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Vitamin A toxic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346630/vitamin-d-toxicity-a-16-year-retrospective-study-at-an-academic-medical-center
#1
John P Lee, Michael Tansey, Jennifer G Jetton, Matthew D Krasowski
Background: Interest in vitamin D has increased during the past 2 decades, with a corresponding increase in laboratory testing of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. The vast majority of specimens tested display normal or deficient levels of 25(OH)D; concentrations rarely fall in the potentially toxic range. Methods: We performed a retrospective investigation of elevated 25(OH)D levels during a 16-year period at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC), a 734-bed tertiary-/quaternary-care academic medical center in the midwestern United States...
January 13, 2018: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336191/teratogenic-potential-of-nanoencapsulated-vitamin-a-evaluated-on-an-alternative-model-organism-the-tunicate-ciona-intestinalis
#2
Roberta Pennati, Raoul Manenti, Antonella Stillitano, Gentile Francesco Ficetola, Giorgio Scarì, Silvia Mercurio, Elena Menegola
Nano-encapsulation is a technology used to pack substances in order to enhance their stability and bioavailability, but this packing may interact with living systems, causing unexpected toxicity. Vitamin A (vit A) is a substance that has received attention, because in developed countries, the increasing availability of supplements is leading to its excessive intake. This study aims to compare teratogenic effects caused by exposure to the traditional formulation of vit A versus nano-encapsulated vit A. We used ascidian embryos as an alternative model...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331774/the-synergy-of-vitamin-c-with-decitabine-activates-tet2-in-leukemic-cells-and-significantly-improves-overall-survival-in-elderly-patients-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#3
Huihui Zhao, Huayuan Zhu, Jiayu Huang, Yu Zhu, Ming Hong, Han Zhu, Jingjing Zhang, Shan Li, Lijia Yang, Yun Lian, Shuai Wang, Jianping Mao, Yaoyu Chen, Jianyong Li, Sixuan Qian
BACKGROUND: Decitabine is widely used in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in elderly patients. Low-dose Vitamin C has also been indicated to induce DNA demethylation at the cellular level. However, little is known whether low-dose Vitamin C has a synergistic effect with decitabine in clinic. METHODS: The effect of combined low-dose Vitamin C and decitabine on cell proliferation, the cell cycle, apoptosis and the expression level and activity of TET2 was investigated in HL60 and NB4 human leukemic cells...
January 2, 2018: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331520/vitamin-c-attenuates-biochemical-and-genotoxic-damage-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-upon-joint-exposure-to-combined-toxic-doses-of-fipronil-and-buprofezin-insecticides
#4
Madiha Ghazanfar, Sana Shahid, Irfan Zia Qureshi
In the present study, potential protective role of Vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid) was investigated in aquaria acclimated common carp (Cyprinus carpio) following exposure for 96 h to combined toxic doses of fipronil (FP) and buprofezin (BPFN) insecticides in combination (FP: 200 μg/L; 4.57 × 10-7 mol/L and BPFN: 50 mg/L; 1.64 × 10-4 mol/L). At end of 96 h exposure, fish were supplemented with low (25 mg/L) and high (50 mg/L) doses of Vitamin C, added once daily to aquaria water for continuous three weeks...
January 5, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325617/wilson-disease-and-related-copper-disorders
#5
Matthew T Lorincz
Copper is a required cofactor for enzymes in critical metabolic pathways. Mutations in copper metabolism genes or abnormalities in copper metabolism result in disease from copper excess or deficiency. Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal-recessive disease caused by mutations in the ATP7B gene which encodes a copper-transporting ATPase. Over 500 different WD mutations throughout the ATP7B gene have been described, most of which are missense mutations. Mutations in both ATP7B alleles result in abnormal copper metabolism and subsequent toxic accumulation of copper...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319776/hypercalcemia-and-acute-renal-insufficiency-following-use-of-a-veterinary-supplement
#6
Marcelo Fernando Ronsoni, Heloisa de Cassia Dos Santos, Bruno da Silveira Colombo, Carina Gabriela Correa, Ana Paula Gomes Moritz, Marisa Helena Cesar Coral, Simone Van de Sande-Lee, Alexandre Hohl
A previously healthy 24 yo male presented with a two-month history of epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, fatigue and malaise. He reported abuse of different substances, including an injectable veterinary vitamin compound, which contains high doses of vitamin A, D and E, and an oily vehicle that induces local edema and enhances muscle volume. Serum creatinine was 3.1 mg/dL, alanine transaminase 160 mg/dL, aspartate transaminase 11 mg/dL, total testosterone 23 ng/dL, 25-OH-vitamin D >150 ng/mL (toxicity >100), 1,25-OH-vitamin D 80 pg/mL, vitamin A 0...
