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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027919/shiga-toxins-induce-apoptosis-and-er-stress-in-human-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#1
Jun-Young Park, Yu-Jin Jeong, Sung-Kyun Park, Sung-Jin Yoon, Song Choi, Dae Gwin Jeong, Su Wol Chung, Byung Joo Lee, Jeong Hun Kim, Vernon L Tesh, Moo-Seung Lee, Young-Jun Park
Shiga toxins (Stxs) produced by Shiga toxin-producing bacteria Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and select serotypes of Escherichia coli are the most potent known virulence factors in the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic colitis progressing to potentially fatal systemic complications such as acute renal failure, blindness and neurological abnormalities. Although numerous studies have defined apoptotic responses to Shiga toxin type 1 (Stx1) or Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2) in a variety of cell types, the potential significance of Stx-induced apoptosis of photoreceptor and pigmented cells of the eye following intoxication is unknown...
October 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023881/review-article-the-role-of-the-microcirculation-in-liver-cirrhosis
#2
REVIEW
T Davies, S Wythe, J O'Beirne, D Martin, E Gilbert-Kawai
BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic microvascular derangements and microcirculatory dysfunction are key in the development of liver cirrhosis and its associated complications. While much has been documented relating to cirrhosis and the dysfunction of the microcirculation in the liver parenchyma, far less is known about the state of the extrahepatic microcirculation and the role this may have in the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure in end stage liver cirrhosis. AIM: To provide an update on the role of the microcirculation in the pathophysiology of cirrhosis and its associated complications and briefly discuss some of the imaging techniques which may be used to directly investigate the microcirculation...
November 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022266/cardiac-aging-benefits-of-exercise-nrf2-activation-and-antioxidant-signaling
#3
Madhusudhanan Narasimhan, Namakkal-Soorappan Rajasekaran
Cardiovascular dysfunction and heart failure associated with aging not only impairs the cardiac function but also the quality of life eventually decreasing the life expectancy of the elderly. Notably, cardiac tissue can prematurely age under certain conditions such as genetic mutation, persistent redox stress and overload, aberrant molecular signaling, DNA damage, telomere attrition, and other pathological insults. While cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality is on the rise and remains a global health threat, there has been only little to moderate improvements in its medical management...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018518/cardiac-effects-of-lightning-strikes
#4
Theodoros Christophides, Sarosh Khan, Mahmood Ahmad, Hossam Fayed, Richard Bogle
Lightning strikes are a common and leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Multiple organ systems can be involved, though the effects of the electrical current on the cardiovascular system are one of the main modes leading to cardiorespiratory arrest in these patients. Cardiac effects of lightning strikes can be transient or persistent, and include benign or life-threatening arrhythmias, inappropriate therapies from cardiac implantable electronic devices, cardiac ischaemia, myocardial contusion, pericardial disease, aortic injury, as well as cardiomyopathy with associated ventricular failure...
August 2017: Arrhythmia & Electrophysiology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016311/case-report-severe-imported-influenza-infections-developed-during-travel-in-reunion-island
#5
Jérôme Allyn, Elise Brottet, Emmanuel Antok, Laurence Dangers, Romain Persichini, Nathalie Coolen-Allou, Bénédicte Roquebert, Nicolas Allou, David Vandroux
We report two cases of severe influenza infection imported by tourist patients from their country of origin and developed during travel. While studies have reported cases of influenza infections acquired during travel, here we examine two cases of severe influenza infection contracted in the country of origin that led to diagnosis and therapeutic problems in the destination country. No international recommendation exists concerning influenza vaccination before travel, and few countries recommend it for all travelers...
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988067/the-effect-of-resuscitation-strategy-on-the-longitudinal-immuno-inflammatory-response-to-blunt-trauma
#6
Alexander Bonde, Ask Tybjærg Nordestgaard, Rasmus Kirial, Peter Svenningsen, Martin Sillesen
INTRODUCTION: Resuscitation strategies following blunt trauma have been linked to immuno-inflammatory complications leading to systemic inflammatory syndrome (SIRS), sepsis and multiple organ failure (MOF). The effect of resuscitation strategy on longitudinal inflammation marker trajectories is, however, unknown. We hypothesized that the effect of resuscitation strategy extends beyond the trauma-related coagulopathy, perhaps affecting the longitudinal immuno-inflammatory response to injury...
