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ultrasound fetal

Seneesh Kumar Vikraman, Vipin Chandra, Bijoy Balakrishnan, Sunil Jaiman, Meenu Batra, Gopinathan Kannoly
The anatomic causes for fetal right atrial dilatation with tricuspid regurgitation include Ebstein anomaly, tricuspid dysplasia, unguarded tricuspid orifice, and Uhl anomaly. Unguarded tricuspid orifice is characterized by complete or partial agenesis of the tricuspid valvular and subvalvular structures. It is commonly associated with pulmonary atresia. Its prenatal diagnosis is usually associated with unfavorable prognosis. We present a prenatally diagnosed case of fetal unguarded tricuspid orifice with description of its diagnostic workup, along with a review of literature, to enhance the understanding of this rarely reported entity...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
Chih-Ping Chen, Liang-Kai Wang, Schu-Rern Chern, Yen-Ni Chen, Shin-Wen Chen, Peih-Shan Wu, Dai-Dyi Town, Chen-Wen Pan, Chien-Wen Yang, Wayseen Wang
OBJECTIVE: We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular genetic analysis of mosaic trisomy 17 and a review of the literature of mosaic trisomy 17 at amniocentesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 42-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age, which revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+17[4]/46,XX[17]. Prenatal ultrasound findings were unremarkable. She underwent repeat amniocentesis at 20 weeks of gestation. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), array comparative genomic hybridization, and quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction assays were applied to uncultured amniocytes...
October 2016: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Chih-Ping Chen, Chen-Yu Chen, Schu-Rern Chern, Peih-Shan Wu, Yen-Ni Chen, Shin-Wen Chen, Chen-Chi Lee, Dai-Dyi Town, Meng-Shan Lee, Chien-Wen Yang, Wayseen Wang
OBJECTIVE: We present molecular cytogenetic characterization of an Xp22.32→pter deletion and an Xq26.3→qter duplication in a male fetus with congenital malformations and maternal X chromosome pericentric inversion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 22-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of an abnormal maternal serum screening result. Prenatal ultrasound revealed a hypoplastic left heart and short limbs. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,Y,der(X) t(X;?)(p22...
October 2016: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Anna Maria Pinto, Valentina Imperatore, Laura Bianciardi, Margherita Baldassarri, Paolo Galluzzi, Simone Furini, Giovanni Centini, Alessandra Renieri, Francesca Mari
Orofacial clefts are the most common congenital craniofacial anomalies and can occur as an isolated defect or be associated with other anomalies such as posterior fossa anomalies as a part of several genetic syndromes. We report two consecutive voluntary pregnancy interruptions in a nonconsanguineous couple following the fetal ultrasound finding of cleft lip and palate and posterior fossa anomalies confirmed by means of post-termination examination on the second fetus. The quantitative fluorescent PCR, the karyotype, and the comparative genomic hybridization-array analysis after amniocentesis were normal...
October 4, 2016: Clinical Dysmorphology
Jarmila A Zdanowicz, Chantal Huber, Roland Gerull, Martin Mueller, Luigi Raio, Daniel Surbek
INTRODUCTION: To determine the accuracy of estimated fetal weight (EFW) at the limit of viability in a delivery room setting and its impact on the prediction of neonatal outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this retrospective, single-center cohort study we included patients with preterm birth between 230/7 and 260/7 weeks of gestation. Neonates were divided into 3 groups according to birth weight at delivery (accuracy index 90-110%, <90%, >110%). Neonatal outcome for each group was categorized into survival with and without impairment and death, with a follow-up period of 6 weeks...
October 15, 2016: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Torbjørn Moe Eggebø, Olav Andre Klefstad, Inger Økland, Elsa Lindtjørn, Sturla Hall Eik-Nes, Håkon Kristian Gjessing
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to investigate the accuracy of estimating fetal weight with ultrasound in pregnancies past term, using the eSnurra algorithm. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 419 women with pregnancy length 290 days, attending a specialist consultation at Stavanger University Hospital, Norway were included in a prospective observational study. Fetal weight was estimated using biparietal diameter (BPD) and abdominal circumference (AC). The algorithm implemented in an electronic calculation (eSnurra) was used for estimated fetal weight (EFW) calculation...
