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Jérémy Tissier, Damien Becker, Vlad Codrea, Loïc Costeur, Cristina Fărcaş, Alexandru Solomon, Marton Venczel, Olivier Maridet
Amynodontidae is a family of Rhinocerotoidea (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) known from the late Early Eocene to the latest Oligocene, in North America and Eurasia. European Amynodontidae are very rare, and all remains belong almost exclusively to a single post-Grande Coupure genus from the Oligocene, Cadurcotherium. The "Grande Coupure" defines an extinctions and dispersal-generated originations event in Europe that is nearly contemporaneous with the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Perissodactyls are one of the major groups affected by this event: Palaeotheriidae went almost extinct during this crisis, whereas Rhinocerotidae appeared for the first time in Europe...
2018: PloS One
Michael Gross
The family Rhinocerotidae with many species spread around the world was a distinct feature of the global Pleistocene fauna, but most of these species are now extinct. Three of the five surviving species are critically endangered, due to habitat loss and a surge in criminal hunting for horns. To save these iconic species, conservation science will have to apply all methods at its disposal, from population management through to advanced genomics and forensics. Michael Gross reports.
January 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Mark S Springer, John Gatesy
MC5R is one of five melanocortin receptor genes found in placental mammals. MC5R plays an important role in energy homeostasis and is also expressed in the terminal differentiation of sebaceous glands. Among placental mammals there are multiple lineages that either lack or have degenerative sebaceous glands including Cetacea (whales, dolphins, and porpoises), Hippopotamidae (hippopotamuses), Sirenia (manatees and dugongs), Proboscidea (elephants), Rhinocerotidae (rhinos), and Heterocephalus glaber (naked mole rat)...
March 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Herman L Mays, Chih-Ming Hung, Pei-Jen Shaner, James Denvir, Megan Justice, Shang-Fang Yang, Terri L Roth, David A Oehler, Jun Fan, Swanthana Rekulapally, Donald A Primerano
The vertebrate extinction rate over the past century is approximately 22-100 times greater than background extinction rates [1], and large mammals are particularly at risk [2, 3]. Quaternary megafaunal extinctions have been attributed to climate change [4], overexploitation [5], or a combination of the two [6]. Rhinoceroses (Family: Rhinocerotidae) have a rich fossil history replete with iconic examples of climate-induced extinctions [7], but current pressures threaten to eliminate this group entirely. The Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) is among the most imperiled mammals on earth...
January 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Denis Geraads
The Kanapoi collection of Rhinocerotidae, first studied by Hooijer and Patterson (1972), now consists of 25 specimens and substantial reinterpretation of their affinities is made here. Kanapoi post-dates the extinction of Brachypotherium and the whole collection belongs to the Dicerotini. It is important because it includes the type-specimen of Diceros praecox, a species that remains poorly known, but looks slightly larger and more primitive than the modern 'black' rhino, Diceros bicornis. A second species is probably ancestral to the modern 'white' rhino, Ceratotherium simum; it looks identical to the Pleistocene North African Ceratotherium mauritanicum, of which Ceratotherium efficax is probably a synonym...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
Rico Schellhorn
Extant rhinoceroses share the characteristic nasal horn, although the number and size of horns varies among the five species. Although all species are herbivores, their dietary preferences, occipital shapes, and common head postures vary. Traditionally, to predict the "usual" head posture (the most used head posture of animals during normal unstressed activities, i.e., standing) of rhinos, the occipital shape was used. While a backward inclined occiput implies a downward hanging head (often found in grazers), a forward inclined occiput is related to the horizontal head posture in browsing rhinos...
January 2018: Journal of Morphology
Xinru Wan, Zhibin Zhang
Climate change and humans are proposed as the two key drivers of total extinction of many large mammals in the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene, but disentangling their relative roles remains challenging owing to a lack of quantitative evaluation of human impact and climate-driven distribution changes on the extinctions of these large mammals in a continuous temporal-spatial dimension. Here, our analyses showed that temperature change had significant effects on mammoth (genus Mammuthus ), rhinoceros (Rhinocerotidae), horse (Equidae) and deer (Cervidae)...