September 28, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983256/targeting-microrna-function-in-acute-pancreatitis
#7
REVIEW
Hong Xiang, Xufeng Tao, Shilin Xia, Jialin Qu, Huiyi Song, Jianjun Liu, Dong Shang
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common gastrointestinal disorder that featured by acute inflammatory responses leading to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or multiple organ failure. A worldwide increase in annual incidence has been observed during the past decade with high acute hospitalization and mortality. Lack of any specific treatment for AP, even to this day, is a reminder that there is much to be learned about the exact pathogenesis of AP. Fortunately, the discovery of microRNA (miRNA) has started an entirely new thought process regarding the molecular mechanism associated with the disease processes...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978590/liver-transplantation-for-non-exertional-heat-stroke-related-acute-liver-failure
#8
Sandra Coenen, Khe Tran, Jubi de Haan, Rob de Man
Heat stroke is a life-threatening condition characterised by hyperthermia leading to multiple organ dysfunction. Acute liver failure is a rare and potentially fatal consequence of heat stroke. Management of heat stroke is mainly supportive but liver transplantation can be considered as the treatment of acute liver failure in heat stroke. However, literature on liver transplantation as a treatment for acute liver failure in heat stroke is scarce. Until now, no cases of liver transplantation for acute liver failure in non-exertional heat stroke have been reported...
October 4, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977367/novel-mouse-model-of-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#9
Nodir Madrahimov, Erin C Boyle, Faikah Gueler, Tobias Goecke, Ann-Kathrin Knöfel, Valentyna Irkha, Lavinia Maegel, Klaus Höffler, Ruslan Natanov, Issam Ismail, Ulrich Maus, Christian Kühn, Gregor Warnecke, Malakh-Lal Shrestha, Serghei Cebotari, Axel Haverich
OBJECTIVES: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is an essential component of many cardiac interventions, and therefore, there is an increasing critical demand to minimize organ damage resulting from prolonged extracorporeal circulation. Our goal was to develop the first clinically relevant mouse model of CPB and to examine the course of extracorporeal circulation by closely monitoring haemodynamic and oxygenation parameters. METHODS: Here, we report the optimization of device design, perfusion circuit and microsurgical techniques as well as validation of physiological functions during CPB in mice after circulatory arrest and reperfusion...
July 18, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977260/prevalence-of-multiple-organ-dysfunction-in-the-pediatric-intensive-care-unit-pediatric-risk-of-mortality-iii-versus-pediatric-logistic-organ-dysfunction-scores-for-mortality-prediction
#10
Azza Abd Elkader El Hamshary, Seham Awad El Sherbini, HebatAllah Fadel Elgebaly, Samah Abdelkrim Amin
OBJECTIVES: To assess the frequency of primary multiple organ failure and the role of sepsis as a causative agent in critically ill pediatric patients; and calculate and evaluate the accuracy of the Pediatric Risk of Mortality III (PRISM III) and Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction (PELOD) scores to predict the outcomes of critically ill children. METHODS: Retrospective study, which evaluated data from patients admitted from January to December 2011 in the pediatric intensive care unit of the Children's Hospital of the University of Cairo...
April 2017: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977204/tadalafil-protective-action-against-the-development-of-multiple-organ-failure-syndrome
#11
Granville G de Oliveira, Samer A H de Oliveira, Paulo Henrique H Botelho, Marcos Aurelio Barboza de Oliveira, Ka Bian, Ferid Murad
INTRODUCTION: Multiple organ failure syndrome (MOFS) is a pathology associated to unspecified and severe trauma, characterized by elevated morbidity and mortality. The complex inflammatory MOFS-related reactions generate important ischemia-reperfusion responses in the induction of this syndrome. Nitric oxide elevation, through the activation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), has the potential of counteracting the typical systemic vasoconstriction, and platelet-induced hypercoagulation...
July 2017: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975999/combining-multiple-biomarkers-differentiates-between-active-sjia-sjia-mas-and-ebv-hlh
#12
Lehn K Weaver
Cytokine storm syndromes are a clinically heterogeneous group of conditions resulting from a maladaptive host response to an inflammatory trigger. These syndromes lead to rapid progression of immune-mediated damage to healthy tissues resulting in life-threatening multisystem organ failure. Prompt recognition of disease and medical intervention to limit damage to healthy tissues is essential to prevent cytokine storm morbidity and mortality. However, the diagnosis of cytokine storm syndromes is challenging given the clinical heterogeneity in disease presentations...
October 4, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975653/analysis-of-skeletal-muscle-microcirculation-in-a-porcine-polytrauma-model-with-haemorrhagic-shock
#13
Zhi Qiao, Klemens Horst, Michel Teuben, Johannes Greven, Luxu Yin, Yannik Kalbas, René H Tolba, Hans-Christoph Pape, Frank Hildebrand, Roman Pfeifer
Polytraumatised patients with haemorrhagic shock are prone to develop systemic complications, such as SIRS (systemic inflammatory response syndrome), ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome) and MOF (multiple organ failure). The pathomechanism of severe complications following trauma is multifactorial, and it is believed that microcirculatory dysfunction plays an important role. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in the microcirculation in musculature over time during shock and subsequent resuscitation in a porcine model of haemorrhagic shock and polytrauma...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974669/non-exertional-heatstroke-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Chiara Mozzini, Giovanni Xotta, Ulisse Garbin, Anna Maria Fratta Pasini, Luciano Cominacini
BACKGROUND Heatstroke (HS) is a life-threatening condition characterized by an elevation of the core body temperature above 40°C, central nervous system dysfunction, and possible multi-organ failure. HS can trigger systemic inflammation, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), rhabdomyolysis, cerebral edema and seizures, pulmonary edema, heart dysfunctions, and renal and hepatic failure. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 41-year-old Romanian woman with a history of alcoholism who developed HS after arriving by bus in Verona, Italy in June 2016...
