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Vitamin A toxic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109187/antimicrobial-and-antioxidant-activities-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-ifst062013-a-potential-probiotic
#1
Md Fakruddin, Md Nur Hossain, Monzur Morshed Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Probiotic yeast has become a field of interest to scientists in recent years. METHODS: Conventional cultural method was employed to isolate and identify yeast and standard methods were used to determine different probiotic attributes, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. RESULTS: This study reports potential probiotic properties of a strain of S. cerevisiae IFST 062013 isolated from fruit. The isolate is tolerant to a wide range of temperature and pH, high concentration of bile salt and NaCl, gastric juice, intestinal environment, α-amylase, trypsin and lysozyme...
January 21, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107527/effects-of-the-administration-of-25-oh-vitamin-d3-in-an-experimental-model-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-animals-null-for-1-alpha-hydroxylase
#2
Noelia Torremadé, Milica Bozic, David Goltzman, Elvira Fernandez, José M Valdivielso
The final step in vitamin D activation is catalyzed by 1-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by low levels of both 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 provoking secondary hyperparathyroidism (2HPT). Therefore, treatments with active or native vitamin D compounds are common in CKD to restore 25(OH)D3 levels and also to decrease PTH. This study evaluates the dose of 25(OH)D3 that restores parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium levels in a model of CKD in CYP27B1-/- mice. Furthermore, we compare the safety and efficacy of the same dose in CYP27B1+/+ animals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103863/pharmacological-profile-of-the-aerial-parts-of-rubus-ulmifolius-schott
#3
Niaz Ali, Mohammad Shaoib, Syed Wadood Ali Shah, Ismail Shah, Muhammad Shuaib
BACKGROUND: As aerial parts of Rubus ulmifolius contains phytochemicals like flavonoids and tannins. And whereas flavonoids and tannins have antioxidant and antipyretic activity, hence, current work is carried out to screen crude methanolic extract of aerial parts of Rubus ulmifolius (Ru.Cr) and crude flavonoids rich extract of Rubus ulmifolius (Ru.F) for possible antioxidant and antipyretic activity. Ru.Cr and Ru.F are also tested for brine shrimps lethality bioassay. Ru.F is tested for the first time for possible antioxidant and antipyretic activity...
January 19, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100816/diets-derived-from-maize-monoculture-cause-maternal-infanticides-in-the-endangered-european-hamster-due-to-a-vitamin-b3-deficiency
#4
Mathilde L Tissier, Yves Handrich, Odeline Dallongeville, Jean-Patrice Robin, Caroline Habold
From 1735 to 1940, maize-based diets led to the death of hundreds of thousands of people from pellagra, a complex disease caused by tryptophan and vitamin B3 deficiencies. The current cereal monoculture trend restricts farmland animals to similarly monotonous diets. However, few studies have distinguished the effects of crop nutritional properties on the reproduction of these species from those of other detrimental factors such as pesticide toxicity or agricultural ploughing. This study shows that maize-based diets cause high rates of maternal infanticides in the European hamster, a farmland species on the verge of extinction in Western Europe...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093365/vitamin-b3-metal-organic-frameworks-as-potential-delivery-vehicles-for-therapeutic-nitric-oxide
#5
Rosana V Pinto, Fernando Antunes, João Pires, Vanessa Graça, Paula Brandão, Moisés L Pinto
: The synthesis and structural characterization of two isostructural metal (M=Ni, Co) 3D framework structure that integrate vitamin B3 building blocks with NO delivery capabilities and low toxicity is presented. The compounds with a formula [M2(μ2-H2O)(μ-vitamin B3)4]·2H2O contain two crystallographic distinct divalent metal centers connected by a bridging water and carboxylate group from vitamin B3. The porous compounds have the capability of storing and releasing nitric oxide (NO) in a slow and reversible manner, with released amounts of 2...
