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Maiken Ueland, Kyle Ewart, Amanda N Troobnikoff, Greta Frankham, Rebecca N Johnson, Shari L Forbes
Illegal poaching causes great harm to species diversity and conservation. A vast amount of money is involved in the trade of illegal or forged animal parts worldwide. In many cases, the suspected animal part is unidentifiable and requires costly and invasive laboratory analysis such as isotopic fingerprinting or DNA testing. The lack of rapid and accurate methods to identify wildlife parts at the point of detection represents a major hindrance in the enforcement and prosecution of wildlife trafficking. The ability of wildlife detector dogs to alert to different wildlife species demonstrates that there is a detectable difference in scent profile of illegally traded animal parts...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
Vinny Naidoo, Kerri Wolter
Vulture (Accipitridae) poisonings are a concern in South Africa, with hundreds of birds dying annually. Although some of these poisonings are accidental, there has been an increase in the number of intentional baiting of poached rhinoceros (Rhinocerotidae) and elephant (Elephantidae) carcasses to kill vultures that alert officials to poaching sites by circling overhead. The primary chemicals implicated are the organophosphorous and carbamate compounds. Although most poisoning events can be identified by dead vultures surrounding the scavenged carcass, weak birds are occasionally found and brought to rehabilitation centers for treatment...
April 28, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Kelsey T Stilson, Samantha S B Hopkins, Edward Byrd Davis
Individual elements of many extinct and extant North American rhinocerotids display osteopathologies, particularly exostoses, abnormal textures, and joint margin porosity, that are commonly associated with localized bone trauma. When we evaluated six extinct rhinocerotid species spanning 50 million years (Ma), we found the incidence of osteopathology increases from 28% of all elements of Eocene Hyrachyus eximius to 65-80% of all elements in more derived species. The only extant species in this study, Diceros bicornis, displayed less osteopathologies (50%) than the more derived extinct taxa...
2016: PloS One
Azza Abdelgawad, Robert Hermes, Armando Damiani, Benjamin Lamglait, Gábor Á Czirják, Marion East, Ortwin Aschenborn, Christian Wenker, Samy Kasem, Nikolaus Osterrieder, Alex D Greenwood
Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) causes respiratory disorders and abortion in equids while EHV-1 regularly causes equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM), a stroke-like syndrome following endothelial cell infection in horses. Both EHV-1 and EHV-9 infections of non-definitive hosts often result in neuronal infection and high case fatality rates. Hence, EHV-1 and EHV-9 are somewhat unusual herpesviruses and lack strict host specificity, and the true extent of their host ranges have remained unclear. In order to determine the seroprevalence of EHV-1 and EHV-9, a sensitive and specific peptide-based ELISA was developed and applied to 428 sera from captive and wild animals representing 30 species in 12 families and five orders...
2015: PloS One
Margot Kuitems, Johannes van der Plicht, Dorothée G Drucker, Thijs Van Kolfschoten, Sanne W L Palstra, Hervé Bocherens
Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in bone collagen can provide valuable information about the diet and habitat of mammal species. However, bone collagen degrades in normal circumstances very rapidly, and isotope analyses are therefore usually restricted to fossil material with a Late Pleistocene or Holocene age. The Middle Pleistocene site of Schöningen, dated to around 300,000 years ago, yielded bones and teeth with an exceptionally good state of collagen preservation. This allowed us to measure reliable biogenic carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios for different herbivorous taxa from the families Elephantidae, Rhinocerotidae, Equidae, Cervidae, and Bovidae...
December 2015: Journal of Human Evolution
Hai-Xia Tang, An-Yuan Li, Ji-Jun Li, Guang-Shun Hou, Feng Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of Ningdong Granule (NG) on serum levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) of children patients with Tourette's syndrome (TS). METHODS: Totally 90 TS children patients were randomly assigned to the NG group, the NG + Tiapride group (abbreviated as the combined treatment group), and the Tiapride group, 30 in each group. Besides,another 30 healthy children were recruited as the healthy control group...