October 4, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974562/autophagy-and-mitochondrial-biogenesis-impairment-contributes-to-age-dependent-liver-injury-in-experimental-sepsis-dysregulation-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-pathway
#15
Yu Inata, Satoshi Kikuchi, Ravi S Samraj, Paul W Hake, Michael O'Connor, John R Ledford, James O'Connor, Patrick Lahni, Vivian Wolfe, Giovanna Piraino, Basilia Zingarelli
Age is an independent risk factor of multiple organ failure in patients with sepsis. However, the age-related mechanisms of injury are not known. AMPK is a crucial regulator of energy homeostasis, which controls mitochondrial biogenesis by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-α (PGC-1α) and disposal of defective organelles by autophagy. We investigated whether AMPK dysregulation might contribute to age-dependent liver injury in young (2-3 mo) and mature male mice (11-13 mo) subjected to sepsis...
October 3, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974301/multiple-organ-failure-in-a-young-asylum-seeker
#16
Mathias Schmid, Christoph Dodt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973697/fenretinide-troglitazone-and-elmiron-add-to-weight-of-evidence-support-for-hemangiosarcoma-mode-of-action-from-studies-in-mice
#17
Jon C Cook, Leslie A Obert, Petra Koza-Taylor, Tim Coskran, Alan Opsahl, Daniel Ziemek, Marc Roy, Jessie Qian, Michael P Lawton, Kay Criswell
Pharmaceuticals and chemicals produce hemangiosarcomas (HS) in mice, often by nongenotoxic, proliferative mechanisms. A mode-of-action (MOA) for hemangiosarcoma was proposed based on information presented at an international workshop (Cohen et al., 2009). Five key elements of the MOA were articulated and included hypoxia, macrophage activation, increased angiogenic growth factors, dysregulated angiogenesis/erythropoiesis, and endothial cell proliferation. The goal of the current study was to add to the weight-of-evidence for the proposed MOA by assessing these key elements with three different compounds of varying potency for HS induction: fenretinide (high), troglitazone (intermediate), and elmiron (low)...
September 18, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972883/periorbital-necrotizing-fasciitis-induced-by-streptococcus-pyogenes-a-case-report-and-clarification
#18
Dorothée L Deneubourg, Zulma Catherine, Patrice Lejuste, Pierre Breton
Periorbital necrotizing fasciitis (PONF) is a rare condition of the face. PONF can lead to blindness, functional and esthetic sequelae, multiple-organ failure, and death. The aim of this report is to raise the awareness of this severe condition in maxillofacial surgeons. This report describes the case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with a bilateral palpebral edema and pain 3 days after a jugal wound was sutured. Necrosis of the skin of the left palpebral unit was extending rapidly. The patient had signs of sepsis...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971835/the-pump-the-exchanger-and-the-holy-spirit-origins-of-the-endogenous-ouabain-hypertension-hypothesis-and-its-40-year-evolution
#19
Mordecai P Blaustein
Two prescient 1953 publications set the stage for elucidating a novel endocrine system: Schatzmann's report that cardiotonic steroids (CTSs) are all Na(+) pump inhibitors, and Szent-Gyorgi's suggestion that there is an endogenous "missing screw" in heart failure that CTSs like digoxin may replace. In 1977 I postulated that an endogenous Na(+) pump inhibitor acts as a natriuretic hormone and simultaneously elevates blood pressure (BP) in salt-dependent hypertension. This hypothesis was based on the idea that excess renal salt retention promoted the secretion of a CTS-like hormone that inhibits renal Na(+) pumps and salt reabsorption...
September 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968277/vasculotide-an-angiopoietin-1-mimetic-restores-microcirculatory-perfusion-and-microvascular-leakage-and-decreases-fluid-resuscitation-requirements-in-hemorrhagic-shock
#20
Michelle Trieu, Matijs van Meurs, Anoek L I van Leeuwen, Paul Van Slyke, Van Hoang, Leo M G Geeraedts, Christa Boer, Charissa E van den Brom
BACKGROUND: Microcirculatory dysfunction is associated with multiple organ failure and unfavorable patient outcome. We investigated whether therapeutically targeting the endothelial angiopoietin/Tie2 system preserves microvascular integrity during hemorrhagic shock. METHODS: Rats were treated with the angiopoietin-1 mimetic Vasculotide and subjected to hemorrhagic shock and fluid resuscitation. Microcirculatory perfusion and leakage were assessed with intravital microscopy (n = 7 per group) and Evans blue dye extravasation (n = 8 per group), respectively...
September 29, 2017: Anesthesiology
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