frank O Glöckner, Ralf J Sommer
Insects and nematodes represent the most species-rich animal taxa and they occur together in a variety of associations. Necromenic nematodes of the genus Pristionchus are found on scarab beetles with more than 30 species known from worldwide samplings. However, little is known about the dynamics and succession of nematodes and bacteria during the decomposition of beetle carcasses. Here, we study nematode and bacterial succession of the decomposing rhinoceros beetle Oryctes borbonicus on La Réunion Island. We show that Pristionchus pacificus exits the arrested dauer stage seven days after the beetles´ deaths...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177084/judas-beetles-discovering-cryptic-breeding-sites-by-radio-tracking-coconut-rhinoceros-beetles-oryctes-rhinoceros-coleoptera-scarabaeidae
#11
Aubrey Moore, Diego C Barahona, Katherine A Lehman, Dominick D Skabeikis, Ian R Iriarte, Eric B Jang, Matthew S Siderhurst
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176810/extinctions-genetic-erosion-and-conservation-options-for-the-black-rhinoceros-diceros-bicornis
#12
Yoshan Moodley, Isa-Rita M Russo, Desiré L Dalton, Antoinette Kotzé, Shadrack Muya, Patricia Haubensak, Boglárka Bálint, Gopi K Munimanda, Caroline Deimel, Andrea Setzer, Kara Dicks, Barbara Herzig-Straschil, Daniela C Kalthoff, Hans R Siegismund, Jan Robovský, Paul O'Donoghue, Michael W Bruford
The black rhinoceros is again on the verge of extinction due to unsustainable poaching in its native range. Despite a wide historic distribution, the black rhinoceros was traditionally thought of as depauperate in genetic variation, and with very little known about its evolutionary history. This knowledge gap has hampered conservation efforts because hunting has dramatically reduced the species' once continuous distribution, leaving five surviving gene pools of unknown genetic affinity. Here we examined the range-wide genetic structure of historic and modern populations using the largest and most geographically representative sample of black rhinoceroses ever assembled...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170027/snp-discovery-and-characterisation-in-white-rhino-ceratotherium-simum-with-application-to-parentage-assignment
#13
Christiaan Labuschagne, Desiré L Dalton, J Paul Grobler, Antoinette Kotzé
The white rhino is one of the great success stories of modern wildlife conservation, growing from as few as 50-100 animals in the 1880s, to approximately 20,000 white rhinoceros remaining today. However, illegal trade in conservational rhinoceros horns is adding constant pressure on remaining populations. Captive management of ex situ populations of endangered species using molecular methods can contribute to improving the management of the species. Here we compare for the first time the utility of 33 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and nine microsatellites (MS) in isolation and in combination for assigning parentage in captive White Rhinoceros...
February 6, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155294/pulmonary-gas-exchange-and-acid-base-status-during-immobilisation-of-black-rhinoceroses-i-diceros-bicornis-i-in-zimbabwe
#14
Åsa Fahlman, Anna Edner, Sandra Wenger, Chris Foggin, Görel Nyman
When immobilising wildlife, adverse side effects can include hypoxaemia, acidosis and hypertension. Pulmonary gas exchange and acid-base status were evaluated during immobilisation of 25 free-ranging and one boma-held black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in Zimbabwe. The effect of different body positions on arterial oxygenation was evaluated. A combination of the following drugs was used: an opioid (etorphine or thiafentanil), azaperone and an a2 -adrenoceptor agonist (detomidine or xylazine). Respiratory and heart rates, rectal temperature and pulse oximetry-derived haemoglobin oxygen saturation were recorded...
December 2, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155293/eco-epidemiological-and-pathological-features-of-wildlife-mortality-events-related-to-cyanobacterial-bio-intoxication-in-the-kruger-national-park-south-africa
#15
Roy Bengis, Danny Govender, Emily Lane, Jan Myburgh, Paul Oberholster, Peter Buss, Leon Prozesky, Dewald Keet
Over the past decade, several clustered, multispecies, wildlife mortality events occurred in the vicinity of two man-made earthen dams in the southern and south central regions of the Kruger National Park, South Africa. On field investigation, heavy cyanobacterial blooms were visible in these impoundments and analysis of water samples showed the dominance of Microcystis spp. (probably Microcystis aeruginosa). Macroscopic lesions seen at necropsy and histopathological lesions were compatible with a diagnosis of cyanobacterial intoxication...