April 2014: Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine
Daniele Silvestro, Jan Schnitzler, Lee Hsiang Liow, Alexandre Antonelli, Nicolas Salamin
The temporal dynamics of species diversity are shaped by variations in the rates of speciation and extinction, and there is a long history of inferring these rates using first and last appearances of taxa in the fossil record. Understanding diversity dynamics critically depends on unbiased estimates of the unobserved times of speciation and extinction for all lineages, but the inference of these parameters is challenging due to the complex nature of the available data. Here, we present a new probabilistic framework to jointly estimate species-specific times of speciation and extinction and the rates of the underlying birth-death process based on the fossil record...
May 2014: Systematic Biology
Takuya Suzuki, Tomoo Kudo, Shigehisa Kawakami, Yumi Une
In Rhinocerotidae, there are very few reports of tumors and no reports of a mixed tumor. This paper reports the case of a male 33-year-old southern white rhinoceros. Grossly, there were two masses in the coelomic cavity and solid nodules in the liver. Histologically, all tumors had a biphasic pattern that consisted of malignant epithelial cells (cytokeratin- and E-cadherin-positive) and non-epithelial cells (vimentin-positive) with cartilage. In this case, the prostate could not be identified, and instead, the largest tumor mass was present at that site...
December 30, 2013: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Benn Bryant, David Blyde, Graeme Eamens, Richard Whittington
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (Map) was cultured from the feces of a wild-caught, female, adult Southern black rhinoceros. The animal, which presented with a 4-mo history of diarrhea and weight loss, was prescribed a course of antimycobacterial drugs. The clinical signs resolved, and the feces were repeatedly culture negative thereafter. Although the Rhinocerotidae are likely to be resistant to Johne's disease, this case raises the possibility that they can become transiently infected with the causative organism...
June 2012: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Eske Willerslev, M Thomas P Gilbert, Jonas Binladen, Simon Y W Ho, Paula F Campos, Aakrosh Ratan, Lynn P Tomsho, Rute R da Fonseca, Andrei Sher, Tatanya V Kuznetsova, Malgosia Nowak-Kemp, Terri L Roth, Webb Miller, Stephan C Schuster
BACKGROUND: The scientific literature contains many examples where DNA sequence analyses have been used to provide definitive answers to phylogenetic problems that traditional (non-DNA based) approaches alone have failed to resolve. One notable example concerns the rhinoceroses, a group for which several contradictory phylogenies were proposed on the basis of morphology, then apparently resolved using mitochondrial DNA fragments. RESULTS: In this study we report the first complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the extinct ice-age woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis), and the threatened Javan (Rhinoceros sondaicus), Sumatran (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis), and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceroses...
2009: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Vladimir A Trifonov, Roscoe Stanyon, Anastasia I Nesterenko, Beiyuan Fu, Polina L Perelman, Patricia C M O'Brien, Gary Stone, Nadezhda V Rubtsova, Marlys L Houck, Terence J Robinson, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith, Gauthier Dobigny, Alexander S Graphodatsky, Fengtang Yang
The order Perissodactyla, the group of odd-toed ungulates, includes three extant families: Equidae, Tapiridae, and Rhinocerotidae. The extremely rapid karyotypic diversification in perissodactyls has so far prevented the establishment of genome-wide homology maps between these three families by traditional cytogenetic approaches. Here we report the first genome-wide comparative chromosome maps of African rhinoceroses, four tapir species, four equine species, and humans. These maps were established by multidirectional chromosome painting, with paint probes derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of Equus grevyi, Tapirus indicus, and Ceratotherium simum as well as painting probes from horse and human...
2008: Chromosome Research
W L Linklater
Many sex allocation mechanisms are proposed but rarely have researchers considered and tested more than one at a time. Four facultative birth sex ratio (BSR) adjustment mechanisms are considered: (1) hormone-induced conception bias; (2) sex-differential embryo death from excess glucose metabolism; (3) sex-differential embryo death from embryo-uterine developmental asynchrony; and (4) pregnancy hormone suppression and resource deprivation. All mechanisms could be switched on by the corticoadrenal stress response...
