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Vitamin A toxic

Walid Hamdy El-Tantawy
Lead is a toxic metal that induces a wide range of behavioral, biochemical and physiological effects in humans. Oxidative damage has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity. The current study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activities of Spirulina supplement against lead acetate -induced hepatic injury in rats. Five groups of rats were used in this study, Control, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg), Lead acetate (100 mg/kg) + 0.5 g/kg Spirulina, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg) + 1 g/kg Spirulina and Lead acetate + 25 mg/100 g Vitamin C (reference drug)...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Khushwinder Kaur, Raj Kumar, Arpita, Sumit Goel, Shivani Uppal, Alka Bhatia, S K Mehta
The main aim of the present work was to prepare TPGS stabilized D-α-Tocopherol, lemon oil, tween-80, and water nanoemulsion by low cost and highly effective sonication method. The prepared nanoemulsion showed good stability for 60days at variable temperature conditions i.e. 4, 25 and 37°C. The tolerance of the prepared nanoemulsion to salt (50mM-500mM) and pH (pH 2-pH 7.4) was also studied. The morphology and droplet size of pure and quinine loaded nanoemulsion was characterized with transmission electron microscopy...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
D Bogdanou, M Penna-Martinez, N Filmann, T L Chung, Y Moran-Auth, J Wehrle, C Cappel, S Huenecke, E Herrmann, U Koehl, K Badenhoop
BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is mediated by autoaggressive T effector cells with an underlying regulatory T cell (Treg) defect. Vitamin D (VD) deficiency is highly prevalent in T1D which can aggravate immune dysfunction. High dose VD treatment may enhance Tregs and improve metabolism in T1D patients. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with cross-over design, patients received either for three months cholecalciferol 4000 IU/d, followed by three months placebo or the sequential alternative...
October 20, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Susan R Mallery, Daren Wang, Brian Santiago, Ping Pei, Steven Schwendeman, Kari Nieto, Richard Spinney, Meng Tong, George Koutras, Byungdo B Han, Andrew S Holpuch, James C Lang
Over 1/3 of patients who have undergone oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) surgical resections develop life-threatening and often untreatable recurrences. A variety of drugs, intended for management of recurrent or disseminated cancers, were designed to exploit cancer cells' reliance upon overexpressed receptors and gratuitous signaling. Despite their conceptual promise, clinical trials showed these agents lacked efficacy and were often toxic. These findings are consistent with evasion of pathway-targeted treatments via extensive signaling redundancies and compensatory mechanisms common to cancers...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
J Machado, J Azevedo, M Freitas, E Pinto, A Almeida, V Vasconcelos, A Campos
Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are often observed in freshwaters and may reflect the increased eutrophication of these environments and alterations in climate. Cyanotoxins, such as microcystins (MCs), are an effective threat to many life forms, ranging from plants to humans. Despite the research conducted to date on cyanotoxins, the risks associated to the use of contaminated water in agriculture require further elucidation. To tackle this aim, a research was conducted with the root-vegetable Daucus carota. The specific aims of this work were the following: (i) to evaluate the effects of MC-LR on the plant growth and photosynthesis; (ii) to evaluate the nutritional quality of carrot roots; and (iii) to measure bioaccumulation...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Imed-Eddine Kadi, Faouzi Dahdouh
Nickel is an abundant carcinogenic and nephrotoxic metal whose activity leads to renal impairment. Previous studies have shown a protective effect of simultaneous vitamin C administration on acute and chronic nickel toxicity. However, very little research relating to the effect of vitamin C pretreatment in preventing nickel-induced acute nephrotoxicity is available. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the efficiency of vitamin C (VC) pretreatment in preventing acute renal toxicity of nickel. Mice were pretreated orally with vitamin C (16...
