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Vitamin A toxic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942403/case-of-methaemoglobinaemia-caused-by-tree-oils-and-kerosene
#1
Kartik Gupta, Milind Jha, Ranveer S Jadon, Rita Sood
We report a case of a young man who allegedly consumed 100 mL of an indigenous pesticide which is used for the killing of rats in households in India. The constituents were azadirachtin oil (40%), tea oil (15%), pine oil (25%) and kerosene oil (20%). He presented to us with shortness of breath and altered sensorium and was found to have fMetHb (fraction of methaemoglobin) level of 80%, which has been postulated to have a fatal outcome. He responded to a low dose of methylene blue along with intravenous vitamin C and the level of fMetHb came down to 20% within 1 hour...
September 23, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938455/bile-acid-alterations-are-associated-with-insulin-resistance-but-not-with-nash-in-obese-subjects
#2
Vanessa Legry, Sven Francque, Joel T Haas, An Verrijken, Sandrine Caron, Oscar Chávez-Talavera, Emmanuelle Vallez, Luisa Vonghia, Eveline Dirinck, Ann Verhaegen, Mostafa Kouach, Sophie Lestavel, Philippe Lefebvre, Luc Van Gaal, Anne Tailleux, Réjane Paumelle, Bart Staels
Context: Bile acids (BA) are signalling molecules controlling energy homeostasis which can be both toxic and protective for the liver. BA alterations have been reported in obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However whether BA alterations contribute to NASH independently of the metabolic status is unclear. Objective: To assess BA alterations associated with NASH independently of BMI and IR. Design & Setting: Patients visiting the obesity clinic of the Antwerp University Hospital (a tertiary referral facility) were recruited from 2006 to 2014...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933289/recent-applications-of-silver-amalgam-electrodes-for-analysis-of-pharmaceuticals-and-vitamins
#3
Sylwia Smarzewska, Radovan Metelka, Bogusław Baś, Karel Vytřas
The features and applications of silver amalgam electrodes in electroanalysis of pharmaceuticals and vitamins are summarized in this review. The state-of-art in the preparation and construction of solid silver amalgam electrodes for prolonged and user-friendly use is presented. Although not as widely spread as other electrode materials, silver amalgam possesses a unique and viable combination of favorable electrochemical properties, which are close to ideal mercury electrodes, non-toxic character, high durability and mechanical stability, if properly prepared...
September 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930188/cytotoxic-and-apoptotic-activities-of-prunus-spinosa-trigno-ecotype-extract-on-human-cancer-cells
#4
Stefania Meschini, Evelin Pellegrini, Maria Condello, Giovanni Occhionero, Sebastiano Delfine, Giancarlo Condello, Franco Mastrodonato
The aim of this work was to demonstrate that a natural compound, not-toxic to normal cells, has cytotoxic and sensitizing effects on carcinoma cells, with the final goal of combining it with chemotherapeutic drugs to reduce the overall dose. Prunus spinosa Trigno ecotype (PsT) drupe extract with a nutraceutical activator complex (NAC) made of amino acids, vitamins and mineral salt blends, has shown in vitro anticancer activity. The cytotoxic effect of (PsT + NAC)(®) has been evaluated on human cancer cells, with an initial screening with colorectal, uterine cervical, and bronchoalveolar cells, and a subsequent focus on colon carcinoma cells HCT116 and SW480...
September 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921388/immunomodulatory-potential-of-nanocurcumin-based-formulation
#5
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Sambhu Charan Mondal, Mayank Gangwar, Snehasis Jana
Vitamins, minerals, and nanocurcumin play a substantial role in various nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that are widely used in therapeutics, cosmetics, and dietary supplements. The current study aimed to investigate the comparative in vitro immunomodulatory effect of a novel nanocurcumin-based formulation with curcumin in LPS-induced cytokine expression, NK cells' activity, and phagocytosis. The proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and MIP-1α) and NK cells' activity were measured in cell supernatants using ELISA assay; however, phagocytosis activity was performed using colorimetric analysis...