January 13, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093324/synthesis-characterization-and-in-vitro-antitumor-activity-of-the-polyethylene-glycol-350-and-1000-succinate-derivatives-of-the-tocopherol-and-tocotrienol-isomers-of-vitamin-e
#6
Ahmed Abu-Fayyad, Sami Nazzal
Vitamin E refers to a group of saturated tocopherol (T) isomers and the biologically more active unsaturated tocotrienol (T3) isomers. PEGylated α-tocopherol, commercially known as Vitamin E TPGS, has been used as an emulsifier and therapeutic agent for children with vitamin E deficiency. Limited information, however, is available about the PEG conjugates of the tocotrienol isomers of vitamin E. The current work was therefore undertaken to synthesize and characterize the water soluble polyethylene glycol (PEG 350 and 1000) derivatives of T and T3...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092150/issues-in-nutrition-dietary-supplements
#7
Margaret E Thompson, Mary Barth Noel
The majority of American adults report use of one or more dietary supplements every day or occasionally. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 defines dietary supplements and regulates their manufacture and distribution. One of the most commonly used supplements is vitamin D. Measurement of serum levels of vitamin D must be undertaken with the caveats that different laboratories define normal levels differently, and that there is rarely a clinical correlation with the actual level. Patients should understand that supplements should not be used to excess, as there are toxicities and other adverse effects associated with most of them...
January 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089775/degenerative-effects-of-cobalt-chloride-treatment-on-neurons-and-microglia-in-a-porcine-retina-organ-culture-model
#8
S Kuehn, J Hurst, F Rensinghoff, T Tsai, S Grauthoff, Y Satgunarajah, H B Dick, S Schnichels, S C Joachim
In order to understand the pathological processes of retinal diseases, experimental models are necessary. Cobalt, as part of the vitamin B12 complex, is important for neuronal integrity. However, it is known that high quantities of cobalt induce cytotoxic mechanisms via hypoxia mimicry. Therefore, we tested the degenerative effect of cobalt chloride (CoCl2) on neurons and microglia in a porcine retina organ culture model. Organotypic cultures of porcine retinas were cultured and treated with different concentrations of CoCl2 (0, 100, 300 and 500 μM) for 48 h...
January 12, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078842/remission-effect-of-vitamin-c-on-isoflurane-induced-apoptosis-and-its-mechanism
#9
J Hu, B F Gao, H Q Li, Z Z Zhang, Y L Lei, G Q Sun, D M Guo
This study aims to discuss the remission effect of vitamin C on isoflurane-induced apoptosis of rats and its possible mechanism of action, to provide a theoretical basis for postoperative cognitive impairment. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) test, MTT method and Morris water maze were applied for detection tests. For data statistics, double factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Bonferroni test were adopted. It was found that vitamin C could slow down the isoflurane-induced accumulation of ROS in H4-APP cells; moreover, it could relieve the activation of caspase-3 and increase cell survival rate to inhibit the occurrence of apoptosis, indicating that ROS was the source of cell toxicity...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077289/vitamin-d3-protects-against-a%C3%AE-peptide-cytotoxicity-in-differentiated-human-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells-a-role-for-s1p1-p38mapk-atf4-axis
#10
Federica Pierucci, Mercedes Garcia-Gil, Alessia Frati, Francesca Bini, Maria Martinesi, Eleonora Vannini, Marco Mainardi, Federico Luzzati, Paolo Peretto, Matteo Caleo, Elisabetta Meacci
Besides its classical function of bone metabolism regulation, 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), acts on a variety of tissues including the nervous system, where the hormone plays an important role as neuroprotective, antiproliferating and differentiating agent. Sphingolipids are bioactive lipids that play critical and complex roles in regulating cell fate. In the present paper we have investigated whether sphingolipids are involved in the protective action of 1,25(OH)2D3. We have found that 1,25(OH)2D3 prevents amyloid-β peptide (Aβ(1-42)) cytotoxicity both in differentiated SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and in vivo...