September 1, 2016: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Yuanyuan Chen, Jian Li, Jin Wei, Atufa Kawan, Li Wang, Xuezhen Zhang
Cyanobacterial blooms and their associated toxins pose a great threat to human beings. The situation is even worse for those whose drinking water source is a cyanotoxin-polluted water body. Therefore, efficient and safe treatments urgently need to be developed. The present study verified the application of vitamin C on the inhibition of toxic Microcystis aeruginosa. Our results showed that vitamin C drove the Fenton reaction and significantly sterilized cultures of M. aeruginosa. The algicidal activity of vitamin C was dependent on its involvement in iron (Fe) metabolism...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Yanping Li, Rui Li, Qinhui Liu, Wenyao Li, Ting Zhang, Min Zou, Hong Li, Tong Wu, Shihai Cheng, Zhiguang Su, Zhirong Zhang, Jinhan He
Tumor cells can acquire multidrug resistance (MDR) as a result of drug efflux mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Here we report a targeted delivery system to carry pirarubicin (THP) to MDR breast cancer both in vitro and in vivo. PEG-derivatized vitamin E (PAMV6) amphiphiles loaded with THP were self-assembled in a single step. The PAMV6 micelles showed unimodal size distribution and high drug loading efficiency. Cytotoxicity of PAMV6/THP was higher than that of free THP on MCF-7/ADR cells but comparable to that of THP on MCF-7 cells...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Shweta Sharma, Ashwni Kumar Verma, Jyotsana Singh, B Venkatesh Teja, Naresh Mittapelly, Gitu Pandey, Sandeep Urandur, Ravi Shukla, Rituraj Konwar, Prabhat Ranjan Mishra
This study reports the development of Vitamin B6 (VitB6) modified pH sensitive charge reversal nanoparticles for efficient intracellular delivery of Doxorubicin (DOX). Herein, VitB6 was conjugated to stearic acid and the nanoparticles of the lipid were formulated by solvent injection method (DOX-B6-SA-NP). Due to the pKa (5.6) of VitB6, DOX-B6-SA-NP showed positive charge and enhanced release of DOX at pH 5. Confocal microscopy illustrated that DOX-B6-SA-NP treatment keep higher DOX accumulation inside the cells that conventional pH insensitive lipid nanoparticles (DOX-SA-NP)...
October 14, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Lewis O J Killin, John M Starr, Ivy J Shiue, Tom C Russ
BACKGROUND: Dementia risk reduction is a major and growing public health priority. While certain modifiable risk factors for dementia have been identified, there remains a substantial proportion of unexplained risk. There is evidence that environmental risk factors may explain some of this risk. Thus, we present the first comprehensive systematic review of environmental risk factors for dementia. METHODS: We searched the PubMed and Web of Science databases from their inception to January 2016, bibliographies of review articles, and articles related to publically available environmental data...
October 12, 2016: BMC Geriatrics
A B Murphy, Y A Nyame, K Batai, R Kalu, A Khan, P Gogana, M Dixon, V Macias, A Kajdacsy-Balla, C M P Hollowell, W J Catalona, R Kittles
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies demonstrate vitamin D is inversely correlated with BPH and prostate cancer (PCa) incidence. We aim to clarify the associations of vitamin D with prostate volume. METHODS: This is an observational study investigating the associations of serum PSA, PSA density and prostate volume with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) in PCa patients and men with negative biopsies seen in outpatient urology clinics in Chicago, IL, USA. There were 571 men (40-79 years old) with elevated PSA or abnormal digital rectal examination with available prostate volume recorded from initial biopsy...
October 11, 2016: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Muzafar Wani, Imtiaz Wani, Khurshid Banday, Mohd Ashraf
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in Indian Kashmir. Many people get injectable vitamin D (600,000 IU/injection). At times, the dose prescribed is far above the permissible limit. We report 62 patients with malpractice-related vitamin D intoxication, presenting with hypercalcemia and acute kidney injury (AKI). METHODS: The diagnosis was made on basis of (1) history of multiple intramuscular vitamin D injections (2) toxic serum levels of 25-OH vitamin D and (3) exclusion of common causes of hypercalcemia (malignancy and hyperparathyroidism)...
November 2016: Clinical Nephrology
Daniele Tibullo, Nunzia Caporarello, Cesarina Giallongo, Carmelina Daniela Anfuso, Claudia Genovese, Carmen Arlotta, Fabrizio Puglisi, Nunziatina L Parrinello, Vincenzo Bramanti, Alessandra Romano, Gabriella Lupo, Valeria Toscano, Roberto Avola, Maria Violetta Brundo, Francesco Di Raimondo, Salvatore Antonio Raccuia
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal B-cell malignancy characterized by an accumulation of clonal plasma cells (PC) in the bone marrow (BM) leading to bone destruction and BM failure. Despite recent advances in pharmacological therapy, MM remains a largely incurable pathology. Therefore, novel effective and less toxic agents are urgently necessary. In the last few years, pomegranate has been studied for its potential therapeutic properties including treatment and prevention of cancer. Pomegranate juice (PGJ) contains a number of potential active compounds including organic acids, vitamins, sugars, and phenolic components that are all responsible of the pro-apoptotic effects observed in tumor cell line...
