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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867761/hyainailourine-and-teratodontine-cranial-material-from-the-late-eocene-of-egypt-and-the-application-of-parsimony-and-bayesian-methods-to-the-phylogeny-and-biogeography-of-hyaenodonta-placentalia-mammalia
#1
Matthew R Borths, Patricia A Holroyd, Erik R Seiffert
Hyaenodonta is a diverse, extinct group of carnivorous mammals that included weasel- to rhinoceros-sized species. The oldest-known hyaenodont fossils are from the middle Paleocene of North Africa and the antiquity of the group in Afro-Arabia led to the hypothesis that it originated there and dispersed to Asia, Europe, and North America. Here we describe two new hyaenodont species based on the oldest hyaenodont cranial specimens known from Afro-Arabia. The material was collected from the latest Eocene Locality 41 (L-41, ∼34 Ma) in the Fayum Depression, Egypt...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859814/black-rhinoceros-diceros-bicornis-and-domestic-horse-equus-caballus-hindgut-microflora-demonstrate-similar-fermentation-responses-to-grape-seed-extract-supplementation-in%C3%A2-vitro
#2
N F Huntley, H D Naumann, A L Kenny, M S Kerley
The domestic horse is used as a nutritional model for rhinoceros maintained under human care. The validity of this model for browsing rhinoceros has been questioned due to high prevalence of iron overload disorder (IOD) in captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Iron chelators, such as tannins, are under investigation as dietary supplements to ameliorate or prevent IOD in prone species. Polyphenolic compounds variably affect microbial fermentation, so the first objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of grape seed extract (GSE; a concentrated source of condensed tannins; CT) on black rhinoceros hindgut fermentation...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858087/three-dimensional-analysis-of-the-proximal-humeral-and-glenoid-geometry-using-microscribe-3d-digitizer
#3
Wejdan H Owaydhah, Mohammad A Alobaidy, Abdulrahman S Alraddadi, Roger W Soames
PURPOSE: To understand the geometry of the proximal humerus and glenoid fossa to facilitate the design of components used in shoulder arthroplasty. The aim is to evaluate the geometry of the proximal humerus and glenoid fossa and their relationship using a MicroScribe 3D digitizer. METHODS: Scans and measurements were obtained from 20 pairs of dry proximal humeri and scapulae [10 female and 10 male cadavers: median age 81 years (range 70-94 years)] using a MicroScribe 3D digitizer and Rhinoceros software...
November 17, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813090/reconstruction-of-body-cavity-volume-in-terrestrial-tetrapods
#4
Marcus Clauss, Irina Nurutdinova, Carlo Meloro, Hanns-Christian Gunga, Duofang Jiang, Johannes Koller, Bernd Herkner, P Martin Sander, Olaf Hellwich
Although it is generally assumed that herbivores have more voluminous body cavities due to larger digestive tracts required for the digestion of plant fiber, this concept has not been addressed quantitatively. We estimated the volume of the torso in 126 terrestrial tetrapods (synapsids including basal synapsids and mammals, and diapsids including birds, non-avian dinosaurs and reptiles) classified as either herbivore or carnivore in digital models of mounted skeletons, using the convex hull method. The difference in relative torso volume between diet types was significant in mammals, where relative torso volumes of herbivores were about twice as large as that of carnivores, supporting the general hypothesis...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804143/retinal-ganglion-cell-topography-and-spatial-resolving-power-in-the-white-rhinoceros-ceratotherium-simum
#5
João Paulo Coimbra, Paul R Manger
This study sought to determine whether the retinal organization of the white rhinoceros, a large African herbivore with lips specialized for grazing in open savannahs, relates to its foraging ecology and habitat. Using stereology and retinal wholemounts, we estimated a total of 353,000 retinal ganglion cells. Their density distribution reveals an unusual topographic organization of a temporal (2,000 cells/mm(2) ) and a nasal (1,800 cells/mm(2) ) area embedded within a well-defined horizontal visual streak (800 cells/mm(2) ), which is remarkably similar to the retinal organization in the black rhinoceros...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785798/acute-hepatic-necrosis-and-death-in-a-subadult-southern-white-rhinoceros-ceratotherium-simum-associated-with-exposure-to-sterigmatocystin-in-forage-contaminated-with-aspergillus-nidulans
#6
B R Bryant, M Campbell, C Sangster
A young male southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), which was resident in a zoo as part of a multi-rhinoceros group, died suddenly. Necropsy and histopathological findings supported a diagnosis of death from acute hepatic necrosis. The microscopic distribution of liver lesions was suggestive of hepatotoxicosis. Further investigation revealed potential exposure to a mycotoxin, sterigmatocystin, present in spoiled lucerne hay contaminated with Aspergillus nidulans. It was concluded that mycotoxicosis was the likely cause of the hepatic necrosis and death in this animal...