October 31, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152184/analytic-and-quality-control-validation-and-assessment-of-field-performance-of-a-point-of-care-chemistry-analyzer-for-use-in-the-white-rhinoceros
#16
Emma H Hooijberg, Gerhard Steenkamp, Jacques P du Preez, Amelia Goddard
BACKGROUND: A chemistry point-of-care analyzer would be useful for evaluating injured wildlife, particularly White rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) that survive poaching attempts. The IDEXX VetTest could be suitable, but species-specific validation, development of a statistical quality control (QC) strategy, and evaluation under field conditions are necessary. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to (1) validate the VetTest for the White rhinoceros, (2) perform QC validation on the VetTest and generate a statistical QC strategy, and (3) apply this QC strategy to monitor performance under typical field conditions...
February 2, 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115497/a-multiplex-pcr-assay-for-differentiating-coconut-rhinoceros-beetle-coleoptera-scarabaeidae-from-oriental-flower-beetle-coleoptera-scarabaeidae-in-early-life-stages-and-excrement
#17
S Watanabe, M J Melzer
The coconut rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros (L.), is a major pest of coconut and other palm trees. An incipient coconut rhinoceros beetle population was recently discovered on the island of Oahu, Hawaii and is currently the target of a large, mutiagency eradication program. Confounding this program is the widespread presence of another scarab beetle on Oahu, the oriental flower beetle, Protaetia orientalis (Gory and Percheron 1833). Eggs, early life stages, and fecal excrement of coconut rhinoceros beetle and oriental flower beetle are morphologically indistinguishable, thereby creating uncertainty when such specimens are discovered in the field...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102907/global-lessons-from-successful-rhinoceros-conservation-in-nepal
#18
Achyut Aryal, Krishna Prasad Acharya, Uttam Babu Shrestha, Maheshwar Dhakal, David Raubenhiemer, Wendy Wright
Global populations of rhinoceros have declined alarmingly, from about 500,000 at the beginning of the 20(th) century to 29,000 in 2016, largely due to an escalation of poaching for rhinoceros horn (Traffic 2016; Biggs et al. 2013). The current global rhino population is comprised of three Asian Species and two African species, the latter located in South Africa, Kenya, Tanzania, Namibia and Zimbabwe,. In Africa, the Southern white rhinoceros population is estimated at 20,700; and there are estimated to be around 4,885 black rhinoceros...
January 19, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080922/solitary-osteochondroma-of-the-distal-third-metacarpal-bone-in-a-two-year-old-white-rhinoceros-ceratotherium-simum
#19
Yolandi Smit, Johan Steyl, Johan Marais
A privately owned, 2-yr-old, 600-kg, intact male white rhinoceros presented with a progressive lameness of the left front limb of 8-mo duration with a focal swelling situated over the dorsoproximal aspect of third metacarpophalangeal joint. Radiographs of the affected limb showed a 28 mm × 26 mm exostosis at the dorsodistal third metacarpal bone. Surgical removal of the exostosis was performed and histopathologic examination confirmed a solitary osteochondroma. A follow-up examination 1 yr after surgical removal revealed total abolishment of the left front limb lameness...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080906/oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-an-aged-captive-white-rhinoceros-ceratotherium-simum
#20
Sandra Langer, Nadine Czerwonka, Kerstin Ternes, Dr Werner Herbst, Kernt Koehler
A 48-yr-old captive white rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum ) was euthanized due to old age, pododermatitis, and progressive laminitis of the middle toe of the left fore- and hindlimbs. Severe chronic necrotizing periodontitis and dental loss was diagnosed, although food intake prior to death had not decreased. In addition, extensive ulceration of the tongue was noted. Histologically, squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue was diagnosed with chronic severe ulcerative glossitis. Metastatic lesions were not detected...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
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