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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787378/larval-hemolymph-of-rhinoceros-beetle-allomyrina-dichotoma-enhances-insulin-secretion-through-atf3-gene-expression-in-ins-1-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#1
Seung-Whan Kim, Hyun-Woo Suh, Bo-Kyung Yoo, Kisang Kwon, Kweon Yu, Ji-Young Choi, O-Yu Kwon
In this study, we show that INS-1 pancreatic β-cells treated for 2 h with hemolymph of larvae of rhinoceros beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, secreted about twice as much insulin compared to control cells without such treatment. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) was the highest upregulated gene in DNA chip analysis. The A. dichotoma hemolymph dose-dependently induced increased expression levels of genes encoding ATF3 and insulin. Conversely, treatment with ATF3 siRNA inhibited expression levels of both genes and curbed insulin secretion...
May 22, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756170/further-characteristics-of-arcanobacterium-pinnipediorum-dsm-28752-t-and-arcanobacterium-wilhelmae-dsm-102162-t-two-novel-species-of-genus-arcanobacterium
#2
Osama Sammra, Jörg Rau, Jörn Wickhorst, Mazen Alssahen, Abdulwahed Ahmed Hassan, Christoph Lämmler, Ellen Prenger-Berninghoff, Amir Abdulmawjood
The newly described type strains Arcanobacterium pinnipediorum DSM 28752T and Arcanobacterium wilhelmae DSM 102162T , initially isolated from an anal swab of a harbor seal (Sammra et al. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 65:4539-4543, 2015) and the genital tract of a rhinoceros (Sammra et al. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 67:2093-2097, 2017), could be further characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and by sequencing the genomic targets 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (ISR) and the genes rpoB, gap, and tuf...
May 13, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742252/influence-of-remaining-coronal-thickness-and-height-on-biomechanical-behavior-of-endodontically-treated-teeth-survival-rates-load-to-fracture-and-finite-element-analysis
#3
Gislene Corrêa, Lucas P Brondani, Vinícius F Wandscher, Gabriel K R Pereira, Luiz F Valandro, César D Bergoli
Objective To evaluate the effect of restorative strategy (fiber post vs cast post and core), coronal height (0 mm vs 2 mm) and thickness (higher than 1 mm vs lower than 1 mm) on survival rate, fracture resistance and stress distribution. Material and Methods Seventy-two bovine teeth were cleaned and allocated in six groups (n = 12). Twenty-four teeth were sectioned at 13 mm length (no remaining coronal structure) and forty-eight were sectioned at 15 mm (2 mm remaining coronal structure). Half of the forty-eight had remaining coronal thickness lower than 1 mm and the other half had thickness higher than 1 mm...
2018: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720661/earliest-known-hominin-activity-in-the-philippines-by-709-thousand-years-ago
#4
T Ingicco, G D van den Bergh, C Jago-On, J-J Bahain, M G Chacón, N Amano, H Forestier, C King, K Manalo, S Nomade, A Pereira, M C Reyes, A-M Sémah, Q Shao, P Voinchet, C Falguères, P C H Albers, M Lising, G Lyras, D Yurnaldi, P Rochette, A Bautista, J de Vos
Over 60 years ago, stone tools and remains of megafauna were discovered on the Southeast Asian islands of Flores, Sulawesi and Luzon, and a Middle Pleistocene colonization by Homo erectus was initially proposed to have occurred on these islands1-4 . However, until the discovery of Homo floresiensis in 2003, claims of the presence of archaic hominins on Wallacean islands were hypothetical owing to the absence of in situ fossils and/or stone artefacts that were excavated from well-documented stratigraphic contexts, or because secure numerical dating methods of these sites were lacking...
