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Greg T Bishop, Jeffery R Zuba, Allan P Pessier, Jane Hopper, Gloria Kendall, Rod A W Rosychuk, K Gary Magdesian
Recurrent eosinophilic granuloma (EG) in two captive eastern black rhinoceros ( Diceros bicornis michaeli) was effectively managed with glucocorticoids and antihistamines. The first case was a female and the second case was a male. The animals were housed at separate institutions and initially presented with hemorrhagic oral lesions. Multifocal lesions occurred in the second case. Multiple biopsies were taken from each animal, all of which were consistent with EG. Each animal was anesthetized multiple times for surgical treatment but experienced frequent recurrence...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Cameron Ratliff, Rebecca S Sayre, Mauricio Lepiz
A hand-reared, 53-kg, female, 30-day-old black rhinoceros ( Diceros bicornis ) calf presented for magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography after demonstrating neurologic signs. The rhino was premedicated intramuscularly with butorphanol and midazolam, yielding satisfactory sedation. Induction was achieved using intravenous propofol until the trachea could be intubated. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane in 100% oxygen (mean end-tidal concentration of 2 ± 0.5%). Mean values recorded during anesthesia included were heart rate, end-tidal carbon dioxide, respiratory rate, noninvasive blood pressure, and pulse oximetry...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Stephany Lewis, Mary Duncan, Marlys L Houck, Rebecca Bloch, Holly Haefele
A female Southern black rhinoceros ( Diceros bicornis minor) calf died unexpectedly at less than 12 hr of age, after an uncomplicated birth and uneventful early postpartum period. Gross necropsy revealed a 15-cm full thickness cleft palate, a patent foramen ovale, and four septal defects ranging from 0.3 to 1 cm in diameter. Histologic findings did not reveal any significant abnormalities. Karyotyping did not indicate any significant numerical or structural chromosomal abnormalities.
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Michele Miller, Patricia Sue Chavey, Jennifer Hofmeyr, Nomkhosi Mathebula, Alyssa Doering, Peter Buss, Francisco Olea-Popelka
Iron overload disorder (IOD) is a significant health issue for captive black rhinoceros ( Diceros bicornis ). Measurement of serum ferritin with a validated rhinoceros ferritin ELISA has been used extensively to detect animals in U.S. zoos that are at risk of developing IOD. However, there is limited information on serum ferritin levels in free-ranging black rhinoceros using this same assay. Serum ferritin, iron, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were determined in 194 black rhinoceros from southern Africa...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Peter Buss, Michele Miller, Andrea Fuller, Anna Haw, Rachel Wanty, Francisco Olea-Popelka, Leith Meyer
Chemical capture is an essential tool in the management and conservation of white rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum ); however, cardiovascular responses in immobilized megaherbivores are poorly understood. Blood pressure and heart rate responses in rhinoceros immobilized with etorphine or etorphine plus azaperone, and the effects of subsequent i.v. butorphanol administration were investigated. Six white rhinoceros were used in a randomized crossover study design with four interventions: 1) etorphine i.m.; 2) etorphine plus azaperone i...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Kantapon Suraprasit, Jean-Jacques Jaeger, Yaowalak Chaimanee, Olivier Chavasseau, Chotima Yamee, Pannipa Tian, Somsak Panha
The fluviatile terrace deposits of Khok Sung, Nakhon Ratchasima province, have yielded more than one thousand fossils, making this the richest Pleistocene vertebrate fauna of Thailand. The excellent preservation of the specimens allows precise characterization of the faunal composition. The mammalian fauna consists of fifteen species in thirteen genera, including a primate, a canid, a hyaenid, proboscideans, rhinoceroses, a suid, cervids, and bovids. Most species correspond to living taxa but globally (Stegodon cf...
2016: ZooKeys
Z D Li, F J Bao, Q M Wang, J H Huang
Objective: To establish a finite-element biomechanical model of astigmatic keratotomy, and to investigate the impact of surgical parameters on corneal deformation, stress distribution and astigmatism correction. Methods: With Rhinoceros modeling and Abaqus finite element analysis software, a three-dimensional finite-element model of astigmatic cornea was developed, and surgical parameters such as incision optical zone, incision depth and length were varied. Postoperative corneal stress, apical deformation and astigmatism correction were assessed...
