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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297798/evaluation-of-blood-gas-values-in-anesthetized-southern-white-rhinoceros-ceratotherium-simum-ventilated-with-a-novel-demand-ventilator-in-a-zoological-park-setting
#1
Mark Jeon, Khursheed R Mama, Jeffrey R Zuba, Nadine Lamberski, James E Oosterhuis, Meredith M Clancy, Katie W Delk, Matthew E Kinney, Patrick J Morris, Francisco Olea-Popelka
Rhinoceros conservation efforts are essential to the survival of the species. One such effort is focused on using advanced reproductive technologies to produce viable northern white rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum cottoni) embryos for implantation into southern white rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum simum) surrogates. Anesthesia may be required to facilitate necessary procedures in these surrogate rhinoceros, but commonly reported side effects including hypercapnia and hypoxemia limit anesthetic recumbency time due to animal safety concerns...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277542/evolution-of-the-mc5r-gene-in-placental-mammals-with-evidence-for-its-inactivation-in-multiple-lineages-that-lack-sebaceous-glands
#2
Mark S Springer, John Gatesy
MC5R is one of five melanocortin receptor genes found in placental mammals. MC5R plays an important role in energy homeostasis and is also expressed in the terminal differentiation of sebaceous glands. Among placental mammals there are multiple lineages that either lack or have degenerative sebaceous glands including Cetacea (whales, dolphins, and porpoises), Hippopotamidae (hippopotamuses), Sirenia (manatees and dugongs), Proboscidea (elephants), Rhinocerotidae (rhinos), and Heterocephalus glaber (naked mole rat)...
December 19, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249659/genomic-analysis-of-demographic-history-and-ecological-niche-modeling-in-the-endangered-sumatran-rhinoceros-dicerorhinus-sumatrensis
#3
Herman L Mays, Chih-Ming Hung, Pei-Jen Shaner, James Denvir, Megan Justice, Shang-Fang Yang, Terri L Roth, David A Oehler, Jun Fan, Swanthana Rekulapally, Donald A Primerano
The vertebrate extinction rate over the past century is approximately 22-100 times greater than background extinction rates [1], and large mammals are particularly at risk [2, 3]. Quaternary megafaunal extinctions have been attributed to climate change [4], overexploitation [5], or a combination of the two [6]. Rhinoceroses (Family: Rhinocerotidae) have a rich fossil history replete with iconic examples of climate-induced extinctions [7], but current pressures threaten to eliminate this group entirely. The Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) is among the most imperiled mammals on earth...
December 13, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249327/monitoring-and-controlling-ovarian-function-in-the-rhinoceros
#4
T L Roth, M W Schook, M A Stoops
Despite their size and potentially dangerous demeanor, the rhinoceros has been a preferred subject of wildlife reproductive scientists. Several factors contribute to this taxon's popularity including the ability to utilize insightful tools like non-invasive hormone metabolite monitoring and transrectal ultrasonography, the necessity for mate introductions to coincide with the female's estrus when breeding certain species or individuals, and the desire to develop assisted reproductive technologies to facilitate the genetic management and ultimate sustainability of small, managed populations in human care...
December 8, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242121/postinduction-butorphanol-administration-alters-oxygen-consumption-to-improve-blood-gases-in-etorphine-immobilized-white-rhinoceros
#5
Peter Buss, Michele Miller, Andrea Fuller, Anna Haw, Eliza Stout, Francisco Olea-Popelka, Leith Meyer
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of postinduction butorphanol administration in etorphine-immobilized white rhinoceros on respiration and blood gases. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized crossover study. ANIMALS: A group of six sub-adult male white rhinoceros. METHODS: Etorphine, or etorphine followed by butorphanol 12 minutes after recumbency, was administered intramuscularly [2.5 mg etorphine, 25 mg butorphanol (1000-1250 kg), or 3...