November 2016: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691969/medical-management-of-recurrent-eosinophilic-granuloma-in-two-black-rhinoceros-diceros-bicornis
#7
Greg T Bishop, Jeffery R Zuba, Allan P Pessier, Jane Hopper, Gloria Kendall, Rod A W Rosychuk, K Gary Magdesian
Recurrent eosinophilic granuloma (EG) in two captive eastern black rhinoceros ( Diceros bicornis michaeli) was effectively managed with glucocorticoids and antihistamines. The first case was a female and the second case was a male. The animals were housed at separate institutions and initially presented with hemorrhagic oral lesions. Multifocal lesions occurred in the second case. Multiple biopsies were taken from each animal, all of which were consistent with EG. Each animal was anesthetized multiple times for surgical treatment but experienced frequent recurrence...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691965/anesthesia-in-a-captive-juvenile-black-rhinoceros-diceros-bicornis-for-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-computed-tomography
#8
Cameron Ratliff, Rebecca S Sayre, Mauricio Lepiz
A hand-reared, 53-kg, female, 30-day-old black rhinoceros ( Diceros bicornis ) calf presented for magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography after demonstrating neurologic signs. The rhino was premedicated intramuscularly with butorphanol and midazolam, yielding satisfactory sedation. Induction was achieved using intravenous propofol until the trachea could be intubated. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane in 100% oxygen (mean end-tidal concentration of 2 ± 0.5%). Mean values recorded during anesthesia included were heart rate, end-tidal carbon dioxide, respiratory rate, noninvasive blood pressure, and pulse oximetry...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691961/congenital-cleft-palate-and-cardiac-septal-defects-in-a-neonatal-southern-black-rhinoceros-diceros-bicornis-minor
#9
Stephany Lewis, Mary Duncan, Marlys L Houck, Rebecca Bloch, Holly Haefele
A female Southern black rhinoceros ( Diceros bicornis minor) calf died unexpectedly at less than 12 hr of age, after an uncomplicated birth and uneventful early postpartum period. Gross necropsy revealed a 15-cm full thickness cleft palate, a patent foramen ovale, and four septal defects ranging from 0.3 to 1 cm in diameter. Histologic findings did not reveal any significant abnormalities. Karyotyping did not indicate any significant numerical or structural chromosomal abnormalities.
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691960/evaluation-of-serum-ferritin-and-serum-iron-in-free-ranging-black-rhinoceros-diceros-bicornis-as-a-tool-to-understand-factors-affecting-iron-overload-disorder
#10
Michele Miller, Patricia Sue Chavey, Jennifer Hofmeyr, Nomkhosi Mathebula, Alyssa Doering, Peter Buss, Francisco Olea-Popelka
Iron overload disorder (IOD) is a significant health issue for captive black rhinoceros ( Diceros bicornis ). Measurement of serum ferritin with a validated rhinoceros ferritin ELISA has been used extensively to detect animals in U.S. zoos that are at risk of developing IOD. However, there is limited information on serum ferritin levels in free-ranging black rhinoceros using this same assay. Serum ferritin, iron, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were determined in 194 black rhinoceros from southern Africa...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691950/cardiovascular-effects-of-etorphine-azaperone-and-butorphanol-combinations-in-chemically-immobilized-captive-white-rhinoceros-ceratotherium-simum
#11
Peter Buss, Michele Miller, Andrea Fuller, Anna Haw, Rachel Wanty, Francisco Olea-Popelka, Leith Meyer
Chemical capture is an essential tool in the management and conservation of white rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum ); however, cardiovascular responses in immobilized megaherbivores are poorly understood. Blood pressure and heart rate responses in rhinoceros immobilized with etorphine or etorphine plus azaperone, and the effects of subsequent i.v. butorphanol administration were investigated. Six white rhinoceros were used in a randomized crossover study design with four interventions: 1) etorphine i.m.; 2) etorphine plus azaperone i...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667928/the-middle-pleistocene-vertebrate-fauna-from-khok-sung-nakhon-ratchasima-thailand-biochronological-and-paleobiogeographical-implications
#12
Kantapon Suraprasit, Jean-Jacques Jaeger, Yaowalak Chaimanee, Olivier Chavasseau, Chotima Yamee, Pannipa Tian, Somsak Panha
The fluviatile terrace deposits of Khok Sung, Nakhon Ratchasima province, have yielded more than one thousand fossils, making this the richest Pleistocene vertebrate fauna of Thailand. The excellent preservation of the specimens allows precise characterization of the faunal composition. The mammalian fauna consists of fifteen species in thirteen genera, including a primate, a canid, a hyaenid, proboscideans, rhinoceroses, a suid, cervids, and bovids. Most species correspond to living taxa but globally (Stegodon cf...
2016: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647248/-finite-element-analysis-of-astigmatic-keratotomy-based-on-corneal-biomechanical-properties
#13
Z D Li, F J Bao, Q M Wang, J H Huang
Objective: To establish a finite-element biomechanical model of astigmatic keratotomy, and to investigate the impact of surgical parameters on corneal deformation, stress distribution and astigmatism correction. Methods: With Rhinoceros modeling and Abaqus finite element analysis software, a three-dimensional finite-element model of astigmatic cornea was developed, and surgical parameters such as incision optical zone, incision depth and length were varied. Postoperative corneal stress, apical deformation and astigmatism correction were assessed...