2007: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 27, 1951: Anatomischer Anzeiger
B M Rothschild, D R Prothero, C Rothschild
OBJECTIVE: Spondyloarthropathy has clearly been documented as not limited in occurrence to humans. Transmammalian in nature, it is of interest to understand the antiquity, and perhaps the origins, of this disorder in animal groups sufficiently represented in the skeletal record. METHODS: Fossil and recent skeletons of perissodactylae from North America were systematically examined to determine the occurrence and population frequency of spondyloarthropathy. RESULTS: Spondyloarthropathy was the most common form of arthritis recognized in the extant and fossil records...
November 2001: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
C Tougard, T Delefosse, C Hänni, C Montgelard
A major question in rhinocerotid phylogenetics concerns the position of the Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) with regard to the other extant Asian (Rhinoceros unicornis and R. sondaicus) and African (Diceros bicornis and Ceratotherium simum) species. We have examined this particular question through the phylogenetic analysis of the complete sequences of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and cytochrome b genes. Three additional perissodactyls (one tapir and two equids) plus several outgroup cetartiodactyls were included in the analysis...
April 2001: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
J E Norman, M V Ashley
Two mitochondrial genes, the protein-coding cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) gene and a portion of the 12S rRNA gene, were used for phylogenetic investigation of the mammalian order Perissodactyla. The primary objective of the study was to utilize the extensive fossil record of perissodactyls for calibrating molecular clocks and comparing estimates of divergence times using both genes and two fossil calibration points. Secondary objectives included clarification of previously unresolved relationships within Tapiridae and comparison of the results of separate and combined analyses of two genes...
January 2000: Journal of Molecular Evolution
E C Holmes, S A Ellis
We carried out an analysis of partial sequences from expressed major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes isolated from a range of equid species and more distantly related members of the mammalian order Perissodactyla. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a minimum of six groups, five of which contained genes and alleles that are found in equid species and one group specific to the rhinoceros. Four of the groups contained only one, or very few sequences, indicating the presence of relatively nonpolymorphic loci, while another group contained the majority of the equid sequences identified...
September 1999: Journal of Molecular Evolution
U Arnason, A Gullberg, A Janke
The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule of the hamadryas baboon, Papio hamadryas, was sequenced and included in a molecular analysis of 24 complete mammalian mtDNAs. The particular aim of the study was to time the divergence between Cercopithecoidea and Hominoidea. That divergence, set at 30 million years before present (MYBP) was a fundamental reference for the original proposal of recent hominoid divergences, according to which the split among gorilla, chimpanzee, and Homo took place 5 MYBP. In the present study the validity of the postulated 30 MYBP dating of the Cercopithecoidea/Hominoidea divergence was examined by applying two independent nonprimate molecular references, the divergence between artiodactyls and cetaceans set at 60 MYBP and that between Equidae and Rhinocerotidae set at 50 MYBP...
December 1998: Journal of Molecular Evolution
L A Lund, G B Sherman
Luteotropic glycoprotein hormones (LGH) include luteinizing hormone (LH) and chorionic gonadotropin (CG). The order Primates is the only phylogenetic clad known to exhibit more than one LGHbeta subunit gene per haploid genome. In the present study, we report the discovery of a second case of LGHbeta gene replication, in the white (w) rhinoceros (r or rhino). The presence of more than one gene was strongly suggested by a complex banding pattern observed on Southern blots of DNA prepared from two unrelated white rhinos...
August 1998: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
M S Gómez, T Vila, C Feliu, I Montoliu, M Gracenea, J Fernandez
Mammals housed at the Barcelona Zoo belonging to the orders Carnivora, Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla and Proboscidea were examined for Cryptosporidium infections. A total of 183 fecal samples from 17 carnivores and 34 herbivores revealed patent infections in only 6 herbivore species (5 artiodactyls of the families Bovidae and Giraffidae and 1 perissodactyl of the family Rhinocerotidae); all carnivores were negative. Intensity of infection was found to be generally low. Connochaetes taurinus taurinus, Gazella dorcas neglecta, Kobus ellipsiprymmus and Giraffa camelopardalis constitute new host species for the parasite...
November 1996: International Journal for Parasitology
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