October 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313349/analysis-of-the-effects-of-%C3%AE-tocopherol-%C3%AE-toh-on-raw264-7-and-k562-cells-based-on-sup-1-sup-h-nmr-metabonomics
#7
Yang Lu, Hui Li, Yue Geng
δ-Tocopherol (δ-TOH) is a form of vitamin E with higher bioactivity. In this study, we studied the bioactivity of δ-TOH using the IC50 of δ-TOH on RAW264.7 (80 μM) and K562 (110 μM) cells. We compared the differential metabolites from the cell lines with and without δ-TOH treatment by 1H-NMR metabonomics analysis. It was found that δ-TOH affected the protein biosynthesis, betaine metabolism, and urea cycle in various ways in both cell lines. Metabolic levels of the cell lines were changed after treatment with δ-TOH as differential metabolites were produced...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305928/anti-proliferative-activity-of-biochanin-a-in-human-osteosarcoma-cells-via-mitochondrial-involved-apoptosis
#8
Yen-Nien Hsu, Huey-Wen Shyu, Tsui-Wen Hu, Jou-Pei Yeh, Ya-Wen Lin, Ling-Yi Lee, Yao-Tsung Yeh, Hong-Ying Dai, Daw-Shyong Perng, Shu-Hui Su, Yu-Hsuan Huang, Shu-Jem Su
Biochanin A is a major isoflavone in red clover and a potent chemopreventive agent against cancer. However, the effects of biochanin A on human osteosarcoma cells have never been clarified. This study investigated the anti-proliferative potential of biochanin A in osteosarcoma cells. The results indicate that biochanin A inhibited cell growth and colony formation in a dose-dependent manner with a minimal toxicity to normal cells. The combination of doxorubicin and biochanin A could synergistically inhibit osteosarcoma cell growth...
January 3, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299181/antioxidant-agents-against-trichothecenes-new-hints-for-oxidative-stress-treatment
#9
REVIEW
Qinghua Wu, Xu Wang, Eugenie Nepovimova, Yun Wang, Hualin Yang, Li Li, Xiujuan Zhang, Kamil Kuca
Trichothecenes are a group of mycotoxins mainly produced by fungi of genus Fusarium. Due to high toxicity and widespread dissemination, T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (DON) are considered to be the most important compounds of this class. Trichothecenes generate free radicals, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), which induce lipid peroxidation, decrease levels of antioxidant enzymes, and ultimately lead to apoptosis. Consequently, oxidative stress is an active area of research on the toxic mechanisms of trichothecenes, and identification of antioxidant agents that could be used against trichothecenes is crucial for human health...
December 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298757/vitamin-c-potentiates-the-killing-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-the-first-line-tuberculosis-drugs-isoniazid-and-rifampicin-in-mice
#10
Catherine Vilchèze, John Kim, William R Jacobs
The treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB) is long and cumbersome. Mismanagement of TB treatment can lead to the emergence of drug resistance in patients, so shortening the treatment duration could significantly improve TB chemotherapy and prevent the development of drug resistance. We had previously discovered that high concentrations of vitamin C sterilize cultures of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Here, we tested sub-inhibitory concentration of vitamin C in combination with TB drugs against M...