April 17, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236900/influence-of-implantoplasty-on-stress-distribution-of-exposed-implants-at-different-bone-insertion-levels
#6
João Paulo Mendes Tribst, Amanda Maria de Oliveira Dal Piva, Jamil Awad Shibli, Alexandre Luiz Souto Borges, Rubens Nisie Tango
This study evaluated the effect of implantoplasty on different bone insertion levels of exposed implants. A model of the Bone Level Tapered implant (Straumann Institute, Waldenburg, Switzerland) was created through the Rhinoceros software (version 5.0 SR8, McNeel North America, Seattle, WA, USA). The abutment was fixed to the implant through a retention screw and a monolithic crown was modeled over a cementation line. Six models were created with increasing portions of the implant threads exposed: C1 (1 mm), C2 (2 mm), C3 (3 mm), C4 (4 mm), C5 (5 mm) and C6 (6 mm)...
December 7, 2017: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227129/assessment-of-a-portable-lactate-meter-for-field-use-in-the-white-rhinoceros-i-ceratotherium-simum-i
#7
Georgina C Cole, Adrian S W Tordiffe, Gerhard Steenkamp
Blood lactate is a predictor of mortality in critically ill humans and animals. Handheld lactate meters have the potential to be used in the field to evaluate the condition of severely injured rhinoceroses but have not been compared with laboratory-based methods. Agreement between a handheld lactate meter and a laboratory method was assessed, as was the stability of rhino blood lactate in the anticoagulant sodium fluoride/potassium oxalate (fluoride/oxalate). Blood samples were obtained from 53 white rhinos that had been immobilised for management reasons...
November 10, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197034/nutritional-demands-and-metabolic-characteristics-of-the-dsir-ha-1179-insect-cell-line-during-growth-and-infection-with-the-oryctes-nudivirus
#8
Charlotte Pushparajan, Juan Daniel Claus, Sean D G Marshall, Gabriel Visnovsky
The DSIR-HA-1179 coleopteran cell line has been identified as a susceptible and permissive host for the in vitro replication of the Oryctes nudivirus, which can be used as a biopesticide against the coconut rhinoceros beetle, pest of palms. The major challenge to in vitro large-scale Oryctes nudivirus production is ensuring process economy. This rests, among other requisites, on the use of low-cost culture media tailored to the nutritional and metabolic needs of the cell line, both in uninfected and infected cultures...
December 1, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169622/cardiac-truncus-arteriosus-in-an-eastern-black-rhinoceros-diceros-bicornis-michaeli
#9
J M Monné Rodríguez, J Chantrey, S Unwin, R Verin
This case report describes congenital truncus arteriosus in a 1-month-old Eastern black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis michaeli). From the first day of life the animal was underweight and from the 22nd day of life displayed respiratory signs that exacerbated with time leading eventually to collapse and death. Post-mortem examination revealed a single truncus arteriosus originating from the right ventricle leading to two separated pulmonary arteries and the aorta, with the ventricular septum showing a focal communicating defect...
November 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160348/distribution-of-stress-on-tmj-disc-induced-by-use-of-chincup-therapy-assessment-by-the-finite-element-method
#10
Flávio Siqueira Calçada, Antônio Sérgio Guimarães, Marcelo Lucchesi Teixeira, Flávio Atsushi Takamatsu
OBJECTIVE: To assess the distribution of stress produced on TMJ disc by chincup therapy, by means of the finite element method. METHODS: a simplified three-dimensional TMJ disc model was developed by using Rhinoceros 3D software, and exported to ANSYS software. A 4.9N load was applied on the inferior surface of the model at inclinations of 30, 40, and 50 degrees to the mandibular plane (GoMe). ANSYS was used to analyze stress distribution on the TMJ disc for the different angulations, by means of finite element method...