January 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073680/rationale-and-design-of-pemvitastart-an-open-label-randomized-trial-comparing-simultaneous-versus-standard-initiation-of-vitamin-b12-and-folate-supplementation-in-nonsquamous-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-undergoing-first-line-pemetrexed-based-chemotherapy
#11
Milind Baldi, Digambar Behera, Jyotdeep Kaur, Rakesh Kapoor, Navneet Singh
Pemetrexed is the preferred chemotherapeutic drug for nonsquamous, non-small-cell lung cancer patients whenever the predictive molecular biomarkers for targeted therapy have either not been assessed or are absent. As per manufacturers' instructions, supplementation with folic acid (FA; folate) at a dose of 350 to 1000 μg daily should be started seven days before the first dose of pemetrexed-based chemotherapy and continued during therapy and for 21 days after therapy cessation. Vitamin B12 injections (1000 μg intramuscularly) should also be started one week before the first dose of chemotherapy...
December 2, 2016: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068803/annals-express-artifactual-25-oh-vitamin-d-level-in-multiple-myeloma
#12
Michal Wen Sheue Ong, Rashim Salota, Tracy Reeman, Lapsley Marta, Lydia Jones
The most commonly used techniques to measure vitamin D are automated immunoassays which are known to be affected by interferences, especially from immunoglobulins present in the patient's serum. We present a case of a patient with myeloma in whom interference with the vitamin D assay was identified. An eighty-three year old female, known to have IgG myeloma was found to have a high concentration of 25-OH vitamin D on a routine test without any signs of vitamin D toxicity. She was not taking vitamin D supplements or any other multivitamin preparation and had minimal sun exposure...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065758/vitamin-e-reduces-endosulfan-induced-toxic-effects-on-morphology-and-behavior-in-early-development-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#13
K Dale, J D Rasinger, K L Thorstensen, S Penglase, S Ellingsen
The aim of this study was to investigate if vitamin E (α-TOC) modulates the developmental toxicity of the pesticide endosulfan (ESF), using a modified zebrafish embryotoxicity test (ZET). Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed from 6 to 72 h post fertilization (hpf) to either ESF (0.1-50 mg/L) or α-TOC (0.01-3 mM) alone or in combination. The effects of these exposures on embryonic morphology, larval behavior and antioxidant gene expression were analyzed. Phenotypic analysis at 48 hpf showed that ESF led to a dose-dependent increase in embryonic deformities, including axis malformations, pericardial edema and reduced pigmentation...
January 6, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063517/the-increasing-problem-of-subclinical-and-overt-hypervitaminosis-d-in-india-an-institutional-experience-and-review
#14
Lokesh Kumar Sharma, Deep Dutta, Neera Sharma, Adesh Kisanji Gadpayle
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the changes in serum vitamin D distribution at an institute in India over the past 6 y and compare it with global trends. METHODS: We conducted an audit of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), calcium, and plasma intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) reporting from January 2011 to February 2016. References for review were identified through searches of PubMed, Medline, and Embase for articles published until February 2016 using keywords "hypervitaminosis D" (MeSH Terms) OR "vitamin D toxicity" (All Fields) OR "vitamin-D intoxication" (All Fields)...
February 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062356/cyp4f2-repression-and-a-modified-alpha-tocopherol-vitamin-e-metabolism-are-two-independent-consequences-of-ethanol-toxicity-in-human-hepatocytes
#15
A Russo, D Bartolini, P Torquato, D Giusepponi, C Barola, R Galarini, M Birringer, S Lorkowski, F Galli
The expression of CYP4F2, a form of cytochrome P-450 with proposed role in α-tocopherol and long-chain fatty acid metabolism, was explored in HepG2 and HepaRG human hepatocytes during ethanol toxicity. Cytotoxicity, ROS production, and JNK and ERK1/2 kinase signaling increased in a dose and time-dependent manner during ethanol treatments; CYP4F2 gene expression decreased, while other CYP4F forms, namely 4F11 and 12, increased along with 3A4 and 2E1 isoforms. α-Tocopherol antagonized the cytotoxicity and CYP4F2 gene repression effect of ethanol in HepG2 cells...