September 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
S Thompson, T Avent, L S Doughty
The Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is a threatened species, central to the tourism appeal of private game reserves in South Africa. Privately owned reserves in South Africa tend to be smaller than government run reserves such as Kruger National Park. Because of their relatively small size and the often heterogeneous nature of the landscape private game reserve managers benefit from detailed knowledge of white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences, which can be assessed from their ranging behaviours...
2016: PloS One
Elise Weber, Christophe Meyer, Alain Czorny, Brice Chatelain, Mourad Benassarou
INTRODUCTION: Craniosynostoses affecting the forehead sutures can not only cause brain damage, but can also have an esthetic impact, because of the associated orbito-naso-frontal deformations. Reshaping the orbito-naso-frontal bandeau (ONFB) is difficult to appreciate perioperatively and should ideally be customized to each child. The aim of this study was to develop a template to guide the surgeon preoperatively towards an ideal customized remodelling of the ONFB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A previous study conducted on computed tomography scans obtained from healthy children allowed us to conclude that the whole ONFB shape could be accurately described just by the distance measured between the fronto-zygomatic sutures (FZD), independently of age and gender...
August 21, 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Krishna Prasad Acharya, Prakash Kumar Paudel, Prem Raj Neupane, Michael Köhl
Injury and death from wildlife attacks often result in people feeling violent resentment and hostility against the wildlife involved and, therefore, may undermine public support for conservation. Although Nepal, with rich biodiversity, is doing well in its conservation efforts, human-wildlife conflicts have been a major challenge in recent years. The lack of detailed information on the spatial and temporal patterns of human-wildlife conflicts at the national level impedes the development of effective conflict mitigation plans...
2016: PloS One
Justin R Schlanser, George W Bohart, Deborah W Paperd, Cynthia Wagner, Mark Marquardt, Tara M Harrison
Through the use of operant conditioning, the authors developed a technique to facilitate obtaining blood samples from a black rhinoceros diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy. The technique involved operant conditioning to facilitate venipuncture of the transverse facial vein, at an anatomic landmark on the lateral side of the face ventral to the medial canthus of the eye, and dorsal to the lateral commissure of the mouth. The investigators used standard operant conditioning protocols to train the animal for desensitization to a needle puncture in the facial vein...
August 29, 2016: Zoo Biology
Haofei Jin, Takahiro Yonezawa, Yang Zhong, Hirohisa Kishino, Masami Hasegawa
The giant rhinoceros beetles (Dynastini, Scarabaeidae, Coleoptera) are distributed in tropical and temperate regions in Asia, America and Africa. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies have revealed that the giant rhinoceros beetles can be divided into three clades representing Asia, America and Africa. Although a correlation between their evolution and the continental drift during the Pangean breakup was suggested, there is no accurate divergence time estimation among the three clades based on molecular data...
August 23, 2016: Genes & Genetic Systems
Eva Maria Greunz, Marie Simon, Karin Lemberger, Gabriela Galateanu, Robert Hermes, Antoine Leclerc
The current report describes the temporary regression, due to intensive symptomatic treatment, of ulcerative skin lesions caused by squamous cell carcinoma in a white rhinoceros. A captive, 40-yr-old southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) developed profound, ulcerative skin lesions on the pads of both hind feet. At the peak of the disease, at least one quarter of the pads was affected. A diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma was made via biopsy. Treatment included anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, and local care...
June 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Qian-Yin Zheng, Wen Xu, Guan-Lu Liang, Jing Wu, Jun-Ting Shi
PURPOSE: To investigate the correlation between the preoperative biometric parameters of the anterior segment and the vault after implantable Collamer lens (ICL) implantation via this retrospective study. DESIGN: Retrospective clinical study. METHODS: A total of 78 eyes from 41 patients who underwent ICL implantation surgery were included in this study. Preoperative biometric parameters, including white-to-white (WTW) diameter, central corneal thickness, keratometer, pupil diameter, anterior chamber depth, sulcus-to-sulcus diameter, anterior chamber area (ACA) and central curvature radius of the anterior surface of the lens (Lenscur), were measured...