September 2017: Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155284/the-dynamic-evolution-of-drosophila-innubila-nudivirus
#11
Tom Hill, Robert L Unckless
Viruses coevolve with their hosts to overcome host resistance and gain the upper hand in the evolutionary arms race. Drosophila innubila nudivirus (DiNV) is a double stranded DNA virus, closely related to Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus (OrNV) and Kallithea virus. DiNV is the first DNA virus found to naturally infect Drosophila and therefore has the potential to be developed as a model for DNA virus immune defense and host/virus coevolution within its well-studied host system. Here we sequence and annotate the genome of DiNV and identify signatures of adaptation, revealing clues for genes involved in host-parasite coevolution...
November 16, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124354/parathyroid-thyroid-and-recurrent-laryngeal-nerve-anatomy-in-an-indian-rhinoceros-rhinoceros-unicornis
#12
R Udelsman, S B Citino, M Prasad, P I Donovan, D V Fredholm
INTRODUCTION: The parathyroid gland was first identified in the Indian rhinoceros in 1849 by Sir Richard Owen. We performed a necropsy in an Indian rhinoceros, recapitulating Owen's dissection and display what appear to be the initial identification of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in situ and the anatomy and histology of the largest rhinoceros parathyroid glands yet identified. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patrick T. Rhino, a 41-year-old Indian rhinoceros was born in 1974...
November 9, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066748/complex-furrows-in-a-2d-epithelial-sheet-code-the-3d-structure-of-a-beetle-horn
#13
Keisuke Matsuda, Hiroki Gotoh, Yuki Tajika, Takamichi Sushida, Hitoshi Aonuma, Teruyuki Niimi, Masakazu Akiyama, Yasuhiro Inoue, Shigeru Kondo
The external organs of holometabolous insects are generated through two consecutive processes: the development of imaginal primordia and their subsequent transformation into the adult structures. During the latter process, many different phenomena at the cellular level (e.g. cell shape changes, cell migration, folding and unfolding of epithelial sheets) contribute to the drastic changes observed in size and shape. Because of this complexity, the logic behind the formation of the 3D structure of adult external organs remains largely unknown...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055136/the-rhinoceros-among-serpents-comparative-anatomy-and-experimental-biophysics-of-calabar-burrowing-python-calabaria-reinhardtii-skin
#14
Dawei Han, Bruce A Young
The Calabar burrowing python (Calabaria reinhardtii) has a unique combination of marked thickness of the integumentary layers, a highly organized lamellate arrangement of the dermal collagen bundles, and a reduction in the size of the interscale hinge region of the integument. Biomechanical testing demonstrates that the skin of C. reinhardtii is more resistant to penetration than the skin of other snakes. The laminar arrangement of the collagen bundles provides for penetrative resistance, even while maintaining the flexibility characteristic of snake skin...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043866/three-dimensional-finite-element-analysis-of-glass-fiber-and-cast-metal-posts-with-different-alloys-for-reconstruction-of-teeth-without-ferrule
#15
Fellippo Ramos Verri, Marlice Hayumi Theles Okumura, Cleidiel Aparecido Araujo Lemos, Daniel Augusto de Faria Almeida, Victor Eduardo de Souza Batista, Ronaldo Silva Cruz, Hiskell Francine Fernandes Oliveira, Eduardo Piza Pellizzer
The aim of this study was to evaluate different materials for restoration of teeth without ferrule by three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA). Five models simulating the maxillary central incisor and surrounding bone were simulated according to the type of post: glass fibre post (GFP) or cast metal post (CMP) with different alloys such as gold (Au), silver-palladium (AgPd), copper-aluminum (CuAl) and nickel-chromium (NiCr). Models were designed using Invesalius and Rhinoceros. FEAs were made using FEMAP and NeiNastran, with an applied axial force of 100 N and oblique occlusal load at 45°...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035720/an-internationally-standardized-species-identification-test-for-use-on-suspected-seized-rhinoceros-horn-in-the-illegal-wildlife-trade
#16
Kyle M Ewart, Greta J Frankham, Ross McEwing, Lucy M I Webster, Sherryn A Ciavaglia, Adrian M T Linacre, Dang Tat The, Kanitia Ovouthan, Rebecca N Johnson
Rhinoceros (rhino) numbers have dwindled substantially over the past century. As a result, three of the five species are now considered to be critically endangered, one species is vulnerable and one species is near-threatened. Poaching has increased dramatically over the past decade due to a growing demand for rhino horn products, primarily in Asia. Improved wildlife forensic techniques, such as validated tests for species identification of seized horns, are critical to aid current enforcement and prosecution efforts and provide a deterrent to future rhino horn trafficking...