March 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Frido Welker, Geoff M Smith, Jarod M Hutson, Lutz Kindler, Alejandro Garcia-Moreno, Aritza Villaluenga, Elaine Turner, Sabine Gaudzinski-Windheuser
BACKGROUND: Ancient protein sequences are increasingly used to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships between extinct and extant mammalian taxa. Here, we apply these recent developments to Middle Pleistocene bone specimens of the rhinoceros genus Stephanorhinus. No biomolecular sequence data is currently available for this genus, leaving phylogenetic hypotheses on its evolutionary relationships to extant and extinct rhinoceroses untested. Furthermore, recent phylogenies based on Rhinocerotidae (partial or complete) mitochondrial DNA sequences differ in the placement of the Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis)...
2017: PeerJ
Maiken Ueland, Kyle Ewart, Amanda N Troobnikoff, Greta Frankham, Rebecca N Johnson, Shari L Forbes
Illegal poaching causes great harm to species diversity and conservation. A vast amount of money is involved in the trade of illegal or forged animal parts worldwide. In many cases, the suspected animal part is unidentifiable and requires costly and invasive laboratory analysis such as isotopic fingerprinting or DNA testing. The lack of rapid and accurate methods to identify wildlife parts at the point of detection represents a major hindrance in the enforcement and prosecution of wildlife trafficking. The ability of wildlife detector dogs to alert to different wildlife species demonstrates that there is a detectable difference in scent profile of illegally traded animal parts...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
Vinny Naidoo, Kerri Wolter
Vulture (Accipitridae) poisonings are a concern in South Africa, with hundreds of birds dying annually. Although some of these poisonings are accidental, there has been an increase in the number of intentional baiting of poached rhinoceros (Rhinocerotidae) and elephant (Elephantidae) carcasses to kill vultures that alert officials to poaching sites by circling overhead. The primary chemicals implicated are the organophosphorous and carbamate compounds. Although most poisoning events can be identified by dead vultures surrounding the scavenged carcass, weak birds are occasionally found and brought to rehabilitation centers for treatment...
April 28, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Kelsey T Stilson, Samantha S B Hopkins, Edward Byrd Davis
Individual elements of many extinct and extant North American rhinocerotids display osteopathologies, particularly exostoses, abnormal textures, and joint margin porosity, that are commonly associated with localized bone trauma. When we evaluated six extinct rhinocerotid species spanning 50 million years (Ma), we found the incidence of osteopathology increases from 28% of all elements of Eocene Hyrachyus eximius to 65-80% of all elements in more derived species. The only extant species in this study, Diceros bicornis, displayed less osteopathologies (50%) than the more derived extinct taxa...
2016: PloS One
Azza Abdelgawad, Robert Hermes, Armando Damiani, Benjamin Lamglait, Gábor Á Czirják, Marion East, Ortwin Aschenborn, Christian Wenker, Samy Kasem, Nikolaus Osterrieder, Alex D Greenwood
Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) causes respiratory disorders and abortion in equids while EHV-1 regularly causes equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM), a stroke-like syndrome following endothelial cell infection in horses. Both EHV-1 and EHV-9 infections of non-definitive hosts often result in neuronal infection and high case fatality rates. Hence, EHV-1 and EHV-9 are somewhat unusual herpesviruses and lack strict host specificity, and the true extent of their host ranges have remained unclear. In order to determine the seroprevalence of EHV-1 and EHV-9, a sensitive and specific peptide-based ELISA was developed and applied to 428 sera from captive and wild animals representing 30 species in 12 families and five orders...
2015: PloS One
Margot Kuitems, Johannes van der Plicht, Dorothée G Drucker, Thijs Van Kolfschoten, Sanne W L Palstra, Hervé Bocherens
Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in bone collagen can provide valuable information about the diet and habitat of mammal species. However, bone collagen degrades in normal circumstances very rapidly, and isotope analyses are therefore usually restricted to fossil material with a Late Pleistocene or Holocene age. The Middle Pleistocene site of Schöningen, dated to around 300,000 years ago, yielded bones and teeth with an exceptionally good state of collagen preservation. This allowed us to measure reliable biogenic carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios for different herbivorous taxa from the families Elephantidae, Rhinocerotidae, Equidae, Cervidae, and Bovidae...
December 2015: Journal of Human Evolution
Hai-Xia Tang, An-Yuan Li, Ji-Jun Li, Guang-Shun Hou, Feng Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of Ningdong Granule (NG) on serum levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) of children patients with Tourette's syndrome (TS). METHODS: Totally 90 TS children patients were randomly assigned to the NG group, the NG + Tiapride group (abbreviated as the combined treatment group), and the Tiapride group, 30 in each group. Besides,another 30 healthy children were recruited as the healthy control group...