January 3, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298280/complete-objective-response-stable-for-5-years-with-the-di-bella-method-of-multiple-metastatic-carcinoma-of-the-breast
#11
Giuseppe Di Bella, Biagio Colori, Rosilde Toscano
Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among women. Despite all efforts, about 11,939 deaths and 50,000 new diagnoses for breast cancer were estimated among Italian women in 2016. Therefore new approaches are needed to improve the survival and higher remission rates. We present a case of a woman with carcinoma of the breast and multiple metastases after right mastectomy, axillary dissection, repeated cycles of chemo and radiotherapy, and estrogen block. Biological method formulated by Prof...
December 4, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297235/l-ascorbic-acid-and-%C3%AE-tocopherol-attenuate-arsenic-trioxide-induced-toxicity-in-h9c2-cardiomyocytes-by-the-activation-of-nrf2-and-bcl2-transcription-factors
#12
Radhakrishnan Chandraprabha Vineetha, Prakash Binu, Pettamanna Arathi, Raveendran Harikumaran Nair
Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is a potent drug for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and has achieved remarkable remissions in patients. Unfortunately, clinical reports have shown that the treatment is associated with cardiotoxicity. Many efforts have been made to mitigate drug mediated cardiac damage using naturally occurring antioxidant compounds possessing free radical scavenging activity. The present investigation aims to explore protective role of L-Ascorbic acid (L-AA) and α-Tocopherol (α-TOC) from As2O3 induced oxidative stress in H9c2 cardiomyocytes through the evaluation of Nrf2 (Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) and Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) transcription factors...
January 3, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290084/a-systematic-review-evaluating-the-effect-of-vitamin-b6-on-semen-quality
#13
Saleem Ali Banihani
PURPOSE: This review systematically discusses and summarizes the effect of vitamin B6 on semen quality. MATERIAL AND METHOD: To achieve this contribution, we searched the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases for English language papers from 1984 through 2017 using the key words "sperm" versus "Vitamin B6", "pyridoxine", and "pyridoxal". Also, the references from selected published papers were included, only if relevant. RESULT: To date, as revealed by rodent studies, high doses of vitamin B6 impair semen quality and sperm parameters...
December 30, 2017: Urology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282001/nitrous-oxide-induced-subacute-combined-degeneration-with-longitudinally-extensive-myelopathy-with-inverted-v-sign-on-spinal-mri-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#14
Jun Liang Yuan, Shuang Kun Wang, Tao Jiang, Wen Li Hu
BACKGROUND: Nitrous oxide (N2O), a long-standing anesthetic, is also neurotoxic by interfering with the bioavailability of vitamin B12 if abused. A few case studies have reported the neurological and psychiatric complications of N2O. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we reported a patient of N2O induced subacute combined degeneration (SCD) with longitudinally extensive myelopathy with inverted V-sign exhibiting progressive limb paresthesia and unsteady gait. CONCLUSIONS: This case raises the awareness of an important mechanism of neural toxicity of N2O, and clinical physicians should be well recognized this in the field of substance-related disorders...
December 28, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278860/s-allyl-glutathione-a-synthetic-analogue-of-glutathione-protected-liver-against-carbon-tetrachloride-toxicity-focus-towards-anti-oxidative-efficiency
#15
Palvannan Thayumanavan, Chitra Loganathan, Ancy Iruthayaraj, Kumaradhas Poomani, Selvan Nallaiyan
A simple analogue of well known natural antioxidant glutathione (GSH) called S-allyl-glutathione (SAG) was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress liver injury in rat. Pretreatment of SAG attenuated the CCl4-toxicity induced elevation of liver injury markers such as enzymes (AST, ALT, GGT, ALP and LDH) and bilirubin in the blood circulation. Such protective effect of SAG resulted in preservation of liver function observed as normal level of total protein and albumin in plasma as well as inhibition of dyslipidemia in liver...