October 14, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Ebba Malmqvist, Zeyan Liew, Karin Källén, Anna Rignell-Hydbom, Ralf Rittner, Lars Rylander, Beate Ritz
Air pollution has been suggested to affect fetal growth, but more data is needed to assess the timing of exposure effects by using ultrasound measures. It is also important to study effects in low exposure areas to assess eventual thresholds of effects. The MAPSS (Maternal Air Pollution in Southern Sweden) cohort consists of linked registry data for around 48,000 pregnancies from an ultrasound database, birth registry and exposure data based on residential addresses. Measures of air pollution exposure were obtained through dispersion modelling with input data from an emissions database (NOx) with high resolution (100-500m grids)...
October 11, 2016: Environmental Research
Moshe Bronshtein, Zeev Blumenfeld, Asaad Choury, Ayala Gover
OBJECTIVES: To assess the natural history and outcome of fetal pulmonary stenosis [PS] detected at 14 to 16 weeks gestation. METHODS: This is a retrospective study, in the years 2004-2015, with serial follow up during pregnancy. Patients referred for complete early fetal ultrasound including all fetal systems and a fetal echocardiogram. Ninety seven percent of the women were low risk, and 3% had risk factors such as maternal type 1 diabetes mellitus, exposure to teratogenic drugs or anomalies in previous pregnancies or in other family members...
October 14, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
You Li, Dongwoon Hyun, Lotfi Abou-Elkacem, Juergen Willmann, Jeremy Dahl
Power Doppler (PD) imaging is a widely used technique for flow detection. Despite the wide use of Doppler ultrasound, limitations exist in the ability of Doppler ultrasound to assess slow flow in small-diameter vasculature, such as the maternal spiral arteries and fetal villous arteries of the placenta and focal liver lesions. The sensitivity of PD in small vessel detection is limited by the low signal produced by slow flow and the noise associated with small vessels. The noise sources include electronic noise, stationary or slowly moving tissue clutter, reverberation clutter, and off-axis scattering from tissue, among others...
October 10, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Lori A Stolz, Uwe Stolz, J Matthew Fields, Turandot Saul, Michael Secko, Matthew J Flannigan, Johnathan M Sheele, Robert P Rifenburg, Anthony J Weekes, Elaine B Josephson, John Bedolla, Dana M Resop, Jonathan Dela Cruz, Megan Boysen-Osborn, Terrell Caffery, Charlotte Derr, Rimon Bengiamin, Gerardo Chiricolo, Brandon Backlund, Jagdipak Heer, Robert J Hyde, Srikar Adhikari
OBJECTIVES: Emergency ultrasound (EUS) has been recognized as integral to the training and practice of emergency medicine (EM). The Council of Emergency Medicine Residency-Academy of Emergency Ultrasound (CORD-AEUS) consensus document provides guidelines for resident assessment and progression. The Accredited Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has adopted the EM Milestones for assessment of residents' progress during their residency training which includes demonstration of procedural competency in bedside ultrasound...
October 14, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Emilio A Herrera, Francisca Cifuentes-Zúñiga, Esteban Figueroa, Cristian Villanueva, Cherie Hernández, René Alegría, Viviana Arroyo, Estefania Peñaloza, Marcelo Farías, Ricardo Uauy, Paola Casanello, Bernardo J Krause
In humans, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with vascular dysfunction, oxidative stress and signs of endothelial programming in umbilical vessels. We aimed to determine the effects of maternal antioxidant treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on fetal endothelial function and eNOS programming in IUGR guinea pigs. IUGR was induced by implanting ameroid constrictors on uterine arteries of pregnant guinea pigs at mid gestation, receiving half of the sows NAC in the drinking water (from day 34 until term)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Greggory R DeVore, Kareem Tabsh, Bardo Polanco, Gary Satou, Mark Sklansky
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the global area and circumference of the heart varies between two measurement techniques: the point-to-point trace and the electronic ellipse methods. METHODS: The epicardial border of the 4-chamber view was measured in 200 fetuses between 20 and 40 weeks' gestation, from which the area and circumference using the point-to-point trace and electronic ellipse were measured. Analysis of variance, correlation, and regression analysis using fractional polynomials and 7 independent variables (head circumference, biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, femur length, estimated fetal weight, mean ultrasound gestational age, and last menstrual period gestational age) were performed...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Jens Henrichs, Viki Verfaille, Laura Viester, Myrte Westerneng, Bert Molewijk, Arie Franx, Henriette van der Horst, Judith E Bosmans, Ank de Jonge, Petra Jellema
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is a major risk factor for perinatal mortality and morbidity. Thus, there is a compelling need to introduce sensitive measures to detect IUGR fetuses. Routine third trimester ultrasonography is increasingly used to detect IUGR. However, we lack evidence for its clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness and information on ethical considerations of additional third trimester ultrasonography. This nationwide stepped wedge cluster-randomized trial examines the (cost-)effectiveness of routine third trimester ultrasonography in reducing severe adverse perinatal outcome through subsequent protocolized management...