May 2, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691872/a-study-of-the-pharmacokinetics-and-thromboxane-inhibitory-activity-of-a-single-intramuscular-dose-of-carprofen-as-a-means-to-establish-its-potential-use-as-an-analgesic-drug-in-white-rhinoceros
#5
M Leiberich, R Krebber, M Hewetson, J Marais, V Naidoo
The alleviation of pain and prevention of suffering are key aspects of animal welfare. Unfortunately, analgesic drugs are not available for all species. White rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), representing one of such species, which survive poaching attempts inflicted with severe facial injuries and gunshot wounds, nonetheless require analgesic support. To improve treatment conditions, this study explored the use of carprofen for the treatment of pain and inflammation in white rhinoceros. The pharmacokinetics of 1 mg/kg intramuscular carprofen was evaluated in six healthy white rhinoceros...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684146/genetic-structure-and-diversity-among-historic-and-modern-populations-of-the-sumatran-rhinoceros-dicerorhinus-sumatrensis
#6
Jessica R Brandt, Peter J Van Coeverden de Groot, Kelsey E Witt, Paige K Engelbrektsson, Kristofer M Helgen, Ripan S Malhi, Oliver A Ryder, Alfred L Roca
The Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis), once widespread across Southeast Asia, now consists of as few as 30 individuals within Sumatra and Borneo. To aid in conservation planning, we sequenced 218 bp of control region mitochondrial (mt) DNA, identifying 17 distinct mitochondrial haplotypes across modern (N = 13) and museum (N = 26) samples. Museum specimens from Laos and Myanmar had divergent mtDNA, consistent with the placement of western mainland rhinos into the distinct subspecies D. s. lasiotis (presumed extinct)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669453/dna-barcoding-of-fishes-from-river-diphlu-within-kaziranga-national-park-in-northeast-india
#7
Boni Amin Laskar, Vikas Kumar, Shantanu Kundu, Achom Darshan, Kaomud Tyagi, Kailash Chandra
DNA barcoding technique has been gaining importance in biodiversity research for its easy and rapid ability of delineating organisms' partial DNA sequences into molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs), and identification based on referral sequences from expert identified species. We generated mtCOI barcode sequences from morphologically identified fishes from River Diphlu in northeast India. A portion of this river falls within an important rhinoceros and tiger conservation site, the Kaziranga National Park...
April 18, 2018: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610583/contrasted-patterns-of-evolution-of-the-line-1-retrotransposon-in-perissodactyls-the-history-of-a-line-1-extinction
#8
Akash Sookdeo, Crystal M Hepp, Stéphane Boissinot
Background: LINE-1 (L1) is the dominant autonomously replicating non-LTR retrotransposon in mammals. Although our knowledge of L1 evolution across the tree of life has considerably improved in recent years, what we know of L1 evolution in mammals is biased and comes mostly from studies in primates (mostly human) and rodents (mostly mouse). It is unclear if patterns of evolution that are shared between those two groups apply to other mammalian orders. Here we performed a detailed study on the evolution of L1 in perissodactyls by making use of the complete genome of the domestic horse and of the white rhinoceros...
2018: Mobile DNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536472/-clinical-presentation-of-cowpox-virus-infection-in-south-american-camelids-a-review
#9
Almut Prkno, Matthias Kaiser, Daniela Goerigk, Martin Pfeffer, Thomas W Vahlenkamp, Donata Hoffmann, Martin Beer, Alexander Starke
Cowpox virus (CPXV) infection is a reportable and potentially zoonotic disease that occurs sporadically in a variety of animals. During the past six decades, CPXV infection has been extensively researched and described in both domestic (cat, dog, horse, cattle) and zoo animals (e. g. elephant, rhinoceros, okapi). Of note, a review of the literature produced only three reports of CPXV in individual or small groups of South American camelids. The goal of this review was to describe the current knowledge as it relates to clinical features of CPXV infection in South American camelids and to compare the clinical manifestations with those described in other animal species...