September 18, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919761/effects-of-bromadiolone-poisoning-on-the-central-nervous-system
#6
Meiling Wang, Yanfeng Yang, Yiwei Hou, Wenbin Ma, Rui Jia, Jinbo Chen
Cases of rodenticide poisoning (second-generation long-acting dicoumarin rodenticide, superwarfarin) have occasionally been reported. The main symptoms of bromadiolone poisoning are skin mucosa hemorrhage, digestive tract hemorrhage, and hematuresis. However, the symptoms of central nervous system toxicity have rarely been reported. Our case reports on a 41-year-old male who had no contact with bromadiolone. His main symptoms were dizziness, unsteady gait, and abnormal behavior. Laboratory test results revealed the presence of bromadiolone in his blood and urine, a longer prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and a high international normalized ratio...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919516/time-dependent-effects-of-perfluorinated-compounds-on-viability-in-cerebellar-granule-neurons-dependence-on-carbon-chain-length-and-functional-group-attached
#7
Hanne Friis Berntsen, Cesilie Granum Bjørklund, Jean-Nicolas Audinot, Tim Hofer, Steven Verhaegen, Esther Lentzen, Arno Christian Gutleb, Erik Ropstad
The toxicity of long chained perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) has previously been reported to be related to the length of the perfluorinated carbon chain and functional group attached. In the present study, we compared the cytotoxicity of six PFAAs, using primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Two perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs, chain length C6 and C8) and four perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs, chain length C8-C11) were studied. These PFAAs have been detected in human blood and the brain tissue of mammals...
September 14, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887963/facile-one-pot-green-synthesis-antibacterial-antifungal-antioxidant-and-antiplatelet-activities-of-lignin-capped-silver-nanoparticles-a-promising-therapeutic-agent
#8
M B Marulasiddeshwara, S S Dakshayani, M N Sharath Kumar, R Chethana, P Raghavendra Kumar, S Devaraja
The current work portrays the green synthesis of Lignin Capped Silver Nanoparticles (LCSN) and their antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant and antiplatelet potential. The LCSN was synthesized in water using a carbohydrate based polymer 'lignin' as the reducing and capping agents. The peak at 406nm (λmax) in the UV-Vis., spectrum and EDX analysis confirmed 1.68% (w/w) of silver was found to be loaded on lignin. The characteristic sharp peaks appeared in the PXRD spectrum showed fcc crystalline structure LCSN...
December 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886484/augmentation-of-intracellular-iron-using-iron-sucrose-enhances-the-toxicity-of-pharmacological-ascorbate-in-colon-cancer-cells
#9
Kristin E Brandt, Kelly C Falls, Joshua D Schoenfeld, Samuel N Rodman, Zhimin Gu, Fenghuang Zhan, Joseph J Cullen, Brett A Wagner, Garry R Buettner, Bryan G Allen, Daniel J Berg, Douglas R Spitz, Melissa A Fath
Pharmacological doses (> 1mM) of ascorbate (a.k.a., vitamin C) have been shown to selectively kill cancer cells through a mechanism that is dependent on the generation of H2O2 at doses that are safely achievable in humans using intravenous administration. The process by which ascorbate oxidizes to form H2O2 is thought to be mediated catalytically by redox active metal ions such as iron (Fe). Because intravenous iron sucrose is often administered to colon cancer patients to help mitigate anemia, the current study assessed the ability of pharmacological ascorbate to kill colon cancer cells in the presence and absence of iron sucrose...
August 26, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882954/antrodia-cinnamomea-reduces-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-male-wister-rats
#10
Yung-Luen Shih, Ming-Fang Wu, Ching-Hsiao Lee, Ming-Yang Yeh, Jason Chou, Jia-You Liu, Hsu-Feng Lu, Yi-Ping Huang, Nien-Chieh Liao, Jing-Gung Chung
BACKGROUND/AIM: Antrodia cinnamomea is found with polysaccharides, lipids, vitamins, fibers and ash (minerals) and is well known in Taiwan as a traditional Chinese medicine. Its biological activities have been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-fatigue, anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects, but its protective effects on liver function are still unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We determined if Antrodia cinnamomea was hepatoprotective against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) toxicity in Wistar rats...