October 7, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033190/3d-modelling-of-radical-prostatectomy-specimens-developing-a-method-to-quantify-tumor-morphometry-for-prostate-cancer-risk-prediction
#17
Marcus C Hovens, Kevin Lo, Michael Kerger, John Pedersen, Timothy Nottle, Natalie Kurganovs, Andrew Ryan, Justin S Peters, Daniel Moon, Anthony J Costello, Niall M Corcoran, Matthew K H Hong
Prostate cancer displays a wide spectrum of clinical behaviour from biological indolence to rapidly lethal disease, but we remain unable to accurately predict an individual tumor's future clinical course at an early curable stage. Beyond basic dimensions and volume calculations, tumor morphometry is an area that has received little attention, as it requires the analysis of the prostate gland and tumor foci in three-dimensions. Previous efforts to generate three-dimensional prostate models have required specialised graphics units and focused on the spatial distribution of tumors for optimisation of biopsy strategies rather than to generate novel morphometric variables such as tumor surface area...
September 27, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023063/effectiveness-of-metarhizium-anisopliae-and-entomopathogenic-nematodes-to-control-oryctes-rhinoceros-larvae-in-the-rainy-season
#18
Dyah Rini Indriyanti, Priyantini Widiyaningrum, Haryuni, Muji Slamet, Yoris Adi Maretta
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Metarhizium anisopliae (MET) and entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are microorganisms that attack the larvae of Oryctes rhinoceros. The effects of MET, EPN and the combination of both on the O. rhinoceros larvae were studied during the rainy season in Jepara Indonesia. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae and entomopathogenic nematodes to control Oryctes rhinoceros larvae in the rainy season. MATERIALS AND METHODS: There were four level doses of MET, four level doses of EPN and four mixture of MET and EPN...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985326/the-effects-of-captivity-on-the-mammalian-gut-microbiome
#19
Valerie J McKenzie, Se Jin Song, Frédéric Delsuc, Tiffany L Prest, Angela M Oliverio, Timothy M Korpita, Alexandra Alexiev, Katherine R Amato, Jessica L Metcalf, Martin Kowalewski, Nico L Avenant, Andres Link, Anthony Di Fiore, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Claudia Feh, Ludovic Orlando, Joseph R Mendelson, Jon Sanders, Rob Knight
Recent studies increasingly note the effect of captivity or the built environment on the microbiome of humans and other animals. As symbiotic microbes are essential to many aspects of biology (e.g., digestive and immune functions), it is important to understand how lifestyle differences can impact the microbiome, and, consequently, the health of hosts. Animals living in captivity experience a range of changes that may influence the gut bacteria, such as diet changes, treatments, and reduced contact with other individuals, species and variable environmental substrates that act as sources of bacterial diversity...
August 7, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948643/a-potential-link-between-lateral-semicircular-canal-orientation-head-posture-and-dietary-habits-in-extant-rhinos-perissodactyla-rhinocerotidae
#20
Rico Schellhorn
Extant rhinoceroses share the characteristic nasal horn, although the number and size of horns varies among the five species. Although all species are herbivores, their dietary preferences, occipital shapes, and common head postures vary. Traditionally, to predict the "usual" head posture (the most used head posture of animals during normal unstressed activities, i.e., standing) of rhinos, the occipital shape was used. While a backward inclined occiput implies a downward hanging head (often found in grazers), a forward inclined occiput is related to the horizontal head posture in browsing rhinos...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Morphology
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