February 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525922/resorptive-potential-of-impacted-mandibular-third-molars-3d-simulation-by-finite-element-analysis
#10
Anne Caroline Oenning, Alexandre Rodrigues Freire, Ana Cláudia Rossi, Felippe Bevilacqua Prado, Paulo Henrique Ferreira Caria, Lourenço Correr-Sobrinho, Francisco Haiter-Neto
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have suggested a relationship between resorption in second molars and pressure from the eruptive force of the third molar. The aim of this study was to simulate functional forces in a mandible model by means of finite element analysis and then assess the biomechanical response produced by impacted third molars on the roots of the second molar. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cone beam computed tomography scan presenting an impacted mandibular third molar was segmented (Mimics V17 software)...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513670/first-insights-into-the-vocal-repertoire-of-infant-and-juvenile-southern-white-rhinoceros
#11
Sabrina N Linn, Michael Boeer, Marina Scheumann
Describing vocal repertoires represents an essential step towards gaining an overview about the complexity of acoustic communication in a given species. The analysis of infant vocalisations is essential for understanding the development and usage of species-specific vocalisations, but is often underrepresented, especially in species with long inter-birth intervals such as the white rhinoceros. Thus, this study aimed for the first time to characterise the infant and juvenile vocal repertoire of the Southern white rhinoceros and to relate these findings to the adult vocal repertoire...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491981/interbirth-intervals-are-associated-with-age-of-the-mother-but-not-with-infant-mortality-in-indian-rhinoceroses
#12
Jan Pluháček, Beatrice L Steck, Satya P Sinha, Friederike von Houwald
Rhinoceroses are among the most endangered mammals in the world. Despite a recent increase in numbers in most wild populations, poaching or political instability may exterminate large populations very quickly. Therefore, captive or ex situ rhinoceros populations can play an important role in their conservation. Previous studies identified infant mortality and interbirth intervals among the main parameters affecting the viability and survival of rhinoceros populations. In our study, we tested the recently suggested prediction that in captive Indian rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis , longer interbirth intervals may result in higher infant mortality...
June 2017: Current Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437259/early-fetal-sexing-in-the-rhinoceros-by-detection-of-male-specific-genes-in-maternal-serum
#13
Monica A Stoops, G Douglas Winget, Christopher J DeChant, Ray L Ball, Terri L Roth
Genetic sexing of animals with long gestation time benefits the management of captive populations. Here, X and Y chromosome-specific primers, based on equine gene sequencing data, were developed and tested on captive rhinoceroses (10 males, 20 females) representing four species (Diceros bicornis, Certaotherium simum simum, Rhinoceros unicornis, and Dicerorhinus sumatrensis). The Y chromosome-specific primer set targeted SRY (Sex-determining region Y), and amplified a 177-bp product following PCR of DNA extracted from males, but not females, of all species...
March 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393564/larvicidal-efficacy-of-adiantobischrysene-from-adiantum-latifolium-against-oryctes-rhinoceros-through-disrupting-metamorphosis-and-impeding-microbial-mediated-digestion
#14
Ravindrannair Pradeep Kumar, Anil John, Praveen Kumar, Kaleekkal Vasupillai Dinesh Babu, Dasammal Asirvadam Evans
BACKGROUND: Oryctes rhinoceros Linn. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is a serious pest of coconuts and other palms. Symbiotic gut bacteria play significant roles in the digestion of cellulosic materials as well as in some other physiological processes essential for the existence of O. rhinoceros larvae. The study was undertaken to isolate a compound with antibacterial and larvicidal activities from the leaves of Adiantum latifolium Lam. following a bioassay-guided method. RESULTS: Methanol extract (ME) of dry leaf powder of A...
February 2, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366850/the-fat-dachsous-signaling-pathway-regulates-growth-of-horns-in-trypoxylus-dichotomus-but-does-not-affect-horn-allometry
#15
James Hust, Mark D Lavine, Amy M Worthington, Robert Zinna, Hiroki Gotoh, T Niimi, Laura Lavine
Males of the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus, possess exaggerated head and thoracic horns that scale dramatically out of proportion to body size. While studies of insulin signaling suggest that this pathway regulates nutrition-dependent growth including exaggerated horns, what regulates disproportionate growth has yet to be identified. The Fat signaling pathway is a potential candidate for regulating disproportionate growth of sexually-selected traits, a hypothesis we advanced in a previous paper (Gotoh et al...