September 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870855/growth-media-in-anaerobic-fermentative-processes-the-underestimated-potential-of-thermophilic-fermentation-and-anaerobic-digestion
#11
REVIEW
A T W M Hendriks, J B van Lier, M K de Kreuk
Fermentation and anaerobic digestion of organic waste and wastewater is broadly studied and applied. Despite widely available results and data for these processes, comparison of the generated results in literature is difficult. Not only due to the used variety of process conditions, but also because of the many different growth media that are used. Composition of growth media can influence biogas production (rates) and lead to process instability during anaerobic digestion. To be able to compare results of the different studies reported, and to ensure nutrient limitation is not influencing observations ascribed to process dynamics and/or reaction kinetics, a standard protocol for creating a defined growth medium for anaerobic digestion and mixed culture fermentation is proposed...
September 1, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868219/appraisal-of-biochemical-classes-of-radioprotectors-evidence-current-status-and-guidelines-for-future-development
#12
REVIEW
Krishnanand Mishra, Ghazi Alsbeih
The search for efficient radioprotective agents to protect from radiation-induced toxicity, due to planned or accidental radiation exposure, is still ongoing worldwide. Despite decades of research and development of widely different biochemical classes of natural and derivative compounds, a safe and effective radioprotector is largely unmet. In this comprehensive review, we evaluated the evidence for the radioprotective performance of classical thiols, vitamins, minerals, dietary antioxidants, phytochemicals, botanical and bacterial preparations, DNA-binding agents, cytokines, and chelators including adaptogens...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867735/effects-of-ascorbyl-2-phosphate-magnesium-on-human-keratinocyte-toxicity-and-pathological-changes-by-sorafenib
#13
Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Hiroaki Shichiri, Takahiro Ishida, Kenta Kaku, Tatsuya Nishioka, Manabu Kume, Hiroo Makimoto, Tsutomu Nakagawa, Takeshi Hirano, Toshinori Bito, Chikako Nishigori, Ikuko Yano, Midori Hirai
Hand-foot skin reaction is recognized as one of the most common adverse events related to multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitors, but an effective prevention method has not been identified. The chief aim of this study was to find a mechanism-based preventive method for the skin toxicity induced by sorafenib using vitamin C derivatives. The effects of ascorbyl-2-phosphate magnesium (P-VC-Mg) on the molecular and pathological changes induced by sorafenib were investigated in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The cell growth inhibition and apoptotic effects of sorafenib were attenuated by P-VC-Mg...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858751/quantification-of-menadione-from-plasma-and-urine-by-a-novel-cysteamine-derivatization-based-uplc-ms-ms-method
#14
Teng-Fei Yuan, Shao-Ting Wang, Yan Li
Menadione, as the crucial component of vitamin Ks, possessed significant nutritional and clinical values. However, there was still lack of favourable quantification strategies for it to date. For improvement, a novel cysteamine derivatization based UPLC-MS/MS method was presented in this work. The derivatizating reaction was proved non-toxic, easy-handling and high-efficient, which realized the MS detection of menadione under positive mode. Benefitting from the excellent sensitivity of the derivatizating product as well as the introduction of the stable isotope dilution technique, the quantification could be achieved in the range of 0...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854380/the-role-of-antioxidants-in-attenuation-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-lethality-on-exposure-to-tio2-and-zno-nanoparticles
#15
Madhavi Sonane, Nida Moin, Aruna Satish
The exponential increase in the usage of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) has raised global concerns due to their potential toxicity and environmental impacts. Nano-TiO2 and nano-ZnO have been extensively used in various applications. Thus, there is a need for determining the toxic potentials of ENPs as well as, to develop the possible attenuation method for ENPs toxicity. Both in the in vitro and in vivo systems, exposure to the majority of ENPs have shown Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation, which leads to oxidative stress mediated inflammation, genotoxicity, and cytotoxicity...