December 16, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273675/vitamin-e-and-lycopene-reduce-coal-burning-fluorosis-induced-spermatogenic-cell-apoptosis-via-oxidative-stress-mediated-jnk-and-erk-signaling-pathways
#16
Yuan Tian, Yuehai Xiao, Bolin Wang, Chao Sun, Kaifa Tang, Fa Sun
Although fluoride has been widely used in toothpaste, mouthwash, and drinking water to prevent dental caries, the excessive intake of fluoride can cause fluorosis which is associated with dental, skeletal, and soft tissue fluorosis. Recent evidences have drawn the attention to its adverse effects on male reproductive system that include spermatogenesis defect, sperm count loss, and sperm maturation impairment. Fluoride induces oxidative stress through the activation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade which can lead to cell apoptosis...
December 22, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250709/folic-acid-inhibits-homocysteine-induced-cell-apoptosis-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#17
Shanshan Cui, Wen Li, Pengyan Wang, Xin Lv, Yuxia Gao, Guowei Huang
Homocysteine may be responsible for vascular endothelial cell injury, which occurs early in the pathology of cardiovascular disease. Homocysteine metabolism requires enzymatic interaction with vitamins such as folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6. We hypothesized that folic acid alleviated homocysteine-induced vascular injury by regulating the metabolic pathway of apoptosis. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were incubated for 48 h with folic acid at the concentrations of 0-1000 nmol/L, in combination with either 1000 μmol/L homocysteine or vehicle for the first 24 h...
December 18, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250622/targeted-photodynamic-therapy-in-visible-light-using-bodipy-appended-copper-ii-complexes-of-a-vitamin-b6-schiff-base
#18
Nandini Mukherjee, Santosh Podder, Koushambi Mitra, Shamik Majumdar, Dipankar Nandi, Akhil R Chakravarty
Copper(ii) complexes [Cu(L1/L2/L3)(A)] (1-3), where H2A·HCl is a vitamin B6 Schiff base, viz. 3-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)-4-(((2-hydroxyphenyl)imino)methyl)-2-methylpyridin-1-ium chloride, L1 and L2 are 2-(2-pyridyl)benzimidazole based borondipyrromethene (BODIPY) ligands and L3 is 2-(2-pyridyl)benzimidazole, were prepared, characterized and their visible light-induced anti-cancer activity was studied. Complex 3, characterized by X-ray crystallography, exhibits a distorted square-pyramidal geometry for copper (τ = 0...
December 18, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247550/melatonin-prevents-hypochlorous-acid-mediated-cyanocobalamin-destruction-and-cyanogen-chloride-generation
#19
Roohi Jeelani, Dhiman Maitra, Charalampos Chatzicharalampous, Syed Najeemuddin, Robert T Morris, Husam M Abu-Soud
Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a potent cytotoxic oxidant generated by the enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and chloride (Cl- ). Elevated levels of HOCl play an important role in various pathological conditions through oxidative modification of several biomolecules. Recently, we have highlighted the ability of HOCl to mediate the destruction of the metal-ion derivatives of tetrapyrrole macrocyclic rings such as hemoproteins and vitamin B12 (VB12 ) derivatives. Destruction of cyanocobalamin, a common pharmacological form of VB12 mediated by HOCl, results in the generation of toxic molecular products such as chlorinated derivatives, corrin ring cleavage products, the toxic blood agents cyanide (CN- ) and cyanogen chloride (CNCl), and redox-active free cobalt...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236155/oxidative-stress-response-induced-by-butachlor-in-zebrafish-embryo-larvae-the-protective-effect-of-vitamin-c
#20
Qingqing Xiang, Bofan Xu, Yilun Ding, Xiaoyi Liu, Ying Zhou, Farooq Ahmad
The widespread contamination and persistence of the herbicide butachlor in the environment resulted in the exposure of non-target organisms. The present study investigated the toxicity effect of butachlor (1-15 µmol/L) and the protective effect of vitamin C (VC) against butachlor-induced toxicity in zebrafish. It was found that butachlor significantly increased the mortality and malformation rates in a dose-dependent manner, which caused elevation in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) after 72 h exposure...
December 13, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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