September 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622566/range-analysis-and-terrain-preference-of-adult-southern-white-rhinoceros-ceratotherium-simum-in-a-south-african-private-game-reserve-insights-into-carrying-capacity-and-future-management
#14
S Thompson, T Avent, L S Doughty
The Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is a threatened species, central to the tourism appeal of private game reserves in South Africa. Privately owned reserves in South Africa tend to be smaller than government run reserves such as Kruger National Park. Because of their relatively small size and the often heterogeneous nature of the landscape private game reserve managers benefit from detailed knowledge of white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences, which can be assessed from their ranging behaviours...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618720/surgical-guide-for-the-remodelling-of-the-orbito-naso-frontal-bandeau-in-craniosynostosis-surgery
#15
Elise Weber, Christophe Meyer, Alain Czorny, Brice Chatelain, Mourad Benassarou
INTRODUCTION: Craniosynostoses affecting the forehead sutures can not only cause brain damage, but can also have an esthetic impact, because of the associated orbito-naso-frontal deformations. Reshaping the orbito-naso-frontal bandeau (ONFB) is difficult to appreciate perioperatively and should ideally be customized to each child. The aim of this study was to develop a template to guide the surgeon preoperatively towards an ideal customized remodelling of the ONFB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A previous study conducted on computed tomography scans obtained from healthy children allowed us to conclude that the whole ONFB shape could be accurately described just by the distance measured between the fronto-zygomatic sutures (FZD), independently of age and gender...
August 21, 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612174/human-wildlife-conflicts-in-nepal-patterns-of-human-fatalities-and-injuries-caused-by-large-mammals
#16
Krishna Prasad Acharya, Prakash Kumar Paudel, Prem Raj Neupane, Michael Köhl
Injury and death from wildlife attacks often result in people feeling violent resentment and hostility against the wildlife involved and, therefore, may undermine public support for conservation. Although Nepal, with rich biodiversity, is doing well in its conservation efforts, human-wildlife conflicts have been a major challenge in recent years. The lack of detailed information on the spatial and temporal patterns of human-wildlife conflicts at the national level impedes the development of effective conflict mitigation plans...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569067/technique-for-venipuncture-of-the-transverse-facial-vein-in-the-black-rhinoceros-diceros-bicornis
#17
Justin R Schlanser, George W Bohart, Deborah W Paperd, Cynthia Wagner, Mark Marquardt, Tara M Harrison
Through the use of operant conditioning, the authors developed a technique to facilitate obtaining blood samples from a black rhinoceros diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy. The technique involved operant conditioning to facilitate venipuncture of the transverse facial vein, at an anatomic landmark on the lateral side of the face ventral to the medial canthus of the eye, and dorsal to the lateral commissure of the mouth. The investigators used standard operant conditioning protocols to train the animal for desensitization to a needle puncture in the facial vein...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557976/cretaceous-origin-of-giant-rhinoceros-beetles-dynastini-coleoptera-and-correlation-of-their-evolution-with-the-pangean-breakup
#18
Haofei Jin, Takahiro Yonezawa, Yang Zhong, Hirohisa Kishino, Masami Hasegawa
The giant rhinoceros beetles (Dynastini, Scarabaeidae, Coleoptera) are distributed in tropical and temperate regions in Asia, America and Africa. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies have revealed that the giant rhinoceros beetles can be divided into three clades representing Asia, America and Africa. Although a correlation between their evolution and the continental drift during the Pangean breakup was suggested, there is no accurate divergence time estimation among the three clades based on molecular data...
August 23, 2016: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468043/clinical-management-of-bilateral-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-hind-feet-pads-in-a-southern-white-rhinoceros-ceratotherium-simum-simum
#19
Eva Maria Greunz, Marie Simon, Karin Lemberger, Gabriela Galateanu, Robert Hermes, Antoine Leclerc
The current report describes the temporary regression, due to intensive symptomatic treatment, of ulcerative skin lesions caused by squamous cell carcinoma in a white rhinoceros. A captive, 40-yr-old southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) developed profound, ulcerative skin lesions on the pads of both hind feet. At the peak of the disease, at least one quarter of the pads was affected. A diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma was made via biopsy. Treatment included anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, and local care...
June 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463337/preoperative-biometric-parameters-predict-the-vault-after-icl-implantation-a-retrospective-clinical-study
#20
Qian-Yin Zheng, Wen Xu, Guan-Lu Liang, Jing Wu, Jun-Ting Shi
PURPOSE: To investigate the correlation between the preoperative biometric parameters of the anterior segment and the vault after implantable Collamer lens (ICL) implantation via this retrospective study. DESIGN: Retrospective clinical study. METHODS: A total of 78 eyes from 41 patients who underwent ICL implantation surgery were included in this study. Preoperative biometric parameters, including white-to-white (WTW) diameter, central corneal thickness, keratometer, pupil diameter, anterior chamber depth, sulcus-to-sulcus diameter, anterior chamber area (ACA) and central curvature radius of the anterior surface of the lens (Lenscur), were measured...
2016: Ophthalmic Research
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