August 25, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846983/indian-propolis-ameliorates-the-mitomycin-c-induced-testicular-toxicity-by-reducing-dna-damage-and-elevating-the-antioxidant-activity
#16
Sandhya Kumari, Guruprasad Nayak, Sonu T Lukose, Sneha Guruprasad Kalthur, Nandini Bhat, Aswathi R Hegde, Srinivas Mutalik, Guruprasad Kalthur, Satish Kumar Adiga
Development of excellent curative therapy for most of the malignancies has resulted in a growing population of cancer survivors who are at increased risk for a variety of health problems including infertility. Therefore, fertility preservation has become an important issue during cancer treatment in recent years. Combination therapy with natural agents such as vitamins, antioxidants, dietary supplements, and plant products are considered as an attractive option to mitigate normal tissue toxicity imparted by chemotherapy...
August 25, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844822/diet-and-fertility-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Audrey J Gaskins, Jorge E Chavarro
The literature on the relationship between diet and human fertility has greatly expanded over the last decade, resulting in the identification of a few clear patterns. Intake of supplemental folic acid, particularly at doses higher than those recommended for the prevention of neural tube defects, has been consistently related to lower frequency of infertility, lower risk of pregnancy loss, and greater success in infertility treatment. On the other hand and despite promising evidence from animal models, vitamin D does not appear to exert an important role in human fertility in the absence of deficiency...
August 24, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841366/mortality-and-transcriptional-effects-of-inorganic-mercury-in-the-marine-copepod-calanus-finmarchicus
#18
Knut Erik Tollefsen, You Song, Tore Høgåsen, Ida Beathe Øverjordet, Dag Altin, Bjørn Henrik Hansen
Inorganic mercury (Hg) is highly toxic to organisms including crustaceans and displays multiple toxic modes of action (MoA). The main aim of this investigation was to assess the acute and sublethal toxicity mediated by mercury chloride (HgCl2) in the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus. A combination of short-term static studies to determine acute toxicity and a transcriptional investigation to characterize the sublethal MoA of HgCl2 were conducted with an in-house continuous culture of C. finmarchicus. Transcriptional changes were determined by a custom 6...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838081/us-pharmacopeial-convention-safety-evaluation-of-menaquinone-7-a-form-of-vitamin-k
#19
Robin J Marles, Amy L Roe, Hellen A Oketch-Rabah
Vitamin K plays important biological roles in maintaining normal blood coagulation, bone mineralization, soft tissue physiology, and neurological development. Menaquinone-7 is a form of vitamin K2 that occurs naturally in some animal-derived and fermented foods. It is also available as an ingredient of dietary supplements. Menaquinone-7 has greater bioavailability than other forms of vitamin K, which has led to increasing sales and use of menaquinone-7 supplements. This special article reviews the chemistry, nomenclature, dietary sources, intake levels, and pharmacokinetics of menaquinones, along with the nonclinical toxicity data available and the data on clinical outcomes related to safety (adverse events)...
July 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835137/redox-responsive-pegylated-self-assembled-prodrug-nanoparticles-formed-by-single-disulfide-bond-bridge-periplocymarin-vitamin-e-conjugate-for-liver-cancer-chemotherapy
#20
Huiyun Zhang, Wenqian Xu, Emmanuel Omari-Siaw, Yingkun Liu, Baoding Chen, Deyu Chen, Jiangnan Yu, Ximing Xu
Periplocymarin (PPM), a cardiac glycoside, has a narrow therapeutic index, poor tumor selectivity and severe cardiovascular toxicity which hinder its wide clinical applications in cancer treatment. Herein, we report novel redox-responsive prodrug-nanoparticles (MPSSV-NPs) self-assembled by co-nanoprecipitation of PPM-vitamin E conjugate and a PEG derivative of linoleate (mPEG2000-LA) in water. It was found that the characteristics of PPM-vitamin E nanoparticles (PSSV-NPs) were improved through co-nanoprecipitation with increased percentages of mPEG2000-LA...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
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