February 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297798/evaluation-of-blood-gas-values-in-anesthetized-southern-white-rhinoceros-ceratotherium-simum-ventilated-with-a-novel-demand-ventilator-in-a-zoological-park-setting
#16
Mark Jeon, Khursheed R Mama, Jeffrey R Zuba, Nadine Lamberski, James E Oosterhuis, Meredith M Clancy, Katie W Delk, Matthew E Kinney, Patrick J Morris, Francisco Olea-Popelka
Rhinoceros conservation efforts are essential to the survival of the species. One such effort is focused on using advanced reproductive technologies to produce viable northern white rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum cottoni) embryos for implantation into southern white rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum simum) surrogates. Anesthesia may be required to facilitate necessary procedures in these surrogate rhinoceros, but commonly reported side effects including hypercapnia and hypoxemia limit anesthetic recumbency time due to animal safety concerns...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277542/evolution-of-the-mc5r-gene-in-placental-mammals-with-evidence-for-its-inactivation-in-multiple-lineages-that-lack-sebaceous-glands
#17
Mark S Springer, John Gatesy
MC5R is one of five melanocortin receptor genes found in placental mammals. MC5R plays an important role in energy homeostasis and is also expressed in the terminal differentiation of sebaceous glands. Among placental mammals there are multiple lineages that either lack or have degenerative sebaceous glands including Cetacea (whales, dolphins, and porpoises), Hippopotamidae (hippopotamuses), Sirenia (manatees and dugongs), Proboscidea (elephants), Rhinocerotidae (rhinos), and Heterocephalus glaber (naked mole rat)...
March 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249659/genomic-analysis-of-demographic-history-and-ecological-niche-modeling-in-the-endangered-sumatran-rhinoceros-dicerorhinus-sumatrensis
#18
Herman L Mays, Chih-Ming Hung, Pei-Jen Shaner, James Denvir, Megan Justice, Shang-Fang Yang, Terri L Roth, David A Oehler, Jun Fan, Swanthana Rekulapally, Donald A Primerano
The vertebrate extinction rate over the past century is approximately 22-100 times greater than background extinction rates [1], and large mammals are particularly at risk [2, 3]. Quaternary megafaunal extinctions have been attributed to climate change [4], overexploitation [5], or a combination of the two [6]. Rhinoceroses (Family: Rhinocerotidae) have a rich fossil history replete with iconic examples of climate-induced extinctions [7], but current pressures threaten to eliminate this group entirely. The Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) is among the most imperiled mammals on earth...
January 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249327/monitoring-and-controlling-ovarian-function-in-the-rhinoceros
#19
T L Roth, M W Schook, M A Stoops
Despite their size and potentially dangerous demeanor, the rhinoceros has been a preferred subject of wildlife reproductive scientists. Several factors contribute to this taxon's popularity including the ability to utilize insightful tools like non-invasive hormone metabolite monitoring and transrectal ultrasonography, the necessity for mate introductions to coincide with the female's estrus when breeding certain species or individuals, and the desire to develop assisted reproductive technologies to facilitate the genetic management and ultimate sustainability of small, managed populations in human care...
March 15, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242121/postinduction-butorphanol-administration-alters-oxygen-consumption-to-improve-blood-gases-in-etorphine-immobilized-white-rhinoceros
#20
Peter Buss, Michele Miller, Andrea Fuller, Anna Haw, Eliza Stout, Francisco Olea-Popelka, Leith Meyer
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of postinduction butorphanol administration in etorphine-immobilized white rhinoceros on respiration and blood gases. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized crossover study. ANIMALS: A group of six sub-adult male white rhinoceros. METHODS: Etorphine, or etorphine followed by butorphanol 12 minutes after recumbency, was administered intramuscularly [2.5 mg etorphine, 25 mg butorphanol (1000-1250 kg), or 3...
January 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
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