April 2014: Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine
Daniele Silvestro, Jan Schnitzler, Lee Hsiang Liow, Alexandre Antonelli, Nicolas Salamin
The temporal dynamics of species diversity are shaped by variations in the rates of speciation and extinction, and there is a long history of inferring these rates using first and last appearances of taxa in the fossil record. Understanding diversity dynamics critically depends on unbiased estimates of the unobserved times of speciation and extinction for all lineages, but the inference of these parameters is challenging due to the complex nature of the available data. Here, we present a new probabilistic framework to jointly estimate species-specific times of speciation and extinction and the rates of the underlying birth-death process based on the fossil record...
May 2014: Systematic Biology
Takuya Suzuki, Tomoo Kudo, Shigehisa Kawakami, Yumi Une
In Rhinocerotidae, there are very few reports of tumors and no reports of a mixed tumor. This paper reports the case of a male 33-year-old southern white rhinoceros. Grossly, there were two masses in the coelomic cavity and solid nodules in the liver. Histologically, all tumors had a biphasic pattern that consisted of malignant epithelial cells (cytokeratin- and E-cadherin-positive) and non-epithelial cells (vimentin-positive) with cartilage. In this case, the prostate could not be identified, and instead, the largest tumor mass was present at that site...
December 30, 2013: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Benn Bryant, David Blyde, Graeme Eamens, Richard Whittington
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (Map) was cultured from the feces of a wild-caught, female, adult Southern black rhinoceros. The animal, which presented with a 4-mo history of diarrhea and weight loss, was prescribed a course of antimycobacterial drugs. The clinical signs resolved, and the feces were repeatedly culture negative thereafter. Although the Rhinocerotidae are likely to be resistant to Johne's disease, this case raises the possibility that they can become transiently infected with the causative organism...
June 2012: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Eske Willerslev, M Thomas P Gilbert, Jonas Binladen, Simon Y W Ho, Paula F Campos, Aakrosh Ratan, Lynn P Tomsho, Rute R da Fonseca, Andrei Sher, Tatanya V Kuznetsova, Malgosia Nowak-Kemp, Terri L Roth, Webb Miller, Stephan C Schuster
BACKGROUND: The scientific literature contains many examples where DNA sequence analyses have been used to provide definitive answers to phylogenetic problems that traditional (non-DNA based) approaches alone have failed to resolve. One notable example concerns the rhinoceroses, a group for which several contradictory phylogenies were proposed on the basis of morphology, then apparently resolved using mitochondrial DNA fragments. RESULTS: In this study we report the first complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the extinct ice-age woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis), and the threatened Javan (Rhinoceros sondaicus), Sumatran (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis), and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceroses...
May 11, 2009: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Vladimir A Trifonov, Roscoe Stanyon, Anastasia I Nesterenko, Beiyuan Fu, Polina L Perelman, Patricia C M O'Brien, Gary Stone, Nadezhda V Rubtsova, Marlys L Houck, Terence J Robinson, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith, Gauthier Dobigny, Alexander S Graphodatsky, Fengtang Yang
The order Perissodactyla, the group of odd-toed ungulates, includes three extant families: Equidae, Tapiridae, and Rhinocerotidae. The extremely rapid karyotypic diversification in perissodactyls has so far prevented the establishment of genome-wide homology maps between these three families by traditional cytogenetic approaches. Here we report the first genome-wide comparative chromosome maps of African rhinoceroses, four tapir species, four equine species, and humans. These maps were established by multidirectional chromosome painting, with paint probes derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of Equus grevyi, Tapirus indicus, and Ceratotherium simum as well as painting probes from horse and human...
2008: Chromosome Research
W L Linklater
Many sex allocation mechanisms are proposed but rarely have researchers considered and tested more than one at a time. Four facultative birth sex ratio (BSR) adjustment mechanisms are considered: (1) hormone-induced conception bias; (2) sex-differential embryo death from excess glucose metabolism; (3) sex-differential embryo death from embryo-uterine developmental asynchrony; and (4) pregnancy hormone suppression and resource deprivation. All mechanisms could be switched on by the corticoadrenal stress response...
2007: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
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