2016: Ophthalmic Research
Monica A Stoops, Mark K Campbell, Christopher J DeChant, Joe Hauser, Jack Kottwitz, Randal D Pairan, Wendy Shaffstall, Kurt Volle, Terri L Roth
The objective of this study was to design an artificial insemination (AI) protocol using cryopreserved spermatozoa to obtain pregnancies in captive Indian rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis). Four methods developed varied by timing and approach, as follows; Method 1: females (n=2) were inseminated pre- and post-ovulation under general anesthesia, Method 2: females (n=2) were inseminated pre-ovulation without anesthetic via endoscopy, Method 3: females (n=1) were inseminated pre-ovulation without anesthetic via manual insertion of an insemination catheter, Method 4: females (n=2) were inseminated same as Method 3 with the addition of standing sedation...
September 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
Mika Salmi
Most of the 3D printing applications of preoperative models have been focused on dental and craniomaxillofacial area. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the possibilities in other application areas and give examples of the current possibilities. The approach was to communicate with the surgeons with different fields about their needs related preoperative models and try to produce preoperative models that satisfy those needs. Ten different kinds of examples of possibilities were selected to be shown in this paper and aspects related imaging, 3D model reconstruction, 3D modeling, and 3D printing were presented...
2016: Journal of Medical Engineering
Fellippo Ramos Verri, Ronaldo Silva Cruz, Cleidiel Aparecido Araújo Lemos, Victor Eduardo de Souza Batista, Daniel Augusto Faria Almeida, Ana Caroline Gonçales Verri, Eduardo Piza Pellizzer
The aim of study was to evaluate the stress distribution in implant-supported prostheses and peri-implant bone using internal hexagon (IH) implants in the premaxillary area, varying surgical techniques (conventional, bicortical and bicortical in association with nasal floor elevation), and loading directions (0°, 30° and 60°) by three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis. Three models were designed with Invesalius, Rhinoceros 3D and Solidworks software. Each model contained a bone block of the premaxillary area including an implant (IH, Ø4 × 10 mm) supporting a metal-ceramic crown...
July 13, 2016: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Robert Hermes, Franz Schwarzenberger, Frank Göritz, Serena Oh, Teresa Fernandes, Rui Bernardino, Antoine Leclerc, Eva Greunz, Abraham Mathew, Sarah Forsyth, Joseph Saragusty, Thomas Bernd Hildebrandt
Reproductive tract tumours, specifically leiomyoma, are commonly found in female rhinoceroses. Similar to humans, tumour growth in rhinoceroses is thought to be sex hormone dependent. Tumours can form and expand from the onset of ovarian activity at puberty until the cessation of sex-steroid influences at senescence. Extensive tumour growth results in infertility. The aim of this study was to down regulate reproductive function of tumour-diseased and infertile females to stop further tumour growth using a Gonadotropin releasing factor (GnRF) vaccine...
2016: PloS One
Eva M Heidegger, Friederike von Houwald, Beatrice Steck, Marcus Clauss
Preventing obesity in zoo animals is increasingly recognized as an important husbandry objective. To achieve this goal, body condition scoring (BCS) systems are available for an ever-increasing number of species. Here, we present a BCS for the greater one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) based on an evaluation (on a scale from 1 to 5) of seven different body regions, and report resulting scores for 62 animals from 27 facilities, based on digital photographs. In animals above 4 years of age, this BCS correlated with the body mass:shoulder height ratio...
June 20, 2016: Zoo Biology
Maiken Ueland, Kyle Ewart, Amanda N Troobnikoff, Greta Frankham, Rebecca N Johnson, Shari L Forbes
Illegal poaching causes great harm to species diversity and conservation. A vast amount of money is involved in the trade of illegal or forged animal parts worldwide. In many cases, the suspected animal part is unidentifiable and requires costly and invasive laboratory analysis such as isotopic fingerprinting or DNA testing. The lack of rapid and accurate methods to identify wildlife parts at the point of detection represents a major hindrance in the enforcement and prosecution of wildlife trafficking. The ability of wildlife detector dogs to alert to different wildlife species demonstrates that there is a detectable difference in scent profile of illegally traded animal parts...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
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