October 13, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Bryn Putbrese, Anne Kennedy
Ventriculomegaly (VM) is a nonspecific finding on fetal imaging. Identification of the specific etiology is important as it affects prognosis and may even change the course of current or future pregnancies. In this review we will focus on the application of fetal MRI to demonstrate intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and ischemic brain injury as opposed to other causes of VM. MRI is able to identify the specific etiology of ventriculomegaly with much more sensitivity and specificity than ultrasound and should be considered whenever VM is identified on obstetric ultrasound...
October 13, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Sepideh Sefidbakht, Sakineh Dehghani, Maryam Safari, Homeira Vafaei, Maryam Kasraeian
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is gradually becoming more common for thorough visualization of the fetus than ultrasound (US), especially for neurological anomalies, which are the most common indications for fetal MRI and are a matter of concern for both families and society. OBJECTIVES: We investigated fetal MRIs carried out in our center for frequency of central nervous system anomalies. This is the first such report in southern Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and seven (107) pregnant women with suspicious fetal anomalies in prenatal ultrasound entered a cross-sectional retrospective study from 2011 to 2013...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
Edward Araujo Júnior, Alberto Borges Peixoto, Ana Cristina Perez Zamarian, Júlio Elito Júnior, Gabriele Tonni
Fetal macrosomia is defined as birth weight >4000 g and is associated with several maternal and fetal complications such as maternal birth canal trauma, shoulder dystocia, and perinatal asphyxia. Early identification of risk factors could allow preventive measures to be taken to avoid adverse perinatal outcomes. Prenatal diagnosis is based on two-dimensional ultrasound formulae, but accuracy is low, particularly at advanced gestation. Three-dimensional ultrasound could be an alternative to soft tissue monitoring, allowing better prediction of birth weight than two-dimensional ultrasound...
September 15, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
C N Mnyani, E Nicolaou, S Bister
BACKGROUND: Concerns have been raised about the injudicious use of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using cell-free DNA (cfDNA), which often leads to inaccuracies in interpretation of the role and value of cfDNA in prenatal screening. OBJECTIVES:  To determine the value and role of NIPT in a select South African (SA) population. METHODS:  A retrospective review of patients who elected to have NIPT between 1 October 2013 and 30 June 2015 at the Morningside Mediclinic Maternal and Fetal Medicine Centre in Johannesburg, SA...
September 9, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Ricardo F Sousa-Santos, Rui F Miguelote, Ricardo J Cruz-Correia, Cristina C Santos, João F M A L Bernardes
INTRODUCTION: Fetal growth charts are often used in clinical practice. It is important to understand the usefulness and the pitfalls associated with these tools. Without validation, it is difficult to ascertain if the cutoffs we intend are the ones we actually select. We developed a national standard for birthweight (BW) and compared it with other published reference values. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective study. We collected data on live births, including first trimester ultrasound and pathology, from 23 to 42 weeks' gestational age (GA)...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Mohamed Ali Abdelkader, Wafaa Ramadan, Amir A Gabr, Ahmed Kamel, Rasha W Abdelrahman
PURPOSE: To determine the sonographic criteria for diagnosis of fetal intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), using both gray scale ultrasound, and tomographic ultrasound imaging (TUI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective multicenter study, recruiting patients at risk of fetal ICH over four years. All cases with fetal ICH had serial ultrasound assessments, including TUI, fetal and postnatal MRIs. RESULTS: 21 patients were diagnosed with fetal ICH, 2 cases had extracerebral (subdural) hemorrhage, 16 cases had intracerebral (intraventricular) hemorrhage and 3 cases had combined hemorrhage...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Anne S Bassett, Gregory Costain, Christian R Marshall
Most major neuropsychiatric outcomes of concern to families are not detectable by prenatal ultrasound. The introduction of genome-wide chromosomal microarray analysis to prenatal clinical diagnostic testing has increased the detection of pathogenic 22q11.2 deletions, which cause the most common genomic disorder. The recent addition of this and other microdeletions to non-invasive prenatal screening methods using cell-free fetal DNA has further propelled interest in outcomes. Conditions associated with 22q11...
October 8, 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
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