October 1, 2016: Nutrients
Biswanath Dinda, Anthony M Kyriakopoulos, Subhajit Dinda, Vassilis Zoumpourlis, Nikolaos S Thomaidis, Aristea Velegraki, Charlambos Markopoulos, Manikarna Dinda
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cornus mas L. (cornelian cherry) fruits have been used for centuries as traditional cuisine and folk medicine in various countries of Europe and Asia. In folk medicines, the fruits and other parts of the plant have been used for prevention and treatment of a wide range of diseases such as diabetes, diarrhea, gastrointestinal disorders, fevers, rheumatic pain, skin and urinary tract infections, kidney and liver diseases, sunstroke, among others. This review provides a systematic and constructive overview of ethnomedicinal uses, chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of this plant as well as future research need for its commercial utilization as nutraceutical food supplement and medicine...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Reham Z Hamza, Hayat A A Ismail, Nahla S El-Shenawy
BACKGROUND: Dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) is a waste product of several industrial processes. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is a vitamin-like chemical also called as an antioxidant. Therefore, the study was designed to investigate the potential benefits of ALA in reducing the nephropathy of DMN in male mice. METHODS: Animals were divided into 6 groups (n=8) and received their treatment for 4 weeks as follows: groups 1-4 served as control, ALA-treatment (16.12 mg/kg), DMN low dose treatment and DMN high dose treatment, respectively...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
M Hamza, S Halayem, R Mrad, S Bourgou, F Charfi, A Belhadj
BACKGROUND: The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is complex and multifactorial, and the roles of genetic and environmental factors in its emergence have been well documented. Current research tends to indicate that these two factors act in a synergistic manner. The processes underlying this interaction are still poorly known, but epigenetic modifications could be the mediator in the gene/environment interface. The epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated in susceptibility to stress and also in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders including depression and schizophrenia...
September 27, 2016: L'Encéphale
R Karlíková, J Široká, P Jahn, D Friedecký, A Gardlo, H Janečková, F Hrdinová, Z Drábková, T Adam
Atypical myopathy (AM) is a potentially fatal disease of grazing horses. It is reportedly caused by the ingestion of sycamore seeds containing toxic hypoglycin A. In order to study metabolic changes, serum and urine samples from nine horses with atypical myopathy and 12 control samples from clinically healthy horses were collected and then analysed using a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry; serum metabolic profiles as the disease progressed were also studied. Metabolic data were evaluated using unsupervised and supervised multivariate analyses...
October 2016: Veterinary Journal
Nicholas O Thomas, Kate P Shay, Amanda R Kelley, Judy A Butler, Tory M Hagen
Isolated hepatocytes from young (4-6mo) and old (24-26mo) F344 rats were exposed to increasing concentrations of menadione, a vitamin K derivative and redox cycling agent, to determine whether the age-related decline in Nrf2-mediated detoxification defenses resulted in heightened susceptibility to xenobiotic insult. An LC50 for each age group was established, which showed that aging resulted in a nearly 2-fold increase in susceptibility to menadione (LC50 for young: 405μM; LC50 for old: 275μM). Examination of the known Nrf2-regulated pathways associated with menadione detoxification revealed, surprisingly, that NAD(P)H: quinone oxido-reductase 1 (NQO1) protein levels and activity were induced 9-fold and 4-fold with age, respectively (p=0...
September 22, 2016: Redox Biology
M Zubair, M Ahmad, M K Saleemi, S T Gul, N Ahmad, S Umar
The objective of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of arsenic on testicular measurements and histology of adult Teddy goats bucks and to examine whether these toxic effects are scavenged by vitamin E. Twelve adult Teddy goat bucks were divided randomly into three groups, A, B and C. Group A was kept as control, the B was given sodium arsenite 5 mg/kg BW per day, and group C was fed with vitamin E 200 mg/kg BW per day + arsenic 5 mg/kg BW per day. This treatment was continued for 84 days. Analysis of data revealed that the testicular measurements (scrotal circumference, width, length and weight) were significantly reduced in arsenic-treated animals, whereas there were ameliorating effects of vitamin E on these parameters...
September 29, 2016: Andrologia
E V Stelmashook, E E Genrikhs, O P Aleksandrova, G A Amelkina, E A Zelenova, N K Isaev
Rat cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) were not sensitive to CuCl2 (1-10 µM, 24 h), whereas paraquat (150 µM) decreased neuronal survival to 79 ± 3% of control level. Simultaneous treatment of CGNs with paraquat and CuCl2 (2, 5, or 10 µM Cu2+/paraquat) caused significant copper dose-dependent death, lowering their survival to 56 ± 4, 37 ± 3, or 16 ± 2%, respectively, and stimulating elevated production of free radicals in CGNs. Introduction of vitamin E, a non-competitive antagonist of NMDA subtype of glutamate receptors (MK-801), and also removal of glutamine from the incubation medium decreased toxicity of Cu2+/paraquat mixture...
August 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
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