January 3, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060020/significant-association-between-statin-associated-myalgia-and-vitamin-d-deficiency-among-treated-hiv-infected-patients
#16
Leonardo Calza, Eleonora Magistrelli, Vincenzo Colangeli, Marco Borderi, Ilaria Contadini, Isabella Bon, Maria Carla Re, Pierluigi Viale
BACKGROUND.: Several studies have shown a significant association between vitamin D deficiency and an increased risk of statin-related symptomatic myalgia in the general population, but there are no data among HIV-infected persons. METHODS.: A retrospective, cohort study was conducted to assess the incidence of symptomatic myalgia and elevation in serum creatine kinase (CK) level among HIV-positive adults on cART and treated with atorvastatin or rosuvastatin for at least 12 months between 2011 and 2015 in our Outpatient Unit...
January 4, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041610/-paediatric-pharmacobezoar-in-vitamin-overdose
#17
Nataliz Vega-Mata, Laura Fernández-García, Carolina Lara-Cardenas, Lucía Raposo-Rodríguez, María Montes-Granda
BACKGROUND: Pharmacobezoars are aggregates of undigested medications that accumulate in the gastrointestinal tract and can cause obstructive or toxic complications. In this paper, the first case is reported of a paediatric pharmacobezoar formation after a vitamin overdose. The objective of this report is to prevent the occurrence of this complication and the action to be taken. CLINIC CASE: A 6-year-old child, 6h after ingesting 40 chewable tablets of a hydrophobic vitamin E with high capacity to form a pharmacobezoar, underwent urgent oesophagogastroscopy...
December 29, 2016: Cirugia y Cirujanos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039464/noncalcemic-20-hydroxyvitamin-d3-inhibits-human-melanoma-growth-in-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-models
#18
Cezary Skobowiat, Allen S W Oak, Tae-Kang Kim, Chuan He Yang, Lawrence M Pfeffer, Robert C Tuckey, Andrzej T Slominski
A novel pathway of vitamin D3 (D3) metabolism, initiated by C20-hydroxylation of D3 by CYP11A1, has been confirmed to operate in vivo. Its major product, 20(OH)D3, exhibits antiproliferative activity in vitro comparable to that of 1,25(OH)2D3, but is noncalcemic in mice and rats. To further characterize the antimelanoma activity of 20(OH)D3, we tested its effect on colony formation of human melanoma cells in monolayer culture and anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. The migratory capabilities of the cells and cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions were also evaluated using transwell cell migration and spheroid toxicity assays...
December 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033106/protective-effects-of-quercetin-and-vitamin-c-against-nicotine-induced-toxicity-in-the-blood-of-wistar-rats
#19
Milica G Paunović, Branka I Ognjanović, Miloš M Matić, Andraš Š Štajn, Zorica S Saičić
Nicotine is a potential inducer of oxidative stress, through which it can damage numerous biological molecules. The aim of our study was to investigate the prooxidative effects of nicotine and protective (additive or synergistic) effects of quercetin and vitamin C in the blood of experimental animals, to determine whether the combination of these antioxidants might be beneficial for clinical purposes. Wistar albino rats were receiving intraperitoneal nicotine injection (0.75 mg kg-1 per day) or saline (control group) or nicotine plus quercetin (40 mg kg-1 per day) and vitamin C (100 mg kg-1 per day) for three consecutive days...
December 1, 2016: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017254/role-of-vitamin-a-metabolism-in-iih-results-from-the-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-treatment-trial
#20
J Libien, M J Kupersmith, W Blaner, M P McDermott, S Gao, Y Liu, J Corbett, M Wall
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin A and its metabolites (called retinoids) have been thought to play a role in the development of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). The IIH Treatment Trial (IIHTT) showed the efficacy of acetazolamide (ACZ) in improving visual field function, papilledema grade, quality of life and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure. We postulated that IIH patients would demonstrate elevated measures of vitamin A metabolites in the serum and CSF. METHODS: Comprehensive measures of serum vitamin A and its metabolites were obtained from 96 IIHTT subjects, randomly assigned to treatment with ACZ or placebo, and 25 controls with similar gender, age and body mass index (BMI)...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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